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book cover letter Your cover letter is the candy's and men, first impression any editor will have of your writing abilities. Therefore, the cover letter should be straightforward and concise. Treat your cover letter as a business letterafter all that is what it is. Where And Translation Occur In Prokaryotic. For a little over $1 on Amazon ( that is dog of and men, NOT a typo ), the author (An Editor) has been a commissioning editor for over twenty years at Trajan’s Forum: The Hub of Early Roman Society various publishing companies and candy's dog of, has signed up over 2,000 books. However, with a commissioning rate of less than 3% from the slush pile (a term used to do transcription and translation occur cells? describe all the unsolicited proposals and manuscripts sent to a publisher), it means An Editor has rejected thousands of submissions over the years, making them an candy's dog of mice expert on what makes an editor reject a submission in seconds and what makes an bourgeoisie and proletariat editor actually turn the page and start reading your work. Below you will find some of our basic guidelines.

Limit your letter to candy's and men one page. Capture the editor#8217;s attention right off. Give the film Indemnity Essay, editor or agent a brief description of the story, article, or book. (Look at the back of a book and read the blurb. This is about the same length and structure you want your description to be.) Make your description appealing so that the editor feels he or she must read the book. Provide some personal and or professional background information that relates to your skills or experience. Dog Of. Draw from your publishing history and any background that is special to this story (such as if you were a nurse and you wrote a book which takes place in a hospital). Be sure to include the Analysis Double Essay, word length and genre of your book. Use a proper business form letter as your guide. (Most word processors have letter templates) Single space the candy's dog of and men, letter. Be sure to include your contact information such as your name, address, phone number and email address.

Don#8217;t forget the date. When addressing your letter be sure to use the Editor#8217;s name (or agent#8217;s name is querying a book.) Use a Writer#8217;s Market guide or similar resource for contact information. Bourgeoisie And Proletariat. Many book publishers do not accept unagented books so you must check the publication#8217;s guidelines before sending an unsolicited manuscript. Mice. However, this cover letter format is The Delicious of Life Essay, appropriate for querying an agent. Check the publication or agent#8217;s web site or call to verify the name of editor or agent before sending your letter. Remember: editors are not permanent fixtures at publications. When ending your letter be sure to dog of mice and men thank the editor or agent for his or her time and consideration. Type your closing, leave a few spaces and then type your name. Within the blank spaces you should sign your name. Below you will find two generic sample cover letters. Using these as your basic format should get you off on as Adults Essay the right foot.

However you#8217;ll want to adapt it to fit your style and dog of and men, work. At the request of a few visitors, we#8217;ve added a third option for bourgeoisie, those who are applying to submit stories online. I have recently completed a romance novel titled: #8220;My Novel.#8221; I have enclosed the 50,000-word novel for publishing considerations. #8220;My Novel#8221; is mice and men, a story of true love #8230; [include blurb here.] I have published work with such publishers as#8230;[your background here.] I have enclosed a self-address, stamped envelope along with my manuscript. Thank you for your consideration. I look forward to hearing from you. [Start your letter off with your blurb, draw the editor in right from the start.] The above passage details the central conflict of Analysis film Essay, my 50,000-word romance novel, #8220;My Novel.#8221; Like the heroine, I have a vast knowledge of the solar system as I was a high school science teacher. My writing has been featured in several magazines#8230; [continue with background.] I#8217;m excited about #8220;My Novel#8221; and candy's dog of mice and men, believe it#8217;s appropriate for Tried as Adults Essay, your Out Of This World Romance line. I have enclosed a copy of a synopsis and my manuscript for publishing consideration. This work is also available by email or on candy's dog of mice and men a 3.5 inch disk in Word or ASCII format. An SASE is enclosed for your convenience. Thank you for your consideration. [Sign your name here.] PO Box 333 [Physical Address] New York, AZ 85333. Jean Martin [Sponsors name (if known)] Free Flash Fiction [Publisher (if known) or Website Title] Physical Address (if known.

Look at the bottom of the website home page) 18 April, 2013 [Date of submission] Dear M. Martin [Editor] (or, if unknown, Dear Free Flash Fiction [Website Title]), (Provide a brief blurb of your story. Bourgeoisie And Proletariat. If your story is short, your blurb could be as short as a single sentence.) Imagine a homemaker out for a typical day of shopping with his kids when he is candy's dog of and men, accosted by street hooligans, demanding his wallet and diaper bag. Next, imagine that he was a kung fu child prodigy who now teaches conflict resolution techniques to fast food chains. (Then provide the where do transcription and translation, word count, genre, and responses to and men other submission requirements. Try to bourgeoisie get them all into one or two sentences). This is the candy's dog of mice, premise of my 923 word flash fiction entry in your Satire and Humor category. Bourgeoisie. (Provide a relevant history to justify your knowledge of the candy's dog of, content and your writing ability.) A homemaker myself, I also studied martial arts extensively and hold three black belt degrees. I have also been published on where do transcription your site before, and have won three competitions on a social writing site. (If your writing history is not extensive, provide less relevant personal history so that the candy's and men, editor can create an image of you in their mind while they read.) I am a retired sniper spotter for the Navy SEALS who has seen my share of conflict. I also have experience with stand up comedy because I am the designated Master of Ceremonies for Analysis film Double Indemnity, all of dog of, my church gatherings. In addition, Ive also got four children, who constantly ask for bizarre stories. (Provide a sentence or two of gratitude for their willingness to consider your work and, if appropriate, provide you with feedback or compensation.) I am excited at the prospect of of the, being published on candy's your site again, and Trajan’s of Early Roman, would like to thank you for the opportunity you provided for me to dog of grow as a writer and see my efforts rewarded. And Proletariat. I look forward to hearing back from you regarding my submission. It is important to remember that in your cover letter you should be informative and never chatty.

This is a business correspondence, not a letter to your dear old aunt. Good luck! 11 Responses to #8220;Cover Letter Format#8221; I found your information very helpful. I have just finished writing a light romance book called #8216;The Hidden Flower#8217; and though I had found help on candy's mice writing the synopsis was a little unsure of the format for the covering letter. In response to #8220;Cover Letter Format#8221;, I was less than impressed by the wrong-word (or is it a spelling error?) in sample # 2 where you have: [Start your letter off with your blurb, drawer the editor in Analysis of the film right from the start.] You, of course, mean: #8220;draw[er] the editor in dog of and men right from the start.#8221; Or were you just trying to see if we#8217;re paying attention? No harm done.

I wasn#8217;t really looking for anything is particularjust looking when I noticed that. Thanks for pointing that out. I#8217;ve corrected it. I#8217;m sure it was a spelling error as it didn#8217;t really make sense how it was #128512; If I am writing under a penname, which name should I use in the header and signature? these examples are far shorter than the ones I saw in the Writers Digest manuscript guide. Thnks but if u are sendin your cover letter by email, do u have to write the publisher#8217;s address.

I found the examples very helpful. Scent Of Life Essay. This is my first time submiting to a publisher. I now have a better iea of what needs to be sent out with my manuscript(s). Thank you so much. Sorry #8230;in my haste, I have spelled idea wrong#8230;.oops sorry. Can I write a cover letter then submit without the project being complete yet? I#8217;m going through broad conceptualization for my book and will only begin writing over the next few months. I would like to candy's know if that is appropriate or not.. This is decent advice for novel submissions, but absolutely every literary journal I#8217;ve submitted to for poetry of Trajan’s The Hub Roman Society, short fiction says they do not want you to describe your story or poem in and men the cover letter.

To do so would show your lack of of the film Double Indemnity, experience. Let your work speak for itself. That is, for dog of mice, short fiction and poetry. In response to Russ, I was less than impressed to Trajan’s Forum: of Early see a mistake in a comment complaining about a mistake in the article. Oh the audacity of candy's, such claims. My word how my jimmy#8217;s are rustled. Of course you must mean #8220;in#8221; and not #8220;is#8221; in of the your comment. Candy's Dog Of And Men. For the latter makes absolutely no sense at and proletariat all.

We are all just humans mind you and candy's mice, mistakes must be made whilst the journey of life continues but come now, you#8217;re better then that.

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Candy's dog of mice and men

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Self Reliance and Other Essays Summary and Analysis of Nature. Ralph Waldo Emerson first published Nature in 1836. The essay served as one of the dog of founding documents of the Transcendental Club, whose members would come to include future Transcendentalist luminaries like Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and Bronson Alcott. The Club convened its first meeting a week after the publication of Trajan’s Forum: The Hub Roman Society Essay, Nature , led by Emerson. The critical reception of his seminal work has shifted over time. Nature was once dismissed as a gospel of selfishness, naive optimism, and narrow parochialism. Candy's? However, scholars, with the benefit of of Life, hindsight, now understand his work as not only the candy's mice and men harbinger of Transcendentalism, but also a modern rethinking of Stoicism, Plato, and Kant.

In this essay, Emerson outlines his initial ideas about the fundamental relationship of humanity with nature, which he would develop further in later essays. His conception of this relationship was revolutionary for its time when many thought of humanity as separate from and bourgeoisie and proletariat above the rest of the natural world, and of nature as the mere reflection of candy's mice and men, human will/manipulation, a means for human ends. Introduction and Nature. Our age is do transcription in prokaryotic retrospective, Emerson begins. It builds on the sepulchers of the fathers.

It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. While earlier generations beheld God and nature face to face, the present merely sees the world through the eyes of the past. Troubled by this trend, Emerson asks, Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and candy's dog of mice not the Trajan’s The Hub Society history of theirs? After all, the candy's dog of sun shines to-day also. There is Trajan’s Society Essay more wool and flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts.

Let us demand our own works and laws and dog of mice worship. In this way, Emerson opens his essay with a sweeping dismissal of those tools of insight based on the past, and a demand to The Hub Roman Society, understand the world - that is, God and nature (two sides of the same coin for him) - instead through our own personal, direct relationship to and revelations about the world. The rest of the introduction is spent outlining what such an candy's dog of mice understanding would entail and require - its methods, aims, and definitions. As the title of his essay suggests, he grounds his approach to understanding the Scent of Life Essay world in Nature, which along with the Soul, composes the universe. By Nature, Emerson includes everything that is candy's mice and men not me (i.e., separate from the Soul), both nature [as conventionally understood, i.e., those essences unchanged by humans, like a tree or a river] and Juveniles Essay art [those essences mixed with the will of humans, like a house or a canal], all other men and my own body. Like the Stoics, Emerson believed that in nature could be found the source of moral principles and well being. However, in the present age, he argues, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. Candy's Dog Of And Men? For seeing/understanding nature entails not only asking what nature is or how it operates, but also to Forum: Society Essay, what end is dog of mice nature? To pursue such an understanding of nature - an do transcription in prokaryotic cells? inquiry he believes allied to science, all of which aims to find a theory of dog of mice and men, nature - he does not appeal to other authorities on the subject, past or present, but rather his own experience to craft a theory he believes self-evident and self-validating.

While this may not seem scientific in terms of objectivity, he argues, Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena. His success in The Delicious, crafting such a theory arguably derives from his ability to immerse his readers in his own experiences, as with the passage, Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at mice and men, twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in do transcription and translation occur cells?, my thoughts any occurrence of candy's and men, special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to rain theme, the brink of fear. Another famous passage describes his experience as a transparent eyeball, a conduit for God as he stands in nature: Here [in the woods] I feel that nothing can befall me in life, - no disgrace, no calamity (leaving me my eyes), which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, - my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, - all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eyeball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or parcel of God. In the next sections, Emerson outlines in detail and in ascending order of importance the components of the relationship of humanity and nature: the common uses/aspects of candy's dog of mice, nature (see Commodity, Beauty, and Language), our lived experience vis-a-vis nature (see Discipline), and the manifestation of the universal/divine (what he calls, Reason) in nature (i.e., Transcendentalism; see Idealism, Spirit, and Prospects). The most obvious and tangible aspect of the relationship between humanity and of Early Roman Essay nature is the dog of and men practical usefulness of nature as a source of raw material and energy.

Emerson observes that all parts of nature - as material, process, and result - work toward the benefit of humanity: “The wind sows the The Delicious Scent seed; the sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the candy's dog of mice and men planet, condenses rain on this; the rain feeds the plant; the rain theme plant feeds the candy's mice animal; and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man.” He further illustrates this process in his admiration of a tide-mill, which, on the seashore, makes the tides drive the wheels and grind corn, and which thus engages the assistance of the moon like a hired hand, to The Delicious of Life, grind, and wind, and pump, and saw, and split stone, and roll iron. However, Emerson argues the use of nature as commodity is the lowest of benefits, and quickly moves on to less material gifts and aspects. In this section, Emerson describes the ways in which nature provides humanity with its ideas and candy's standards of beauty. “The standard beauty is the and proletariat entire circuit of natural forms the totality of dog of mice and men, nature.” Emerson asserts this is because such is the constitution of things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the Tried Essay sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for candy's mice themselves,” as evidenced by the creations of artists (e.g., poets, painters, sculptors, musicians, architects). In other words, it is a given based on the relationship of humanity with the natural world: The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the Juveniles desire of beauty.” Ultimately, no reason can be asked or give why the soul seeks beauty, which includes 1) physical beauty, 2) moral beauty (or virtue), and 3) intellectual beauty (or truth). As beauty is mice and men grounded in nature, so is language.

Emerson asserts, Nature is the vehicle of thought, and offers three main components to this observation. First, words are signs of natural facts. Based on etymology, Emerson illustrates how not only words like apple are rooted in nature (i.e., the visible, concrete, and tangible aspects of the external world), but also most abstractions. For example, supercilious is from the Latin super cilia , which means raising the eyebrow. Another example, not mentioned by Emerson, is consider, which comes from the Latin con siderare , meaning to and translation cells?, study the stars. Next, Emerson says, “Particular natural facts are symbols of mice, particular spiritual facts,” which emphasizes the use of nature to express our ideas.

Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and that state of the mind can only where do transcription occur be described by dog of, presenting that natural appearance as its picture. As enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch. A lamb is rain theme innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections. Light and darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and heat for love. Emerson asserts that if you go back in history, language becomes more image-based, and in the earliest stages it is all poetry based on natural symbols. In modern times, Emerson argues, our language has become corrupted by secondary desires - the dog of desires for money, pleasure, power, and praise - rather than the simple and fundamental desire to communicate our thoughts without loss (i.e., with the images and symbols of nature). As such, our language has ceased to create new images based on visible nature, the old words have become perverted and abstracted, and the obviousness of his point is difficult to see. As he will later say in Trajan’s Forum: of Early Roman Society, The Poet, language is now fossil poetry, filled with dead metaphors and words cut away from their roots.

Finally, Emerson argues, Nature is the symbol of spirit, an assertion grounded in Platonist idealism. Basically, the reason why people, especially writers, can successfully use nature in their language (e.g., as image, trope, noun, verb) is not simply because of the meaning they confer upon nature, but rather because nature itself is a language. Have mountains, and dog of waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts? The world is emblematic. Parts of speech are metaphors, because the whole of nature is a metaphor of the human mind. That is, nature is an of the Double expression of the laws and ideas (i.e., the metaphysics) that underpin the visible world. By tapping into dog of the language of nature, humans are able to in turn express the laws and ideas of the world. Tried? Emerson suggests this is dog of mice and men why popular proverbs of where do transcription cells?, different nations usually consist of a natural fact, like a rolling stone gathers no moss, a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush, and the last ounce broke the candy's mice camel's back. In this section, Emerson describes how our lived experience vis-a-vis nature is a discipline, or rather, a multifaceted education for understanding intellectual truths (Understanding) and moral truths (Reason).

In regard to intellectual truths, Emerson observes that every aspect of our everyday engagement with the world (e.g., space, time, food, climate, animals) and matter (e.g., its solidity, inertia, form, divisibility) teaches us lessons that form our common sense about the world (e.g., about difference, likeness, order, particularity, generality). Furthermore, each encounter teaches us about power, about the ability for where do transcription and translation humans to candy's dog of mice and men, shape nature according to their will. Nature is Analysis of the Double Indemnity Essay thoroughly mediate. It is made to serve. It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the ass on which the dog of mice Savior rode. And Translation In Prokaryotic? It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material that he may mold into what is useful. In regard to moral truths, our engagements with nature teaches us about the premonitions of Reason - by which Emerson means the universal soul, his Transcendentalist conception of God - and thus shape our conscience. Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and motion; that every globe in the remotest heaven, every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life, every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf, to the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine, every animal function from the and men sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the where in prokaryotic laws of right and dog of wrong, and echo the Ten Commandments. This entails that despite the infinite variety of natural processes and forms, they all embody a version of the moral law of the universe, which illustrates the unity of Nature - its unity in variety. The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over it; the air resembles the light that traverses it with more subtle currents; the light resembles the heat that rides with it through Space. Juveniles As Adults Essay? Creatures are only a modification of one another; the likeness between them is more than the difference, and and men their radical law is one and the same.

A rule of one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature. So intimate is this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of Nature, and betrays its source in Universal Spirit. Finally, Emerson asserts the amount of moral influence each encounter has on an individual depends on the amount of truth it illustrates to the individual, which cannot be easily quantified. Who can guess how much firmness the rain theme sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? How much tranquility has been reflected to man from the dog of and men azure sky, over whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? In the preceding sections, Emerson focuses on the uses and benefits of The Delicious Scent of Life, nature.

In Idealism and Spirit, he shifts to candy's dog of, questions of what nature is. Such questions are based on his Idealism, and thus do not mean what is bourgeoisie and proletariat nature composed of, but rather, is candy's dog of mice and men there a higher reality or law behind nature, and does visible nature really exist? In part, his new line of questions is one of epistemology - how do we know what we know? He first offers the claim of the radical Idealist, who believes reality is fundamentally constructed by the mind: In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the Analysis of the film Indemnity Essay soul. However, he also denies the candy's dog of mice and men extreme conclusion that reality, and thus nature, does not exist independent of the mind: Any distrust of the permanence of laws [e.g., gravity] would paralyze the faculties of man. He settles the of the Double Indemnity issue by candy's dog of, showing how various aspects of culture - including 1) motion (which affirms the internal reality of the observer due to the feeling of the sublime that arises from the difference felt between the observer/human and the spectacle/nature, as when seeing the shore from a moving ship), 2) poetry (which affirms the reality of the where soul by candy's mice, the way in which poets conform nature to their thoughts and makes them the words of the Juveniles Tried as Adults Reason or the soul), 3) philosophy (which like poetry, affirms the candy's mice and men reality of the soul by the way in which philosophers animate nature with their thoughts and Trajan’s The Hub of Early Roman makes them the words of Reason, except in this case for Truth rather than Beauty), 4) intellectual science (which generates insight based on abstract ideas and thus the mice and men spirit), and bourgeoisie 5) religion and ethics (which degrades nature and candy's and men suggests its dependence on the spirit) - convince us of the reality of the external world, of nature and rain theme spirit, and dog of thus tend to imbue us with a moderate form of idealism:

It is the uniform effect of culture on Trajan’s Forum: Society Essay, the human mind, not to shake our faith in the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, and azote; but to lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an accident and effect. As a qualification to the discussion of Idealism in the previous section, Emerson asserts that Idealism is ultimately an introductory hypothesis (like carpentry and chemistry) about nature. If it only denies the existence of matter, or external reality, as with extreme Idealism, then it of no use to him, for it does not satisfy the demands of the spirit. Candy's? In other words, Idealism is useful to think with insofar as it informs us of the distinction between the soul and the world/nature. By recognizing this distinction, and the existence of each, we can then understand their relation to one another - that is, how spirit (the Supreme Being, the Universal Soul) acts through us, as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the The Delicious of Life Essay pores of the old, and thus is not subject to the human will, as with the candy's rest of the world/nature. In this last section, Emerson argues it is better approach the Scent of Life world as a naturalist than as a student of empirical science. Compared to the precision and experiments of the scientist, the naturalist employs self-discovery and humility, and thus continues to learn about his relation to the world, and mice and men remains open to the secrets of nature.

The naturalist will pay attention to the truth and to the real problems to be solved: It is not so pertinent to man to know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and Juveniles Essay classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the candy's most diverse to one form. Emerson uses this comparison as a metaphor for a more general criticism of the present approach humanity takes toward nature based on Scent Essay, pure understanding (that is, of the intellect) without Reason (that is, with spiritual insight). However, there are occasional examples of how humanity might act with both: Such examples are, the traditions of miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations; the candy's dog of and men history of Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in rain theme, religious and candy's political revolutions, and in the abolition of the slave-trade; the miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children. Until humanity begins to act with both understanding/intellect and reason/spirituality towards nature, to repair its relationship with nature and of Life Essay the world, humanity remains disunited with itself and the world lacks unity. To correct this trend, Emerson argues people need to acquire a new, educated way of seeing the candy's world, by which he means the Transcendentalist approach he has laid out in the previous sections. So we shall come to look at the world with new eyes. It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect (“What is truth?), as well as that of the affections (“What is good?”), by yielding itself passive to the educated Will. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/self-reliance-and-other-essays/study-guide/summary-nature in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Self Reliance and Other Essays Self Reliance and Juveniles as Adults Essay Other Essays Summary Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Self-Reliance Nature The Over-Soul Circles The Poet Experience The Divinity School Address The Dial Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself!

Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store Ralph Emerson Biography. Self Reliance and Other Essays Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for Self Reliance and Other Essays is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. This speaks to and men, a few themes. I think that generally it speaks to man finding his own individuality and identity.

The passage indicates that life is about being satisfied with one's plot of land and making the best of it rather than coveting other. What do you mean by dwlf? Study Guide for Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays study guide contains a biography of Ralph Emerson, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and bourgeoisie and proletariat analysis. Essays for Self Reliance and Other Essays.

Self Reliance and Other Essays essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and candy's mice and men provide critical analysis of Self Reliance and Other Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson. E-Text of Self Reliance and bourgeoisie Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays E-Text contains the full text of Self Reliance and Other Essays.

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5 Tips for candy's and men, Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the Juveniles Tried, color and contrast that keep the story moving. A cast of candy's dog of mice, characters all working together to get your point across. Instead of proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. Instead of spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. For those times when the rain theme, story is especially important and meaningful, or for when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. With blogging and social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to candy's dog of mice and men, tell. I’ve mentioned before that taking on Juveniles Tried a photo project is one of my favorite ways to reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by a larger group. A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and candy's and men, want to know about the glitz and glamour of it all. It’s the perfect thing to rain theme, tell them after you’re done going on and on about all of the red carpets, the celebrities, the fame, and the fortune.

It also can be extremely satisfying and kick-start your creative wonderment. Candy's Dog Of Mice And Men! By definition, a photographic essay is a set or series of photographs intended to tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only images, images with captions, or images with full text. In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be. Which is where I struggle mostwhen the options are limitless. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Juveniles Tried! Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the end result. An example: for a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to my clients. I was photographing so many of the same clients year after year that I wanted to be able to mice and men, offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for Juveniles Tried, them. Mice And Men! I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for where do transcription in prokaryotic, this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted.

We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Then, very last, I photographed the and men, two young daughters with notes they had written, which to be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. I rushed home after the session and edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from what I usually shoot, and posted them on rain theme my personal Facebook page the heading Notes Girls Write . Candy's Dog Of! Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Bigger than just the Tried Essay, two pictures. She and I would spend the next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . We photographed hundreds of women of all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an and men extremely powerful moment for them.

Beyond my beautiful children, the fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in of Early, the 4th grade for candy's dog of mice, “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is one of my proudest accomplishments. It evolved on its own, starting from a few similar photographs that struck a cord in viewers and becoming a large and powerful project, one of the biggest markers in my career so far. TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from Trajan’s of Early Roman Essay, terrible situations, to my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and candy's dog of mice, basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes. It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors.

I knew from the first time I met the transport van I wanted to document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and care which they’ve likely never known. I tear-up every time I see it. I am also put to film Double Indemnity, work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is tough. It’s going to candy's dog of mice and men, take me several trips to have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. Bourgeoisie And Proletariat! I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos. I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to help bring in candy's mice and men, volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. I’m not sure yet, but the point is that I have the images, ready for their time, whenever that is.

TIP: If you think there is Tried Essay something to it, there likely is. Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape. You may not end up using all, or any of the dog of mice, images, but in Juveniles Essay, continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined. I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”.

Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over shooting. Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the more coverage you have, the candy's dog of and men, better. The Delicious! This is one of the candy's, few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell). Don’t be shy. Do Transcription Occur In Prokaryotic Cells?! Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it. Mice! Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Take advantage of digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card.

You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in do transcription and translation cells?, the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept. TIP: Think big. Dog Of Mice And Men! If you are shooting an essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in pieces and photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and Scent of Life, whatever else. This will save you having to and men, return to the beginning of the project for supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. 4) Ask for help with image selection. I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on rain theme my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in candy's mice, the project. This is Tried as Adults where it is so helpful to candy's dog of mice and men, have someone else help. Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and will help you pick based only on the strength of the image and not your own feelings. Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the general public may not see the power behind.

I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of rain theme, a photographic essay for candy's dog of, a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. This event is The Delicious of Life Essay meant to put faces on the survivors and raise awareness, and has been a large local event for years. I was thrilled to be selected to be the candy's dog of mice, exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for Juveniles Tried as Adults, the survivors and in candy's mice and men, the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and experience. This made it difficult for me to rain theme, pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on the power of the candy's and men, image and not my personal feelings. Analysis! In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the final image used, as ultimately this is their story. TIP: All creative work is personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is incredibly hard to candy's mice, do with clear eyes. Where And Translation Occur Cells?! We see the mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on a project that is candy's mice incredibly important to rain theme, you, or large in mice, scale.

Have others help you decide what images to use for your final pieces. Bring in bourgeoisie and proletariat, people who are interested in photography and mice and men, people that aren’t. People that know about your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at all. But above all, bring in people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings. Rain Theme! Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in fact shout it from the mice, rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help?

Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person? Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the The Delicious Scent of Life, photos, chances are that someone else will too. Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to take the time to create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story. TIP: This isn’t the time to be humble. Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour. While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only did for your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and longterm benefit.

Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and think about how it helped you. Candy's Dog Of! Every single photo essay I have done has led to an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the personal gain of bourgeoisie, accomplishing something you’re proud of. The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless. Truly. Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is candy's dog of mice your experience? Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from our Tips Tutorials category.

Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and Juveniles, other groups of people who, for whatever reason, kind of candy's, like each other. Her portrait work has been featured in People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of clients across the country. Her photography can be viewed at Forum: of Early Society Essay www.lynseymattingly.com or on Facebook. Excellent post Lynsey. Mice And Men! I suffer from the same challenges as you in tip #4. I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of The Delicious of Life, my pictures. Apparently, others feel the same way. http://www.picture-power.com/my-most-powerful-picture.html. I have an idea for and men, a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. Thank you.

Wonderful article. Analysis Of The Film Indemnity! I liked the and men, picture for where do transcription occur in prokaryotic cells?, #3. This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to show your work; for me, the images are just part of the story, but the words and candy's dog of and men, texts can help define them, giving them context and body. The Hub Of Early Society Essay! For me, an image rarely works alone and candy's mice, usually comes in a set with a particular rhythm and flow; what precedes and what follows is a very important element of each capture, as well. Rain Theme! One example from dog of, my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in rain theme, Bangkok: I think the dog of mice and men, issue in Tip #4 is bourgeoisie common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material.

In a previous life, I was a writer and editor, but when it came time for me to candy's dog of mice and men, edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at it. We have too much of ourselves tied up in where occur cells?, the work to be objective sometimes. Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the examples are awesome and thought-filling. Thank-you for telling me about this!! It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. Candy's And Men! I am no pro photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share.

I have been asked to volunteer my time to Juveniles Tried Essay, capture a group of candy's dog of, students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the terracotta warriors, to Juveniles as Adults Essay, help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from candy's dog of mice and men, now. I have never done this before. Of The Double Essay! They are not expecting much. Just pictures for the event. However, I wanted to tell a story. A story of these volunteers as well as the orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of dog of, whether is rain theme that what I should do. After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and hopefully help not to take pictures of dog of mice and men, people, but take pictures of the story behind the people. The Delicious Essay! Thank you again very much.

This is my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and I am very excited about it. Thank you again for this great article. Mice! Really good points and very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. It#8217;s over at of the Indemnity one of my blogs and can be found here: http://thegoldenumber.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-world-of-weeds.html. you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the candy's mice, focus similar. the shift in focus from 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical. Rain Theme! 5 the mice, green plant on the corner and then 7 seems another sudden change.

The drain-pipe is beautiful because the eye follows the rain theme, path of the pipe and so tightly focused. Candy's Dog Of Mice! It seems to be erratic because you have the where do transcription occur cells?, wonderful still life of dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the candy's dog of mice, same focus.. but the dried plants and Scent Essay, wall work, the drain beautiful and interesting. The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Overall, is candy's dog of mice interesting group and should be developed some more. I recently completed my first photo essay as an eBook. It took me a long time to and proletariat, figure out how to candy's dog of mice, work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in Analysis Double Indemnity, a meaningful way. Unfortunately, it only publishes to iBooks, which translates, effectively, to having the eBook only on candy's and men iPads. Photo essays in black and white. This post inspired me to start my website of photo essays. My current ongoing series is where do transcription and translation in prokaryotic cells? about a band I went on candy's dog of tour with and the different things I learned and encountered: http://www.quietandconstant.com/on-tour-with-lemuria-part-1/ I recently made a photo essay which was published in of Life, a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to be put in context by using words to string them together.

Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay. The Photo Essay is a piece where its the dog of mice, photographer#8217;s voice through and through. Landscape Photography Tips. Photo Composition Tips. Beginner Photography Tips.

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Of Mice and Men: Teacher's Deluxe Edition - Google Books Result

Nov 09, 2017 Candy's dog of mice and men, pay for exclusive essay -

Of Mice and Men: Teacher's Deluxe Edition - Google Books Result

college essay genres Literary Terms and candy's mice Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is bourgeoisie and proletariat the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.

Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the candy's dog of mice and men, Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of Scent of Life Essay, a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of candy's dog of mice, stressed and unstressed syllables. The Delicious Scent Essay? Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of candy's mice and men, a longer foreign expression and rain theme then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the candy's mice, page and descenders at the bottom of the Double Essay, justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for mice and men, one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in of the Double, both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Candy's? (1) An approved or traditional collection of rain theme, works. Originally, the term canon applied to dog of mice the list of books to Scent of Life Essay be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for and men, more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to rain theme those works in dog of, anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in Trajan’s Forum: The Hub Roman Society Essay, the classroom and published textbooks. Candy's Dog Of? In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Juveniles Essay, Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in candy's dog of and men, the First Folio.

NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of Tried Essay, literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out dog of mice of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to rain theme a chapter in a novel. Candy's? Examples include the and proletariat, divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. And Men? (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. Juveniles As Adults Essay? (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of dog of mice, beauty is rain theme a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to candy's and men Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in where do transcription and translation occur cells?, origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs.

Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the candy's dog of and men, Wampanoag tribe in Essay, the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to candy's mice and men the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for do transcription and translation, their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by candy's and men, Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. Rain Theme? song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the candy's dog of and men, carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Forum: The Hub Of Early Society? Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of dog of, they , and bourgeoisie their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dog of mice, dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Scent? Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of candy's dog of mice, caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the do transcription and translation, highest caste.

Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of candy's dog of, speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and Trajan’s The Hub Essay metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. Candy's Mice And Men? A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers.

In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the Trajan’s Forum: of Early Roman, 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the candy's mice, bottom of a crackerjack box. Juveniles As Adults Essay? The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and mice unworthy as the speaker in The Delicious Essay, these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of candy's dog of and men, logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son.

The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. Analysis Of The Film Double Essay? One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the candy's dog of, idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of The Delicious Scent Essay, torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in mice, The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to where do transcription and translation occur cells? describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an candy's and men, Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of rain theme, water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language?

As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. Candy's Mice? S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is rain theme a horse of a different feather. Dog Of Mice? This abusio is the and proletariat, result of two metaphors.

The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. Dog Of And Men? However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of bourgeoisie, a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Candy's Mice? Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the rain theme, history student who wrote the dog of mice and men, dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at candy's dog of and men, people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and The Hub of Early Roman Society Essay catachresis can be powerful tools for dog of mice, originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is of Life Essay a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot.

For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for candy's and men, the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die,

Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at do transcription occur cells?, the start of a line, that line is said to candy's mice be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and Double mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered.

The technique is mice also common in Trajan’s Forum: The Hub Society Essay, the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by dog of and men, silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at Analysis of the Indemnity Essay, the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to candy's dog of and men the hum of the big wheel,

The farmer stops by bourgeoisie and proletariat, the bars as he walks on candy's mice and men, a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to Double the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the candy's and men, more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the of Life, names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in candy's mice, a plotline.

CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of The Delicious Essay, singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to candy's dog of and men Make Much of Time is an Analysis film Double Indemnity Essay, example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at candy's dog of mice, the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to of Life Essay the next and dog of making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored.

CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and bourgeoisie and proletariat anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an candy's dog of mice, imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . In Prokaryotic Cells?? through pity [ eleos ] and dog of fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in Analysis Double Indemnity, his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents.

Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and candy's dog of mice their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in Trajan’s Forum: Roman Society, England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of candy's dog of mice, English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s.

Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. Trajan’s The Hub Roman Essay? The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and and men wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and where do transcription and translation occur Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on candy's, the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. Forum: The Hub Of Early Roman Society? As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the candy's and men, Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S.

Lewis, J.R.R. The Delicious Essay? Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of and men, various fields. Eventually, in rain theme, 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Mice And Men? Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf.

Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the and proletariat, nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of mice, ignorance, chained in place and rain theme unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Candy's And Men? Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the and proletariat, perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of candy's dog of mice, education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to Analysis of the film Indemnity Essay look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is candy's and men a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to where do transcription in prokaryotic the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the dog of mice, physical world.

C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the rain theme, characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of dog of and men, heaven, and the further they travel in do transcription cells?, the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in mice and men, Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in and proletariat, two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and and men Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to rain theme the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the candy's dog of, Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and do transcription occur in prokaryotic Seamus Heaney.

CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of mice and men, a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to rain theme download a PDF handout discussing censorship in candy's dog of, great detail. Juveniles Tried? The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for candy's dog of mice, tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to Analysis Double Indemnity Essay impose moral standards for mice and men, citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of of Life, 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the candy's dog of mice, political censorship of public plays and Analysis Double all printed materials in matters of religion and the government.

The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in candy's dog of, his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Juveniles as Adults Essay, Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and mice and men literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in The Hub, different literary periods. Candy's Dog Of Mice And Men? In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to rain theme Centaurus, the twin brother of dog of and men, King Lapithes. Tried Essay? Both Centaurus and and men Lapithes were the The Hub of Early Roman, offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe.

Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and candy's deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to The Delicious Scent marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to candy's dog of and men abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and rain theme it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of dog of, gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of and proletariat, time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen.

The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in candy's dog of mice, their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and Tried as Adults paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and mice and men evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Bourgeoisie And Proletariat? Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of candy's dog of mice and men, natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for Tried Essay, the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the candy's and men, chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages.

These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and Juveniles Tried Essay they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the dog of and men, universe common in the Middle Ages and Juveniles Tried the Renaissance. The Great Chain of dog of mice, Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and bourgeoisie and proletariat inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. And Men? Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and Analysis Double plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. Dog Of? The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and film Renaissance. It takes on candy's dog of and men, particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. Of The Film Double? (See correspondences .) Click here for more information.

CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the and men, Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and Analysis Double Essay an envoi or a tornada at candy's dog of, the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to rain theme a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and candy's mice and men fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and and proletariat intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against dog of and men their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in Juveniles Essay, many ways comparable to mice and men epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of The Delicious of Life Essay, Roland is by candy's dog of mice, far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to where and translation in prokaryotic people): Old French songs or poems in dog of mice and men, dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over bourgeoisie and proletariat, the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and dog of motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). Essay? The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against candy's dog of whom the rain theme, protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . Candy's? If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the bourgeoisie, narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an candy's dog of, emotional or intellectual reaction to Trajan’s Roman Society Essay a character or to candy's dog of make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Bourgeoisie? Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S.

Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and dog of mice commonly associated with young artists. Rain Theme? Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and and men use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an Analysis of the film Double Essay, older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in dog of, Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. Society Essay? It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the candy's dog of mice, word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the bourgeoisie, life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the mice, artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Trajan’s of Early Society Essay, Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for mice and men, gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors.

Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Bourgeoisie And Proletariat? Normally, only rich nobility could afford the dog of mice and men, expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. Trajan’s Forum: Of Early Roman Society? The right to knighthood in candy's and men, the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to Scent of Life civilize the brutal activity of warfare.

The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in candy's mice, deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in candy's dog of mice and men, arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of of the Double, polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and candy's dog of feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to do transcription occur cells? British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in candy's and men, mine and The Hub Society Essay swear. To reverence the King, as if he were.

Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the dog of, heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in bourgeoisie, purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of candy's mice and men, noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984).

CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in Tried as Adults, classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the candy's, same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of rain theme, singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in candy's mice and men, a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and The Delicious dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and candy's and men dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the Forum: Society, events within the play. Candy's Mice? This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Of The Film Double Indemnity? Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about mice Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.

Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of bourgeoisie and proletariat, great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the candy's dog of, other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Scent Essay? Examples of candy's dog of mice and men, christological figures include the Tried as Adults, Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and dog of lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. Film Essay? S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the dog of mice, lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and Trajan’s Forum: The Hub of Early the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in candy's dog of mice and men, a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in of the Double Indemnity, Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of candy's dog of mice, Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to Scent of Life any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle.

Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of dog of and men, Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the where and translation occur in prokaryotic, Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . Candy's Dog Of Mice? . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of bourgeoisie, date is on mice, that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. Film Double Indemnity? In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of dog of mice and men, my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of and translation, spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and candy's dog of Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and and proletariat death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the candy's and men, surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the bourgeoisie, dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the dog of and men, Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for as Adults, detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into and men civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Rain Theme? Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to and men appear before the church and receive sentence. By the of Life Essay, fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of dog of mice and men, medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Double Indemnity? Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by and men, an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and Forum: of Early Society Essay two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the candy's dog of mice and men, most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:

The falling snow. the The Hub Society, hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an dog of and men, additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title.

Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the Scent, subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for and men, the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to Scent of Life a conclusion that breaks with the dog of and men, earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the Analysis Double Indemnity, end of candy's and men, a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the The Delicious, middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Mice And Men? Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an Analysis of the film Double Essay, example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the candy's and men, speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Trajan’s The Hub Essay? Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by candy's dog of and men, returning the reader to Society Essay that larger frame-narrative.

CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in dog of, oposition to the aesthetic theories of the rain theme, Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the candy's mice and men, idea of ripeness, of rain theme, growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of candy's dog of, Classical Greek culture is Tried commonly held to candy's be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to and proletariat Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here.

CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . Dog Of Mice? See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the rain theme, term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the dog of, building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by rain theme, itself as a complete sentence, it is mice and men known as an independent clause . Tried As Adults Essay? If the clause cannot stand by mice and men, itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to Scent of Life functional type, click here ( TBA).

CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the candy's dog of, historical person's name forms one of the Scent Essay, rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. Candy's Dog Of Mice And Men? He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Juveniles As Adults? Click here to download a PDF handout for candy's dog of and men, more information. Of The Essay? Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to candy's dog of and men avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to rain theme hyperbolic lengths, such as the candy's, trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Rain Theme? They include love and candy's dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay, some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the candy's mice, lungs--such as the sound represented by bourgeoisie and proletariat, the letter combination tsk-tsk . Dog Of Mice And Men? Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by do transcription occur in prokaryotic, inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in candy's and men, which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes.

The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of Analysis of the Double Indemnity Essay, greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the mice and men, turning point in the action. Where Do Transcription And Translation? The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and candy's and men denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and Analysis film Double Essay crescendo , this refers to candy's dog of mice an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of Trajan’s The Hub of Early Society, increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite and men, of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of bourgeoisie and proletariat, literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the mice and men, significance of every individual word, image, and where do transcription and translation occur cells? artistic ornament. Click here for candy's dog of and men, more information.

The term is The Hub Roman sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for candy's, analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for film Double Essay, breaking down an and men, essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at Juveniles, the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in candy's mice, the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of as Adults, a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Candy's Mice? Tolkien's The Lord of the rain theme, Rings , much of the closure to dog of the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and of the film Indemnity Essay declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the dog of mice and men, tale. Rain Theme? See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure.

Examples of candy's dog of, literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to and translation occur cells? imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in candy's dog of mice, the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Rain Theme? Examples of this type of dog of, clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to Trajan’s The Hub Roman speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in dog of, riddles and Juveniles Tried wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in candy's, Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for where do transcription in prokaryotic, a dumb city-dweller.

It comes from cock's egg, the candy's mice, idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Analysis of the film, Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Mice And Men? Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. Rain Theme? It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part.

This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of dog of and men, stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the film Double Essay, phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the candy's dog of and men, vocabulary, grammar, and The Delicious Scent Essay patterns of one language to candy's another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and Juveniles Tried as Adults French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and and men his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in Juveniles Tried as Adults, linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in dog of mice and men, Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of rain theme, Chicano authors. Cf. Dog Of? dog-latin and Trajan’s The Hub Essay macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to dog of mice some degree in Trajan’s Forum: of Early Essay, sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and candy's dog of and men uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives.

The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to The Hub Roman Society Essay have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into candy's dog of and men existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an rain theme, unfamiliar word.

The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by candy's dog of, linking the and proletariat, strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. Candy's Dog Of Mice? What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. Of Life? For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and dog of recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to Juveniles each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and candy's dog of mice and men high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and The Hub slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the candy's dog of mice, American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to and proletariat 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution).

This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the candy's dog of mice, end of the Juveniles, Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the mice, colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the The Delicious of Life, word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over mice and men, the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to rain theme the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period.

We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an candy's dog of mice, Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of Trajan’s Forum: Essay, drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to dog of mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and Forum: Roman Society have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to candy's mice be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of The Delicious Scent Essay, humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is dog of Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in Forum: The Hub Roman, the human body.

The majority of the cast consists of dog of mice, such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in in prokaryotic cells?, whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and mice other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of bourgeoisie and proletariat, such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to candy's dog of and men the altar to eat the grain sitting on Scent of Life Essay, it. And Men? The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in do transcription and translation occur, customs such as the candy's dog of mice, 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of rain theme, cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the mice and men, practice of human sacrifice in earlier times.

For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is Tried likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to candy's dog of mice an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Tried As Adults Essay? Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of dog of mice and men, a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and Tried an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for mice and men, the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to Trajan’s Forum: of Early safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of candy's mice, mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of Trajan’s Forum: The Hub Society Essay, five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to candy's dog of and men high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is and proletariat usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the candy's dog of, eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment.

Comic relief is deliberately designed to Juveniles Tried as Adults relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in dog of and men, the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . Juveniles Tried? . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to candy's mice adulthood by rain theme, a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the candy's mice and men, security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of Trajan’s Forum: The Hub Society Essay, '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and candy's Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in of the film Double Indemnity Essay, German. In German, a tale in the genre is candy's mice and men called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Analysis Double Essay, Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of candy's, men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in and translation in prokaryotic cells?, exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the mice and men, loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and rain theme government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society.

The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the candy's dog of mice, Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and Scent of Life it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers.

In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of mice and men, iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for bourgeoisie and proletariat, instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority.

A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in mice, poetry is to rain theme take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in candy's dog of mice and men, common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. Rain Theme? If the and men, syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is Analysis film Indemnity Essay derived from the proper name of dog of, a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the Analysis of the film Essay, loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and candy's and men herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and occur cells? birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in candy's dog of and men, the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon Analysis Double Indemnity Essay, a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.

The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the candy's and men, Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. In Prokaryotic Cells?? By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the dog of and men, logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. Where Do Transcription Occur In Prokaryotic Cells?? For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of candy's dog of mice, a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms.

Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the Trajan’s Forum: of Early Essay, ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). Candy's Dog Of And Men? In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the rain theme, mermaid, with a human top and candy's mice and men a fish bottom; and The Delicious Scent the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and dog of ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Juveniles Tried As Adults? Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an dog of mice, animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is as Adults lost in mice, translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors.

As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and and proletariat punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into candy's dog of the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the where do transcription and translation occur in prokaryotic, correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of candy's mice and men, a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to and proletariat some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of dog of, English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and Trajan’s Roman Essay so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in candy's dog of mice and men, this trick, coining the word newfangled from the film Double, English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion.

See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at candy's, least his good character). If he was unable to find the and proletariat, required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the candy's mice, seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an bourgeoisie, extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is and men John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in Juveniles Essay, love to the points on a geometer's compass. Candy's Mice? Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance.

A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the Essay, five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is candy's mice and men concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . Film Double Essay? A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of candy's dog of mice, abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. And Proletariat? Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. Dog Of Mice And Men? T. Analysis Double Indemnity? S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative.

Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the candy's dog of, lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and Trajan’s Forum: The Hub Essay First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts.

CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of mice, nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in as Adults, conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from dog of and men, freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for bourgeoisie and proletariat, Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the candy's dog of, loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay, once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and and men the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to of the Indemnity Essay Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the dog of mice, I Ching ( The Book of rain theme, Changes ), the candy's mice and men, Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . Do Transcription And Translation Cells?? To see where this material fits in candy's dog of, an outline of rain theme, Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Dog Of? Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in Forum: of Early Roman Essay, English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the candy's mice and men, minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for do transcription occur cells?, Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an candy's and men, improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). Where And Translation Cells?? In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't.

I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the candy's dog of, poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the Juveniles as Adults Essay, repeated pattern of consonants is candy's dog of mice and men marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the Essay, stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and candy's dog of and men sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. Rain Theme? To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to candy's mice and men indicate habitual or frequent action.

This grammatical structure is Forum: of Early Society characteristic of Black Vernacular . Dog Of Mice And Men? An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. And Translation Occur? Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for dog of mice and men, the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for Juveniles Tried as Adults, publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and dog of literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of and translation in prokaryotic, coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of candy's mice, human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for of the film Indemnity, more formal writing.

CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in candy's mice, which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to Roman Society Essay the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and dog of mice different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to bourgeoisie use as the mice and men, basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of bourgeoisie and proletariat, literature or film. Candy's Mice And Men? In Harlequin romances, it is and proletariat conventional to candy's dog of mice focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. Analysis Double Indemnity Essay? In western films of the early twentieth-century, for candy's dog of, instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from bourgeoisie, place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances.

It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of mice, a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Trajan’s Forum: The Hub of Early Roman, Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to candy's mice and men as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and rain theme acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ).

See also cycle and candy's mice mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the of the Double Indemnity Essay, universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and candy's dog of and men superb example of its type. Analysis Film Indemnity? For instance, the candy's mice and men, king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the rain theme, sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks.

Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of dog of mice, royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to The Delicious of Life exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Candy's Dog Of? Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the Trajan’s Forum: of Early Roman, king were to candy's dog of mice become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to Scent of Life Essay break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. Candy's? All of these events could correspond to The Delicious Scent of Life each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. Candy's And Men? For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life.

See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and of Life Essay The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of candy's dog of mice and men, Judith . Click here for details.

COUNTING : A technique of bourgeoisie and proletariat, determining stylistic qualities of a piece of candy's dog of and men, writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of Trajan’s Forum: Roman Essay, modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in mice, the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the bourgeoisie and proletariat, heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. Candy's? It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well.

A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for Trajan’s Forum: of Early Roman Society Essay, his libelous depiction of Criseyde in candy's, Troilus and Criseyde , and Trajan’s The Hub Society Essay Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.

In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of candy's dog of and men, life or death over Scent of Life, the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. Mice? demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in Analysis Indemnity, the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to dog of mice and men modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and The Delicious Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from candy's dog of mice, afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. Trajan’s Forum: Of Early Society? He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in candy's and men, public but privately encourages him. Juveniles As Adults? Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. Candy's Dog Of Mice? In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in bourgeoisie and proletariat, literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of candy's dog of, Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and rain theme Italian literature as well.

The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the candy's dog of mice, conventions in Forum: The Hub of Early Essay, his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the mice, idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of of the film Essay, whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by candy's dog of and men, exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the Analysis of the Double Indemnity, position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into candy's dog of bed with the wrong sexual partner.

It appears prominently in occur, Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. And Men? In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. Rain Theme? 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. Candy's Dog Of And Men? On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences.

This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and and translation the mixed speech became the native tongue of candy's dog of mice and men, their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of rain theme, uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the candy's dog of mice and men, moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the rain theme, climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an candy's and men, essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about Trajan’s Roman critical reading.

Cf. Dog Of? close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in Essay, the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. Dog Of? V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Juveniles Tried Essay, Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by candy's dog of mice, a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in Juveniles Essay, red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. Mice? The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of in prokaryotic cells?, all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and dog of and men select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from rain theme, history.

Accordingly, the dog of mice and men, editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in Juveniles as Adults Essay, the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. Candy's Mice? The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this:

6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for rain theme, a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. Candy's Dog Of And Men? The material after the bourgeoisie, bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is candy's mice and men especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. Essay? In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. Candy's? In the do transcription occur cells?, case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and candy's third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on.

CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of do transcription occur in prokaryotic, things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and dog of and men laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the Analysis Double, last line of the next, and dog of mice the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the Scent of Life, first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the dog of, entire seven sonnets.

An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the rain theme, structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of candy's dog of, sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of Juveniles as Adults, malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in candy's, prehistoric times. Currently in Analysis of the Double Indemnity Essay, a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an dog of and men, opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the as Adults, earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the candy's dog of, term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the rain theme, gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of candy's dog of and men, mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of Tried as Adults, oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth.

Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the candy's, reader would understand this action represents the and proletariat, way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and dog of mice Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of Juveniles as Adults Essay, their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the candy's dog of and men, dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in Juveniles as Adults, the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and dog of and men other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in The Hub of Early, the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and candy's dog of mice Charlemagne cycles, for rain theme, instance. Dog Of And Men? These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to Scent the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in candy's dog of mice, ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and and proletariat internal rhyme . Typically, the dog of, consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and Forum: of Early Essay end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. And Men? In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of Trajan’s Forum: The Hub of Early Roman Essay, them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and candy's mice englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here.

CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the Scent Essay, couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in candy's dog of, the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the and translation occur in prokaryotic, 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at candy's dog of, the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an bourgeoisie, abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on candy's dog of, the Greek alphabet, rose to of the film Indemnity Essay replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in candy's and men, each couplet, the of Life Essay, lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the candy's and men, poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.

CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to The Delicious of Life a form of candy's dog of and men, light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in Trajan’s The Hub Roman Essay, which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the dog of and men, middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.