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David: The Man After God s Heart 1: A Heart Of Hope | Bible org

benedictine essays [ From the A TLANTIS of January , 1858.] A S the physical universe is sustained and of david carried on in dependence on certain centres of power and laws of operation, so the course of the with love and squalor summary social and political world, and of that great religious organization called the characteristics of david bible Catholic Church, is found to proceed for the most part from the presence or action of definite persons, places, events, and militarism definition institutions, as the visible cause of the whole. Bible? There has been but one Juda, one Greece, one Rome; one Homer, one Cicero; one Csar, one Constantine, one Charlemagne. For Esme With Love? And so, as regards Revelation, there has been one St. John the characteristics of david in the bible Divine, one Doctor of the Nations. Dogma runs along the line of Athanasius, Augustine, Thomas. Fast And Obesity? The conversion of the heathen is ascribed, after the Apostles, to champions of the truth so few, that we may almost count them, such as Martin, Patrick, Augustine, Boniface.

Then there is St. Antony, the father of monachism; St. Jerome, the interpreter of Scripture; St. Chrysostom, the great preacher. Education follows the same law: it has its history in Christianity, and its doctors or masters in that history. It has had three periods:#8212;the ancient, the medieval, and the modern; and there are three Religious Orders in those periods respectively, which succeed, one the of david in the other, on its public stage, and represent the teaching given by the Catholic Church during the time of their ascendancy. Shadow Lines? The first period is that long series of centuries, during which society was breaking or had broken up, and then slowly attempted its own re-construction; the second may be called the period of re-construction; and the third dates from the Reformation, when that peculiar movement of mind commenced, the issue of which is characteristics in the, still to food and obesity come. Now, St. Benedict has had the characteristics of david bible training of the ancient intellect, St. Dominic of the medieval; and St.

Ignatius of the modern. And in saying this, I am in no degree disrespectful to the Augustinians, Carmelites, Franciscans, and other great religious families, which might be named, or to the holy Patriarchs who founded them; for I am not reviewing the whole history of Christianity, but selecting a particular aspect of it. Fast Food? Perhaps as much as this will be granted to me without great hesitation. Next, I proceed to contrast these three great masters of Christian teaching with each other. To St. Benedict, then, who may fairly be taken to represent the various families of monks before his time and those which sprang from him (for they are all pretty much of one school), to this great Saint let me assign, for characteristics of david in the bible his discriminating badge, the element of Poetry; to St. Dominic, the Scientific element; and to St. Ignatius, the Practical. For Esme And Squalor Summary? These characteristics, which belong respectively to the schools of the of david three great Teachers, grow out of the circumstances under which they respectively entered upon their work. Benedict, entrusted with his mission almost as a boy, infused into it the romance and simplicity of boyhood.

Dominic, a man of forty-five, a graduate in theology, a priest and shadow lines a Canon, brought with him into religion that maturity and completeness of learning which he had acquired in the schools. Ignatius, a man of the world before his conversion, transmitted as a legacy to his disciples that knowledge of mankind which cannot be learned in cloisters. And thus the three several Orders were (so to say), the births of Poetry, of Science, and Practical Sense. And here another coincidence suggests itself. I have been giving these three attributes to the three Patriarchs whom I have specified, severally, from a bon-fide regard to their history, and without at all having any theory of philosophy in my eye. But after having so described them, it certainly did strike me that I had unintentionally been illustrating a somewhat popular notion of the bible day, the and its like of which is attributed to authors with whom I have as little sympathy as with any persons who can be named. Of David? According to these speculators, the life, whether of a race or of an individual of the great human family, is of Learning, divided into three stages, each of which has its own ruling principle and characteristic.

The youth makes his start in life, with hope at the prow, and fancy at the helm; he has nothing else but these to impel or direct him; he has not lived long enough to characteristics bible exercise his reason, or to gather in a store of facts; and, because he cannot do otherwise, he dwells in a world which he has created. He begins with illusions. Next, when at length he looks about for some surer footing than imagination gives him, he may have recourse to reason, or he may have recourse to facts; now facts are external to him, but his reason is his own: of the two, then, it is easier for him to exercise his reason than to ascertain facts. Accordingly, his first mental revolution, when he discards the life of aspiration and affection which has disappointed him, and technology and its impact the dreams of which he has been the sport and victim, is to embrace a life of logic: this, then, is his second stage,#8212;the metaphysical. He acts now on a plan, thinks by system, is cautious about his middle terms, and of david in the trusts nothing but what takes a scientific form. His third stage is when he has made full trial of life; when he has found his theories break down under the weight of facts, and experience falsify his most promising calculations.

Then the old man recognizes at length, that what he can taste, touch, and handle, is trustworthy, and nothing beyond it. Thus he runs through his three periods of Imagination, Reason, and Sense; and then he comes to food an end, and is not;#8212;a most impotent and melancholy conclusion. Undoubtedly a Catholic has no sympathy in so heartless a view of life, and yet it seems to square with what I have been saying of the three great Patriarchs of Christian teaching. And certainly there is a truth in it, which gives it its plausibility. However, I am not concerned here to do more than to put my finger on the point at which I should diverge from it, both in of david bible what I have been saying and what I must say concerning them. It is true then, that history, as viewed in shadow lines these three Saints, is, somewhat after the manner of the theory I have mentioned, a progress from poetry through science to practical sense or prudence; but then this important proviso has to be borne in of david in the bible mind at the same time, that what the Catholic Church once has had, she never has lost. She has never wept over, or been angry with, time gone and over. Instead of impact on society, passing from one stage of life to another, she has carried her youth and middle age along with her, on to her latest time. She has not changed possessions, but accumulated them, and has brought out of her treasure-house, according to the occasion, things new and of david in the bible old. She did not lose Benedict by finding Dominic; and she has still both Benedict and Dominic at home, though she has become the mother of Ignatius.

Imagination, Science, Prudence, all are good, and she has them all. Things incompatible in for esme with and squalor summary nature, cexist in her; her prose is poetical on the one hand, and philosophical on the other. Characteristics Of David? Coming now to the historical proof of the contrast I have been instituting, I am sanguine in thinking that one branch of it is and obesity, already allowed by the consent of the world, and characteristics bible is undeniable. By common consent, the palm of religious Prudence, in the Aristotelic sense of that comprehensive word, belongs to the School of Religion of which St. Ignatius is the Founder.

That great Society is the classical seat and fountain (that is, in religious thought and the conduct of shadow lines, life, for of ecclesiastical politics I speak not), the school and pattern of discretion, practical sense, and in the bible wise government. Sublimer conceptions or more profound speculations may have been created or elaborated elsewhere; but, whether we consider the illustrious Body in its own constitution, or in its rules for instruction and direction, we see that it is its very genius to prefer this most excellent prudence to technology and its every other gift, and to think little both of poetry and of science, unless they happen to be useful. It is true that, in the long catalogue of its members, there are to be found the names of the most consummate theologians, and characteristics of david in the of scholars the most elegant and accomplished; but we are speaking here, not of individuals, but of the body itself. It is plain that the body is not over-jealous about its theological traditions, or it certainly would not suffer Suarez to shadow lines controvert with Molina, Viva with Vasquez, Passaglia with Petavius, and of david in the bible Faure with Suarez, de Lugo, and Valentia. On Society? In this intellectual freedom its members justly glory; inasmuch as they have set their affections, not on the opinions of the bible Schools, but on the souls of men. Food And Obesity? And it is the same charitable motive which makes them give up the poetry of life, the poetry of ceremonies,#8212;of the of david cowl, the cloister, and the choir,#8212;content with the most prosaic architecture, if it be but convenient, and the most prosaic neighbourhood, if it be but populous. I need not then dwell longer on this wonderful Religion, but may confine the remarks which are to follow to the two Religions which historically preceded it#8212;the Benedictine and the Dominican [Note 1]. One preliminary more, suggested by a purely fanciful analogy:#8212;As there are three great Patriarchs on the high road and public thoroughfare of Christian Education, so there were three chief Patriarchs in the first age of the shadow lines chosen people. Putting aside Noe and Melchisedec, and Joseph and his brethren, we recognize three venerable fathers,#8212;Abraham, Isaac, and characteristics of david in the Jacob, and what are their characteristics?

Abraham, the father of many nations; Isaac, the technology intellectual, living in solitary simplicity, and in loving contemplation; and Jacob, the persecuted and characteristics helpless, visited by marvellous providences, driven from place to place, set down and taken up again, ill-treated by those who were his debtors, suspected because of his sagacity, and betrayed by his eager faith, yet carried on and triumphing amid all troubles by means of his most faithful and powerful guardian-archangel. Versus? St. Benedict, then, like the great Hebrew Patriarch, was the Father of many nations. He has been styled the Patriarch of the West, a title which there are many reasons for ascribing to him. Not only was he the first to establish a perpetual Order of Regulars in Western Christendom; not only, as coming first, has he had an characteristics, ampler course of centuries for definition the multiplication of his children; but his Rule, as that of St. Characteristics? Basil in the East, is the normal rule of the first age of the Church, and was in time generally received even in for esme with summary communities which in no sense owed their origin to him. Moreover, out of his Order rose, in characteristics of david bible process of The Benefits Of Hemp, time, various new monastic families, which have established themselves as independent institutions, and are able in their turn to boast of the number of their houses, and the sanctity and historical celebrity of their members. In The? He is the representative of Latin monachism for the long extent of six centuries, while monachism was one; and even when at length varieties arose, and distinct titles were given to them, the change grew out of definition, him;#8212;not the act of strangers who were his rivals, but of his own children, who did but make a new beginning in all devotion and loyalty to him. He died in the early half of the sixth century; at the beginning of the tenth rose from in the, among his French monasteries the food famous Congregation of Cluni, illustrated by St. Characteristics In The Bible? Majolus, St. Odilo, Peter the for esme with and squalor Venerable, and other considerable personages, among whom is in the bible, Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory the Seventh.

Then came, in long succession, the Orders or Congregations of Camaldoli under St. Romuald, of Vallombrosa, of Citeaux, to Essay which St. Bernard has given his name, of Monte Vergine, of Fontvrault; those of England, Spain, and Flanders; the Silvestrines, the of david in the bible Celestines, the Olivetans, the Humiliati, besides a multitude of institutes for women, as the Gilbertines and the Oblates of militarism in ww1 definition, St. Frances, and then at length, to characteristics of david in the bible mention no others, the Congregation of St. Maur in modern times, so well known for its biblical, patristical, and historical works, and for its learned members, Montfaucon, Mabillon, and love and squalor summary their companions.

The panegyrists of characteristics bible, this illustrious Order are accustomed to The Philosophy claim for it in all its branches as many as 37,000 houses, and, besides, 30 Popes, 200 Cardinals, 4 Emperors, 46 Kings, 51 Queens, 1,406 Princes, 1,600 Archbishops, 600 Bishops, 2,400 Nobles, and characteristics of david bible 15,000 Abbots and learned men [Note 2]. Nor are the religious bodies which sprang from St. Fast Food And Obesity? Benedict the full measure of what he has accomplished,#8212;as has been already observed. His Rule gradually made its way into those various monasteries which were of an characteristics in the, earlier or of an independent foundation. It first coalesced with, and then supplanted, the Irish Rule of St. Columban in France, and the still older institutes which had been brought from the East by St. Athanasius, St. Eusebius, and St. Martin. At the beginning of the ninth century it was formally adopted throughout the dominions of Charlemagne.

Pure, or with some admixture, it was brought by St. Augustine to England; and that admixture, if it existed, was gradually eliminated by St. Wilfrid, St. Dunstan, and Lanfranc, till at length it was received, with the name and obedience of shadow lines, St. Characteristics Of David In The Bible? Benedict, in all the Cathedral monasteries [Note 3] (to mention no others), excepting Carlisle. Nor did it cost such regular bodies any very great effort to make the change, even when historically most separate from St. Benedict; for the Saint had taken up for the most part what he found, and his Rule was but the expression of the shadow lines genius of monachism in those first times of the characteristics Church, with a more exact adaptation to their needs than could elsewhere be met with. So uniform indeed had been the monastic idea before his time, and so little stress had been laid by individual communities on their respective peculiarities, that religious men passed at in ww1 definition pleasure from one body to another [Note 4].

St. Of David Bible? Benedict provides in his Rule for the case of strangers coming to one of in ww1 definition, his houses, and wishing to remain there. If such a one came from any monastery with which the monks had existing relations, then he was not to be received without letters from in the, his Abbot; but, in technology and its impact the instance of a foreign monk from distant parts, who wished to dwell with them as a guest, and was content with their ways, and conformed himself to them, and was not troublesome, should he in the event wish to characteristics in the stay for good, says St. Of Learning? Benedict, let him not be refused; for there has been room to make trial of him, during the in the bible time that hospitality has been shown to him: nay, let him even be invited to stay, that others may gain a lesson from his example; for in every place we are servants of one Lord and soldiers of one King. [Note 5] The unity of idea, which, as these words imply, is to be found in all monks in every part of Christendom, may be described as a unity of object, of state, and of occupation. Monachism was one and the same everywhere, because it was a reaction from that secular life, which has everywhere the same structure and the same characteristics. And, since that secular life contained in it many objects, many states, and many occupations, here was a special reason, as a matter of principle, why the reaction from it should bear the badge of unity, and should be in technology impact outward appearance one and the same everywhere.

Moreover, since that same secular life was, when monachism arose, more than ordinarily marked by variety, perturbation and confusion, it seemed on that very account to justify emphatically a rising and revolt against itself, and a recurrence to some state which, unlike itself, was constant and unalterable. It was indeed an old, decayed, and moribund world, into which Christianity had been cast. The social fabric was overgrown with the corruptions of a thousand years, and was held together, not so much by any common principle, as by the strength of possession and the tenacity of custom. It was too large for public spirit, and too artificial for of david patriotism, and its many religions did but foster in the popular mind division and scepticism. Want of mutual confidence would lead to despondency, inactivity, and and obesity selfishness.

Society was in the slow fever of consumption, which made it restless in proportion as it was feeble. In The Bible? It was powerful, however, to seduce and deprave; nor was there any locus standi from which to combat its evils; and the only way of getting on with it was to abandon principle and duty, to take things as they came, and to do as the love summary world did. Worse than all, this encompassing, entangling system of things, was, at the time we speak of, the seat and instrument of a paganism, and characteristics of david bible then of heresies, not simply contrary, but bitterly hostile, to the Christian profession. Serious men not only had a call, but every inducement which love of life and freedom could supply, to The Philosophy escape from its presence and in the bible its sway. Their one idea then, their one purpose, was to be quit of it; too long had it enthralled them. It was not a question of this or that vocation, of the of Learning Essay better deed, of the higher state, but of life and death.

In later times a variety of holy objects might present themselves for devotion to choose from, such as the care of the poor, or of the sick, or of the young, the redemption of captives, or the conversion of the barbarians; but early monachism was flight from the world, and nothing else. The troubled, jaded, weary heart, the stricken, laden conscience, sought a life free from corruption in in the bible its daily work, free from distraction in its daily worship; and it sought employments as contrary as possible to the world's employments,#8212;employments, the end of which would be in themselves, in which each day, each hour, would have its own completeness;#8212;no elaborate undertakings, no difficult aims, no anxious ventures, no uncertainties to make the heart beat, or the temples throb, no painful combination of efforts, no extended plan of operations, no multiplicity of The Philosophy Essay, details, no deep calculations, no sustained machinations, no suspense, no vicissitudes, no moments of crisis or catastrophe;#8212;nor again any subtle investigations, nor perplexities of bible, proof, nor conflicts of rival intellects, to agitate, harass, depress, stimulate, weary, or intoxicate the soul. Hitherto I have been using negatives to for esme with describe what the bible primitive monk was seeking; in truth monachism was, as regards the The Philosophy Essay secular life and all that it implies, emphatically a negation, or, to characteristics of david in the use another word, a mortification ; a mortification of sense, and a mortification of reason. Here a word of explanation is necessary. Technology? The monks were too good Catholics to deny that reason was a divine gift, and characteristics of david in the bible had too much common sense to for esme with think to do without it. What they denied themselves was the various and manifold exercises of the reason; and on this account, because such exercises were excitements.

When the reason is cultivated, it at once begins to combine, to of david in the bible centralize, to look forward, to look back, to view things as a whole, whether for speculation or for action; it practises synthesis and shadow lines analysis, it discovers, it invents. To these exercises of the in the intellect is opposed simplicity, which is the state of The Benefits Versus, mind which does not combine, does not deal with premisses and conclusions, does not recognize means and their end, but lets each work, each place, each occurrence stand by itself,#8212;which acts towards each as it comes before it, without a thought of of david bible, anything else. This simplicity is the temper of children, and it is the temper of monks. This was their mortification of the intellect; every man who lives, must live by reason, as every one must live by sense; but, as it is possible to be content with the bare necessities of fast food and obesity, animal life, so is it possible to of david in the confine ourselves to the bare ordinary use of reason, without caring to improve it or make the most of it. These monks held both sense and reason to militarism definition be the gifts of heaven, but they used each of them as little as they could help, reserving their full time and their whole selves for devotion;#8212;for, if reason is better than sense, so devotion they thought to be better than either; and, as even a heathen might deny himself the innocent indulgences of characteristics in the, sense in order to give his time to the cultivation of the reason, so did the monks give up reason, as well as sense, that they might consecrate themselves to divine meditation. Now, then, we are able to understand how it was that the monks had a unity, and in technology impact on society what it consisted. It was a unity, I have said, of object, of state, and of occupation. Their object was rest and peace; their state was retirement; their occupation was some work that was simple, as opposed to intellectual, viz., prayer, fasting, meditation, study, transcription, manual labour, and other unexciting, soothing employments.

Such was their institution all over the world; they had eschewed the busy mart, the craft of gain, the money-changer's bench, and the merchant's cargo. They had turned their backs upon the wrangling forum, the political assembly, and the pantechnicon of trades. They had had their last dealings with architect and habit-maker, with butcher and of david in the bible cook; all they wanted, all they desired, was the sweet soothing presence of earth, sky, and sea, the hospitable cave, the bright running stream, the easy gifts which mother earth, justissima tellus, yields on very little persuasion. The monastic institute, says the biographer of St. Maurus, demands Summa Quies , the most perfect quietness; [Note 6] and where was quietness to be found, if not in reverting to technology the original condition of man, as far as the changed circumstances of our race admitted; in having no wants, of which the supply was not close at hand; in of david the nil admirari; in having neither hope nor fear of anything below; in in ww1 daily prayer, daily bread, and daily work, one day being just like another, except that it was one step nearer than the day just gone to that great Day, which would swallow up all days, the day of everlasting rest. However, I have come into characteristics of david bible collision with a great authority, M. Guizot, and militarism in ww1 I must stop the course of my argument to make my ground good against him.

M. Guizot, then, makes a distinction between monachism in its birth-place, in Egypt and Syria, and that Western institute, of which I have made St. Benedict the representative. He allows that the Orientals mortified the intellect, but he considers that Latin monachism was the in the seat of considerable mental activity. The desire for retirement, he says, for contemplation, for a marked rupture with civilized society, was the source and fundamental trait of the Eastern monks: in the West, on the contrary , and in ww1 definition especially in Southern Gaul, where, at the commencement of the fifth century, the principal monasteries were founded, it was in order to live in common, with a view to conversation as well as to religious edification, that the first monks met. The monasteries of Lerins, of St. Victor, and many others, were especially great schools of theology, the focus of intellectual movement. It was by no means with solitude or with mortification, but with discussion and activity, that they there concerned themselves. [Note 7] Great deference is due to an author so learned, so philosophical, so honestly desirous to of david in the bible set out shadow lines, Christianity to the best advantage; yet, I am at a loss to understand what has led him to of david in the bible make such a distinction between the East and West, and to and obesity assign to the Western monks an of david in the bible, activity of intellect, and to the Eastern a love of retirement. It is quite true that instances are sometimes to and its impact on society be found of characteristics of david in the bible, monasteries in food and obesity the West distinguished by much intellectual activity, but more, and more striking, instances are to be found of a like phenomenon in the East. If, then, such particular instances are to be taken as fair specimens of the state of Western monachism, they are equally fair specimens of the state of Eastern also; and the Eastern monks will be proved more intellectual than the of david bible Western, by virtue of food, that greater interest in doctrine and in controversy which given individuals or communities among them have exhibited.

A very cursory reference to ecclesiastical history will be sufficient to show us that the fact is as I have stated it. The theological sensitiveness of the monks of Marseilles, Lerins, or Adrumetum, it seems, is to be a proof of the characteristics bible intellectualism generally of the West: then, why is not the greater sensitiveness of the Scythian monks at Constantinople, and of their opponents, the Ac#339;met, an evidence in favour of the East? These two bodies of Religious actually came all the way from Constantinople to Rome to denounce one another, besieging, as it were, the Holy See, and the former of technology and its impact, them actually attempting to raise the Roman populace against the Pope, in behalf of its own theological tenet. Does not this show activity of mind? I venture to say that, for one intellectual monk in the West, a dozen might be produced in the East. The very reproach, thrown out by secular historians against Greeks in characteristics of david in the bible general, of over-subtlety of intellect, applies in particular, if to technology and its on society any men, to certain classes or certain communities of Eastern monks. These were sometimes orthodox, quite as often heretical, but inexhaustible in their argumentative resources, whether the one or the other. If Pelagius be a monk in the West, on the other hand, Nestorius and Eutyches, both heresiarchs, are both monks in the East; and of david Eutyches, at the time of his heresy, was an old monk into militarism definition the bargain, who had been thirty years abbot of a convent, and bible whom age, if not sanctity, might have saved from this abnormal use of his reason.

His partizans were principally monks of Egypt; and they, coming up in force to Of Hemp Versus Marijuana Essay the pseudo-synod of Ephesus, in of david aid of a theological thesis, kicked to death the patriarch of Constantinople, and put to militarism in ww1 definition flight the of david in the bible Legate of the Pope, all in consequence of their intellectual susceptibilities. A century earlier, Arius, on and its impact, starting, carried away into his heresy as many as seven hundred nuns [Note 8]; what have the Western convents to show, in the way of controversial activity, comparable with a fact like this? I do not insist on the zealous and influential orthodoxy of the monks of Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor in the fourth century, because it was probably nothing else but an honourable adhesion to the faith of the Church, without any serious exercise of mind; but turn to the great writers of Eastern Christendom, and characteristics of david bible consider how many of them figure at first sight as monks;#8212;Chrysostom, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, Epiphanius, Ephrem, Amphilochius, Isidore of Pelusium, Theodore, Theodoret, perhaps Athanasius. Among the Latin writers no great names occur to me but those of Jerome and Pope Gregory; I may add Paulinus, Sulpicius, Vincent, and Cassian, but Jerome is the shadow lines only learned writer among them. I have a difficulty, then, even in comprehending, not to of david bible speak of for esme with and squalor summary, admitting, M. Guizot's assertion, a writer who does not commonly speak without a meaning or a reason. But, after all, however the balance of intellectualism may lie between certain convents or individuals in the East and the West, such particular instances of characteristics bible, mental activity are nothing to the purpose, when taken to The Philosophy of Learning measure the state of the great body of the monks; certainly not in the West, with which in this paper I am exclusively concerned. In taking an estimate of the Benedictines, we need not trouble ourselves about the state of monachism in Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor, and characteristics Constantinople, as it existed after the fourth century, when the true monastic tradition was passing from the East to the West. In the fourth century, the Eastern Monks simply follow the defined and promulgated doctrine of the The Benefits Of Hemp Marijuana Church, and in following it are guilty of no exercise of reason; their intellectualism proper, which is foreign to of david in the bible the genius of their institute, begins with the fifth. Taking, then, the great tradition of St.

Antony, St. Pachomius, and St. Basil in the East, and then tracing it into the West by the hands of St. Athanasius, St. Martin, and fast food their contemporaries, we shall find no historical facts but what admit of a fair explanation, consistent with the views which we have laid down above about monastic simplicity, bearing in mind always, what holds in bible all matters of fact, that there never was a rule without its exceptions. Every rule has its exceptions; but, further than this, when exceptions occur, they are commonly likely to be great ones. This is no paradox; illustrations of for esme with, it are to be found everywhere. For instance, we may conceive a climate very fatal to children, and characteristics of david yet those who survive growing up to be strong men; and for fast food and obesity a plain reason, because those alone could have passed the characteristics bible ordeal who had robust constitutions. Thus the Romans, so jealous of their freedom, when they resolved on the appointment of a supreme ruler for an occasion, did not do the thing by halves, but made him a Dictator. In like manner, a mere trifling occurrence, or an ordinary inward impulse, would be powerless to snap the bond which keeps the monk fast to his cell, his oratory, and his garden. Shadow Lines? Exceptions, indeed, may be few, because they are exceptions, but they will be great in order to become exceptions at all.

It must be a serious emergence, a particular inspiration, a sovereign command, which brings the monk into political life; and characteristics he will be sure to make a great figure in in ww1 it, else why should he have been torn from his cloister at all? This will account for the career of St. Gregory the of david Seventh or of St. Dunstan, of St. Bernard or of Abbot Suger, as far as it was political: the work they had to do was such as none could have done but a monk with his superhuman single-mindedness and his pertinacity of purpose. Again, in the case of St. Boniface, the Apostle of Germany, and in that of others of the missionaries of his age, it seems to have been a particular inspiration which carried them abroad; and it is observable after all how soon most of them settled down into the mixed character of agriculturists and pastors in their new country, and impact on society resumed the tranquil life to characteristics in the which they had originally devoted themselves. As to the early Greek Fathers, some of those whom we have instanced above are only prim facie exceptions, as Chrysostom, who, though he lived with the monks most austerely for as many as six years, can hardly be said to have taken on himself the responsibilities of their condition, or to have simply abandoned the world.

Others of fast food, them, as Basil, were scholars, philosophers, men of the world, before they were monks, and could not put off their cultivation of mind or their learning with their secular dress; and these would be the of david bible very men, in an age when such talents were scarce, who would be taken out of their retirement by superior authority, and for esme with who therefore cannot fairly be quoted as ordinary specimens of the monastic life. Exceptio probat regulam : let us see what two Doctors of the Church, one Greek, one Latin, both rulers, both monks, say concerning the characteristics bible state, which they at in ww1 definition one time enjoyed, and afterwards lost. You tell me, says St. Basil, writing to a friend from his solitude, that it was little for me to describe the place of my retirement, unless I mentioned also my habits and my mode of characteristics in the, life; yet really I am ashamed to tell you how I pass night and day in this lonely nook. I am like one who is angry with the size of his vessel, as tossing overmuch, and leaves it for of Learning Essay the boat, and is seasick and miserable still.

However, what I propose to do is as follows, with the hope of characteristics in the bible, tracing His steps who has said, 'If any one will come after Me, let him deny himself.' We must strive after a quiet mind. As well might the eye ascertain an fast and obesity, object which is before it, while it roves up and in the down without looking steadily at it, as a mind, distracted with a thousand worldly cares, be able clearly to apprehend the truth. One who is not yoked in in ww1 matrimony is harassed by rebellious impulses and hopeless attachments; he who is married is involved in his own tumult of cares: is he without children? he covets them; has he children? he has anxieties about their education. Then there is solicitude about his wife, care of his house, oversight of of david in the, his servants, misfortunes in trade, differences with his neighbours, lawsuits, the merchant's risks, the farmer's toil. Each day, as it comes, darkens the soul in militarism in ww1 definition its own way; and night after night takes up the day's anxieties, and cheats us with corresponding dreams. Now, the characteristics in the only way of escaping all this is separation from the whole world, so as to live without city, home, goods, society, possessions, means of life, business, engagements, secular learning, that the heart may be prepared as wax for the impress of divine teaching. Solitude is of the for esme love greatest use for this purpose, as it stills our passions, and enables reason to extirpate them. Let then a place be found such as mine, separate from intercourse with men, that the tenor of our exercises be not interrupted from characteristics of david in the, without. Pious exercises nourish the soul with divine thoughts.

Soothing hymns compose the mind to a cheerful and and obesity calm state. Quiet, then, as I have said, is the first step in our sanctification; the tongue purified from the gossip of the world, the eyes unexcited by fair colour or comely shape, the ear secured from the relaxation of voluptuous songs, and that especial mischief, light jesting. Thus the mind, rescued from dissipation from without, and sensible allurements, falls back upon itself, and thence ascends to the contemplation of God. [Note 9] It is bible, quite clear that at The Philosophy of Learning Essay least St. Basil took the same view of the monastic state as I have done. So much for the East in the fourth century; now for the West in the seventh. One day, says St. Gregory, after he had been constrained, against his own wish, to leave his cloister for the government of the Universal Church, one day, when I was oppressed with the excessive trouble of characteristics of david bible, secular affairs, I sought a retired place, friendly to grief, where whatever displeased me in my occupations might show itself, and The Philosophy all that was wont to inflict pain might be seen at one view. Of David In The? While he was in The Benefits Of Hemp this retreat, his most dear son, Peter, with whom, ever since the latter was a youth, he had been intimate, surprised him, and he opened his grief to him. My sad mind, he said, labouring under the soreness of its engagements, remembers how it went with me formerly in this monastery, how all perishable things were beneath it, how it rose above all that was transitory, and, though still in the flesh, went out in contemplation beyond that prison, so that it even loved death, which is characteristics, commonly thought a punishment, as the gate of life and the reward of labour. But now, in consequence of the The Philosophy of Learning pastoral charge, it undergoes the busy work of secular men, and for that fair beauty of characteristics in the, its quiet, is dishonoured with the Versus Marijuana dust of the earth. And often dissipating itself in outward things, to serve the many, even when it seeks what is inward, it comes home indeed, but is no longer what it used to be. [Note 10] Here is the very same view of the monastic state at Rome which St.

Basil had in characteristics in the bible Pontus, viz., retirement and repose. With Love? There have been great Religious Orders since, whose atmosphere has been conflict, and characteristics bible who have thriven in The Philosophy smiting or in being smitten. It has been their high calling; it has been their peculiar meritorious service; but, as for the Benedictine, the very air he breathes is peace. I have now said enough both to explain and to vindicate the characteristics in the bible biographer of St. Maurus, when he says that the object, and life, and reward of the fast food and obesity ancient monachism was summa quies,#8212;the absence of all excitement, sensible and characteristics of david in the intellectual, and the vision of Eternity. And therefore have I called the monastic state the most poetical of religious disciplines. It was a return to that primitive age of the world, of The Benefits Marijuana, which poets have so often sung, the simple life of Arcadia or the reign of Saturn, when fraud and violence were unknown. It was a bringing back of those real, not fabulous, scenes of innocence and miracle, when Adam delved, or Abel kept sheep, or Noe planted the vine, and characteristics of david in the bible Angels visited them. It was a fulfilment in the letter, of the glowing imagery of prophets, about the evangelical period.

Nature for technology and its on society art, the wide earth and the majestic heavens for characteristics in the bible the crowded city, the impact subdued and docile beasts of the field for the wild passions and rivalries of in the bible, social life, tranquillity for ambition and care, divine meditation for the exploits of the intellect, the Creator for the creature, such was the normal condition of the monk. He had tried the world, and found its hollowness; or he had eluded its fellowship, before it had solicited him;#8212;and so St. Antony fled to the desert, and St. Hilarion sought the sea shore, and St. Basil ascended the mountain ravine, and technology and its St.

Benedict took refuge in his cave, and St. Giles buried himself in of david the forest, and St. Martin chose the broad river, in and obesity order that the characteristics in the world might be shut out of view, and the soul might be at rest. And such a rest of intellect and of Learning of passion as this is full of the elements of the poetical. I have no intention of committing myself here to a definition of poetry; I may be thought wrong in the use of the term; but, if I explain what I mean by it, no harm is characteristics in the bible, done, whatever be my inaccuracy, and each reader may substitute for it some word he likes better. Poetry, then, I conceive, whatever be its metaphysical essence, or however various may be its kinds, whether it more properly belongs to action or to suffering, nay, whether it is more at home with society or with nature, whether its spirit is seen to best advantage in The Benefits Of Hemp Marijuana Essay Homer or in Virgil, at characteristics bible any rate, is always the antagonist to science . As science makes progress in any subject-matter, poetry recedes from it. The two cannot stand together; they belong respectively to two modes of viewing things, which are contradictory of each other.

Reason investigates, analyzes, numbers, weighs, measures, ascertains, locates, the objects of its contemplation, and thus gains a scientific knowledge of them. Science results in system, which is complex unity; poetry delights in the indefinite and various as contrasted with unity, and in the simple as contrasted with system. The aim of science is to get a hold of things, to grasp them, to handle them, to comprehend them; that is (to use the familiar term), to master them, or to be superior to The Philosophy them. Its success lies in being able to draw a line round them, and to of david in the bible tell where each of them is to be found within that circumference, and how each lies relatively to shadow lines all the rest. Its mission is to destroy ignorance, doubt, surmise, suspense, illusions, fears, deceits, according to the Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas of the Poet, whose whole passage, by the way, may be taken as drawing out the contrast between the poetical and in the the scientific [Note 11].

But as to the poetical, very different is the frame of mind which is necessary for its perception. It demands, as its primary condition, that we should not put ourselves above the objects in which it resides, but at their feet; that we should feel them to be above and beyond us, that we should look up to them, and that, instead of in ww1, fancying that we can comprehend them, we should take for granted that we are surrounded and comprehended by them ourselves. It implies that we understand them to be vast, immeasurable, impenetrable, inscrutable, mysterious; so that at best we are only characteristics of david bible, forming conjectures about them, not conclusions, for the phenomena which they present admit of for esme with and squalor, many explanations, and we cannot know the true one. Poetry does not address the reason, but the imagination and affections; it leads to of david in the admiration, enthusiasm, devotion, love. The vague, the uncertain, the irregular, the sudden, are among its attributes or sources. Hence it is that a child's mind is so full of poetry, because he knows so little; and an old man of the world so devoid of poetry, because his experience of facts is so wide. Hence it is shadow lines, that nature is commonly more poetical than art, in spite of Lord Byron, because it is less comprehensible and less patient of definitions; history more poetical than philosophy; the savage than the citizen; the knight-errant than the brigadier-general; the winding bridle-path than the straight railroad; the sailing vessel than the steamer; the ruin than the spruce suburban box; the Turkish robe or Spanish doublet than the French dress coat. I have now said far more than enough to make it clear what I mean by that element in the old monastic life, to which I have given the name of the Poetical.

Now, in many ways the family of characteristics of david in the, St. Benedict answers to this description, as we shall see if we look into its history. Its spirit indeed is shadow lines, ever one, but not its outward circumstances. It is not an Order proceeding from one mind at a particular date, and characteristics appearing all at once in its full perfection, and in its extreme development, and in Of Hemp Versus Essay form one and of david in the the same everywhere and from first to last, as is the case with other great religious institutions; but it is an organization, diverse, complex, and irregular, and variously ramified, rich rather than symmetrical, with many origins and centres and new beginnings and the action of local influences, like some great natural growth; with tokens, on the face of shadow lines, it, of its being a divine work, not the mere creation of human genius. Characteristics Of David In The? Instead of progressing on plan and system and from the will of a superior, it has shot forth and Of Hemp Versus Essay run out as if spontaneously, and has shaped itself according to events, from an irrepressible fulness of life within, and from the energetic self-action of its parts, like those symbolical creatures in the prophet's vision, which went every one of them straight forward, whither the impulse of the spirit was to go. It has been poured out over the earth, rather than been sent, with a silent mysterious operation, while men slept, and of david through the romantic adventures of individuals, which are well nigh without record; and thus it has come down to and obesity us, not risen up among us, and is found rather than established. Its separate and scattered monasteries occupy the land, each in its place, with a majesty parallel, but superior, to that of characteristics of david in the bible, old aristocratic houses. Their known antiquity, their unknown origin, their long eventful history, their connection with Saints and Doctors when on earth, the legends which hang about them, their rival ancestral honours, their extended sway perhaps over other religious houses, their hold upon the associations of the neighbourhood, their traditional friendships and compacts with other great landlords, the benefits they have conferred, the for esme with summary sanctity which they breathe,#8212;these and the like attributes make them objects, at once of awe and of affection. Such is the great Abbey of Bobbio, in of david in the bible the Apennines, where St. Columban came to die, having issued with his twelve monks from his convent in Benchor, county Down, and having spent his life in preaching godliness and planting monasteries in half-heathen France and Burgundy. Such St.

Gall's, on the lake of Constance, so called from another Irishman, one of summary, St. Columban's companions, who remained in Switzerland, when his master went on into Italy. Such the Abbey of characteristics in the bible, Fulda, where lies St. Boniface, who, burning with zeal for the conversion of the Germans, attempted them a first time and failed, and then a second time and succeeded, and at length crowned the missionary labours of forty-five years with martyrdom. Such Monte Cassino, the metropolis of the Benedictine name, where the Saint broke the idol, and cut down the grove, of Apollo. Ancient houses such as these subdue the mind by the mingled grandeur and sweetness of their presence. They stand in history with an accumulated interest upon them, which belongs to The Philosophy of Learning no other monuments of the past. Whatever there is of venerable authority in other foundations, in Bishops' sees, in Cathedrals, in in the Colleges, respectively, is found in combination in them. Each gate and cloister has had its own story, and time has engraven upon their walls the chronicle of its revolutions.

And, even when at length rudely destroyed, or crumbled into dust, they live in history and antiquarian works, in the pictures and relics which remain of them, and in the traditions of their place. In the early part of militarism definition, last century the Maurist Fathers, with a view of collecting materials for the celebrated works which they had then on hand, sent two of their number on a tour through France and the adjacent provinces. Among other districts the characteristics bible travellers passed through the forest of Ardennes, which has been made classical by the prose of Csar, and the poetry of Shakespeare. There they found the great Benedictine Convent of St. Hubert [Note 12]; and, if I dwell awhile upon the illustration which it affords of what I have been saying, it is and its impact, not as if twenty other religious houses which they visited would not serve my purpose quite as well, but because it has come first to my hand in turning over the pages of their volume. At that time the venerable abbey in characteristics of david in the bible question had upon it the food weight of a thousand years, and characteristics in the was eminent above others in the country in wealth, in privileges, in name, and, not the least recommendation, in the sanctity of its members. The lands on which it was situated were its freehold, and their range included sixteen villages. The old chronicle informs us that, about the middle of the seventh century, St. Sigibert, the Merovingian, pitched upon Ardennes and its neighbourhood for the establishment of as many as twelve monasteries, with the hope of thereby obtaining from heaven an heir to love summary his crown.

Dying prematurely, he but partially fulfilled his pious intention, which was taken up by Pepin, sixty years afterwards, at characteristics of david in the the instance of his chaplain, St. Beregise; so far, at least, as to make a commencement of the abbey of which we are speaking. Beregise had been a monk of the militarism in ww1 Benedictine Abbey of St. Tron, and he chose for characteristics of david in the the site of the new foundation a spot in the midst of the forest, marked by the ruins of a temple dedicated to the pagan Diana, the The Benefits Versus Essay goddess of the chase. The holy man exorcised the place with the sign of the Cross; and, becoming abbot of the of david in the bible new house, filled it either with monks, or, as seems less likely, with secular canons. From that time to the summer day, when the two Maurists visited it, the sacred establishment, with various fortunes, had been in The Philosophy of Learning Essay possession of the land. On entering its precincts, they found it at of david bible once full and empty: empty of the monks, who were in the fields gathering in the harvest; full of pilgrims, who were wont to come day after day, in never-failing succession, to visit the tomb of St. The Philosophy Of Learning Essay? Hubert.

What a series of characteristics bible, events has to be recorded to make this simple account intelligible! and how poetical is the picture which it sets before us, as well as those events themselves, which it presupposes, when they come to The Philosophy be detailed! Were it not that I should be swelling a passing illustration into a history, I might go on to tell how strict the observance of the monks had been for the last hundred years before the travellers arrived there, since Abbot Nicholas de Fanson had effected a reform on the pattern of the French Congregation of St. Vanne. I might relate how, when a simple monk in characteristics in the bible the Abbey of St. Hubert, Nicholas had wished to change it for a stricter community, and how he got leave to go off to the Congregation just mentioned, and how then his old Abbot died suddenly, and how he himself to his surprise was elected in his place. And I might tell how, when his mitre was on his head, he set about reforming the house which he had been on the point of quitting, and how he introduced for technology impact that purpose two monks of St. Vanne; and how the Bishop of Liege, in whose diocese he was, set himself against his holy design, and how some of the old monks attempted to poison him; and of david bible how, though he carried it into effect, still he was not allowed to aggregate his Abbey to the Congregation whose reform he had adopted; but how his good example encouraged the neighbouring abbeys to commence a reform in themselves, which issued in an ecclesiastical union of the Flemish Houses.

All this, however, would not have been more than one passage, of course, in the adventures which had befallen the abbey and its abbots in shadow lines the course of its history. It had had many seasons of decay before the time of Nicholas de Fanson, and many restorations, and from different quarters. None of them was so famous or important as the in the bible reform effected in the year 817, about a century after its original foundation, when the secular canons, who anyhow had got in, were put out, and the monks put in their place, at definition the instance of the then Bishop of Liege, who had a better spirit than his successor in the time of Nicholas. The new inmates were joined by some persons of characteristics in the, noble birth from the Cathedral, and by their suggestion and influence the bold measure was taken of attempting to gain from Liege the body of the and obesity great St. Hubert, the Apostle of Ardennes. Of David In The Bible? But to return to the relics of the Saint; the sacred body was taken by water up the for esme with summary Maes. The coffin was of marble, and characteristics of david in the bible perhaps could have been taken no other way; but another reason, besides its weight, lay in the indignation of the citizens of Liege, who might have interfered with a land journey, and in fact did make several attempts, in the following years, to regain the body. In consequence, the shadow lines good monks of Ardennes hid it within the walls of their monastery, confiding the characteristics of david secret of its whereabouts to only two of their community at a time; and they showed in The Philosophy of Learning Essay the sacristy to the devout, instead, the Saint's ivory cross and his stole, the sole of his shoe and his comb, and Diana, Marchioness of Autrech, gave a golden box to characteristics of david hold the The Benefits stole. This, however, was in in the after times; for shadow lines they were very loth at first to let strangers within their cloisters at all; and in characteristics of david in the 838, when a long spell of rain was destroying the crops, and the people of the neighbourhood came in procession to the shrine to ask the intercession of the Saint, the cautious Abbot Sewold, availing himself of the Rule, would only admit priests, and them by threes and of Learning Essay fours, with naked feet, and a few laymen with each of them. Characteristics Of David Bible? The supplicants were good men, however, and Essay had no notion of playing any trick: they came in piety and devotion, and the rain ceased, and the country was the gainer by St. Hubert of Ardennes.

And thenceforth others, besides the monks, became interested in his stay in the forest. And now I have said something in explanation why the courtyard was full of of david in the bible, pilgrims when the travellers came. St. Hubert had been an object of devotion for a particular benefit, perhaps ever since he came there, certainly as early as the eleventh century, for we then have historical notice of it. Militarism Definition? His preference of the forest to the city, which he had shown in of david his life-time before his conversion, was illustrated by the particular grace or miraculous service, for which, more than for The Philosophy of Learning Essay any other, he used his glorious intercession on high.

He is famous for curing those who had suffered from the bite of wild animals, especially dogs of the chase, and a hospital was attached to the Abbey for their reception. The sacristan of the Church officiated in the cure; and with rites which never indeed failed, but which to some cautious persons seemed to savour of characteristics of david, superstition. Certainly they were startling at first sight; accordingly a formal charge on that score was at one time brought against technology and its impact them before the Bishop of Liege, and a process followed. The Bishop, the University of Louvain, and of david in the bible its Faculty of Medicine, conducted the inquiry, which was given in favour of the Abbey, on Of Hemp Versus Marijuana Essay, the ground that what looked like a charm might be of the nature of a medical regimen. However, though the sacristan was the characteristics of david in the medium of the cure, the of Learning general care of the patients was left to externs. Of David In The? The hospital was served by secular priests, since the shadow lines monks heard no confessions save those of their own people. This rule they observed, in order to bible reserve themselves for the proper duties of a Benedictine,#8212;the choir, study, manual labour, and transcription of books; and, while the Maurists were ocular witnesses of The Philosophy of Learning, their agricultural toils, they saw the diligence of of david in the, their penmanship in its results, for the MSS. of their Library were the definition choicest in characteristics of david bible the country. Among them, they tell us, were copies of St.

Jerome's Bible, the Acts of the Councils, Bede's History, Gregory and Isidore, Origen and Augustine. The Maurists report as favourably of the monastic buildings themselves as of the hospital and library. Those buildings were a chronicle of past times, and of the changes which had taken place in them. First there were the poor huts of St. Beregise upon the half-cleared and still marshy ground of the forest; then came the building of a sufficient house, when St. Love Summary? Hubert was brought there; and centuries after that, St.

Thierry, the intimate friend of the great Pope Hildebrand, had renewed it magnificently, at characteristics of david in the the time that he was Abbot. He was sadly treated in his lifetime by his monks, as Nicholas after him; but, after his death, they found out that he was a Saint, which they might have discovered before it; and they placed him in with love summary the crypt, and there he and another holy Abbot after him lay in peace, till the Calvinists broke into it in the sixteenth century, and burned both of them to ashes. There were marks too of the same fanatics on the pillars of the nave of the Church; which had been built by Abbot John de Wahart in the twelfth century, and of david then again from its foundations by Abbots Nicholas de Malaise and Romaclus, the friend of Of Hemp Essay, Blosius, four centuries later; and it was ornamented by in the bible Abbot Cyprian, who was called the friend of the poor; and doubtless the travellers admired the marble of the shadow lines choir and in the sanctuary, and the silver candelabra of the altar given by the reigning Lord Abbot; and perhaps they heard him sing solemn Mass on the Assumption, as was usual with him on that feast, with his four secular chaplains, one to carry his Cross, another his mitre, a third his gremial, and a fourth his candle, and accompanied by the pealing organ and the many musical bells, which had been the gift of Marijuana Essay, Abbot Balla about a hundred years earlier. Can we imagine a more graceful union of human with divine, of the sweet with the austere, of business and of calm, of splendour and of simplicity, than is displayed in a great religious house after this pattern, when unrelaxed in its observance, and pursuing the ends for which it was endowed? The monks have been accused of choosing beautiful spots for their dwellings; as if this were a luxury in ascetics, and not rather the necessary alleviation of of david, their asceticism. With And Squalor? Even when their critics are kindest, they consider such sites as chosen by a sort of sentimental, ornamental indolence. Beaulieu river, says Mr. Warner in his topography of Hampshire, and, because he writes far less ill-naturedly than the run of authors, I quote him, Beaulieu river is stocked with plenty of fish, and boasts in particular of good oysters and fine plaice, and is fringed quite to the edge of the water with the most beautiful hanging woods.

In the characteristics of david bible area enclosed are distinct traces of shadow lines, various fishponds, formed for the use of the characteristics of david convent. Some of them continue perfect to the present day, and abound with fish. A curious instance occurs also of monkish luxury, even in the article of shadow lines, water; to secure a fine spring those monastics have spared neither trouble nor expense. Characteristics In The? About half a mile to the south-east of the Abbey is and obesity, a deep wood; and at a spot almost inaccessible is characteristics in the bible, a cave formed of smooth stones. It has a very contracted entrance, but spreads gradually into a little apartment, of seven feet wide, ten deep, and about five high. This covers a copious and transparent spring of water, which, issuing from the mouth of the cave, is lost in a deep dell, and is there received, as I have been informed, by a chain of small stone pipes, which formerly, when perfect, conveyed it quite to the Abbey. And Obesity? It must be confessed the monks in general displayed an elegant taste in the choice of their situations. Beaulieu Abbey is a striking proof of this. In The Bible? Perhaps few spots in the kingdom could have been pitched upon better calculated for for esme summary monastic seclusion than this.

The deep woods, with which it is characteristics in the bible, almost environed, throw an air of gloom and solemnity over the scene, well suited to excite religious emotions; while the stream that glides by its side afforded to the recluse a striking emblem of for esme and squalor summary, human life: and at the same time that it soothed his mind by characteristics of david in the bible a gentle murmuring, led it to serious thought by impact its continual and irrevocable lesson. [Note 13 ] The monks were not so soft as all this, after all; and if Mr. Characteristics In The Bible? Warner had seen them, we may be sure he would have been astonished at Essay the stern, as well as sweet simplicity which characterized them. They were not dreamy sentimentalists, to fall in love with melancholy winds and purling rills, and waterfalls and nodding groves; but their poetry was the poetry of hard work and characteristics of david in the hard fare, unselfish hearts and charitable hands. They could plough and reap, they could hedge and ditch, they could drain; they could lop, they could carpenter; they could thatch, they could make hurdles for their huts; they could make a road, they could divert or secure the streamlet's bed, they could bridge a torrent. Mr. Warner mentions one of their luxuries,#8212;clear, wholesome water; it was an allowable one, especially as they obtained it by their own patient labour.

If their grounds are picturesque, if their views are rich, they made them so, and had, we presume, a right to enjoy the work of of Learning Essay, their own hands. They found a swamp, a moor, a thicket, a rock, and they made an Eden in the wilderness. They destroyed snakes; they extirpated wild cats, wolves, boars, bears; they put to bible flight or they converted rovers, outlaws, robbers. The gloom of the forest departed, and the sun, for the first time since the Of Hemp Marijuana Deluge shone upon the moist ground. St. Characteristics Of David In The? Benedict is the true man of Ross.

Who hung with woods yon mountain's sultry brow? From the dry rock who made the waters flow? Whose causeway parts the vale with shady rows? Whose seats the weary traveller repose? He feeds yon almshouse, neat, but void of state, When Age and Want sit smiling at the gate; Him portioned maids, apprenticed orphans blessed, The young who labour, and Essay the old who rest. And candid writers, though not Catholics, allow it. Even English, and much more foreign historians and antiquarians, have arrived at a unanimous verdict here. We owe the agricultural restoration of great part of Europe to the monks, says Mr. Hallam.

The monks were much the best husbandmen, and characteristics in the the only gardeners, says Forsyth. None, says Wharton, ever improved their lands and possessions more than the monks, by building, cultivating, and impact other methods. The cultivation of Church lands, as Sharon Turner infers from Doomsday Book, was superior to that held by other proprietors, for there was less wood upon them, less common pasture, and more abundant meadow. Wherever they came, says Mr. Soame on Mosheim, they converted the wilderness into a cultivated country; they pursued the breeding of cattle and agriculture, laboured with their own hands, drained morasses, and cleared away forests. By them Germany was rendered a fruitful country. M. Guizot speaks as strongly: The Benedictine monks were the agriculturists of Europe; they cleared it on of david bible, a large scale, associating agriculture with preaching. Shadow Lines? [Note 14] St. Benedict's direct object indeed in setting his monks to manual labour was neither social usefulness nor poetry, but penance; still his work was both the one and the other. The above-cited authors enlarge upon its use, and I in what I am writing may be allowed to dwell upon its poetry; we may contemplate both its utility to characteristics of david man and its service to God in the aspect of its poetry. How romantic then, as well as useful, how lively as well as serious, is their history, with its episodes of in ww1 definition, personal adventure and prowess, its pictures of squatter, hunter, farmer, civil engineer, and evangelist united in the same individual, with its supernatural colouring of heroic virtue and miracle! When St.

Columban first came into Burgundy with his twelve young monks, he placed himself in a vast wilderness, and characteristics bible made them set about cultivating the soil. At first they all suffered from hunger, and were compelled to live on the barks of trees and wild herbs. On one occasion they were for five days in this condition. St. Gall, one of them, betook himself to a Swiss forest, fearful from the multitude of wild beasts; and then, choosing the shadow lines neighbourhood of a mountain stream, he made a cross of twigs, and characteristics in the bible hung some relics on it, and laid the fast and obesity foundation of his celebrated abbey. St. Ronan came from Ireland to Cornwall, and chose a wood, full of wild beasts, for of david bible his hermitage, near the Lizard. The monks of St.

Dubritius, the founder of the The Philosophy Welsh Schools, also sought the woods, and there they worked hard at manufactures, agriculture, and road making. St. Sequanus placed himself where the of david bible trees almost touched the clouds. He and his companions, when they first explored it, asked themselves how they could penetrate into it, when they saw a winding footpath, so narrow and food and obesity full of briars that it was with difficulty that one foot followed another. Characteristics In The? With much labour and with torn clothes they succeeded in gaining its depths, and stooping their heads into the darkness at definition their feet, they perceived a cavern, shrouded by the thick interlacing branches of the trees, and blocked up with stones and underwood. This, says the monastic account, was the cavern of robbers, and characteristics of david in the bible the resort of evil spirits. Sequanus fell on his knees, prayed, made the sign of the Cross over shadow lines, the abyss, and built his cell there.

Such was the first foundation of the celebrated abbey called after him in Burgundy [Note 15]. Sturm, the Bavarian convert of St. Boniface, was seized with a desire, as his master before him in his English monastery, of characteristics in the bible, founding a religious house in the wilds of Pagan Germany; and setting out with two companions, he wandered for two days through the Buchonian forest, and saw nothing but earth, sky, and technology and its impact large trees. On the third day he stopped and chose a spot, which on trial did not answer. Then, mounting an ass, he set out by himself, cutting down branches of a night to secure himself from the wild beasts, till at length he came to the place (described by St. Boniface as locum silvaticum in eremo, vastissim solitudinis), in which afterwards arose the abbey and schools of Fulda.

Wunibald was suspicious of the of david in the bible good wine of the Rhine where he was, and, determining to leave it, he bought the land where Heidensheim afterwards stood, then a wilderness of militarism in ww1, trees and underwood, covering a deep valley and the sides of lofty mountains. There he proceeded, axe in hand, to clear the ground for his religious house, while the savage natives looked on sullenly, jealous for their hunting-grounds and sacred trees. Characteristics In The Bible? Willibald, his brother, had pursued a similar work on system; he had penetrated his forest in every direction and scattered monasteries over it. The Philosophy? The Irish Alto pitched himself in bible a wood, half way between Munich and technology and its impact on society Vienna. Pirminius chose an island, notorious for its snakes, and there he planted his hermitage and characteristics chapel, which at length became the rich and shadow lines noble abbey and school of Augia Major or Richenau [Note 16]. The more celebrated School of Bec had a similar beginning at a later date, when Herluin, an old soldier, devoted his house and farm to an ecclesiastical purpose, and governed, as abbot, the monastery which he had founded. You might see him, says the writer of his life, when office was over in church, going out to his fields, at the head of characteristics in the bible, his monks, with his bag of seed about his neck, and his rake or hoe in his hand. There he remained with them hard at work till the day was closing.

Some were employed in clearing the land of brambles and in ww1 definition weeds; others spread manure; others were weeding or sowing; no one ate his bread in idleness. Then when the bible hour came for saying office in church, they all assembled together punctually. Their ordinary food was rye bread and vegetables with salt and water; and the water muddy, for the well was two miles off. [Note 17] Lanfranc, then a secular, was so edified by the simple Abbot, fresh from the field, setting about his baking with dirty hands, that he forthwith became one of the party [Note 18]; and, being unfitted for labour, opened in the house a school of logic, thereby to make money for the community. Such was the cradle of the scholastic theology; the last years of the patristic, which were nearly contemporaneous, exhibit a similar scene,#8212;St. Bernard founding his abbey of Clairvaux in a place called the Valley of Wormwood, in technology the heart of a savage forest, the haunt of robbers, and his thirteen companions clearing a homestead, raising a few huts, and of david in the bible living on barley or cockle bread with boiled beech leaves for of Learning Essay vegetables [Note 19]. Of David? How beautiful is and its impact on society, Simeon of Durham's account of Easterwine, the first abbot after Bennet of characteristics in the, St. Of Learning? Peter's at Wearmouth! He was a man of noble birth, who gave himself to religion, and characteristics in the died young.

Though he had been in the service of King Egfrid, says Simeon, when he had once left secular affairs, and lain aside his arms, and taken on him the spiritual warfare instead, he was nothing but the The Philosophy of Learning Essay humble monk, just like any of his brethren, winnowing with them with great joy, milking the ewes and cows, and in the bakehouse, the garden, the kitchen, and all house duties, cheerful and obedient. Characteristics In The Bible? And, when he received the name of Abbot, still he was in Of Hemp spirit just what he was before to every one, gentle, affable, and kind; or, if any fault had been committed, correcting it indeed by the Rule, but still so winning the offender by his unaffected earnest manner, that he had no wish ever to repeat the offence, or to of david in the dim the brightness of that most clear countenance with the cloud of his transgression. And often going here and there on business of the monastery, when he found his brothers at work, he would at once take part in it, guiding the for esme with and squalor plough, or shaping the iron, or taking the winnowing fan, or the like. He was young and strong, with a sweet voice, a cheerful temper, a liberal heart and a handsome countenance. He partook of the same food as his brethren, and under the same roof.

He slept in the common dormitory, as before he was abbot, and he continued to characteristics in the do so for the first two days of his illness, when death had now seized him, as he knew full well. Militarism In Ww1? But for the last five days he betook himself to a more retired dwelling; and then, coming out into the open air and sitting down, and calling for all his brethren, after the characteristics of david manner of shadow lines, his tender nature, he gave his weeping monks the kiss of peace, and died at of david in the night while they were singing lauds. [Note 20] This gentleness and tenderness of heart seems to of Learning Essay have been as characteristic of the monks as their simplicity; and if there are some Saints among them, who on the public stage of history do not show it, it was because they were called out of their convents for some special purpose, and, as I have said above, exceptions to a rule are commonly great exceptions. Of David Bible? Bede goes out of his way to observe of King Ethelbert, on St. Austin's converting him, that he had learned from the teachers and authors of his salvation that men were to for esme love and squalor be drawn heaven-wards, and not forced. Aldhelm, when a council had been held about the perverse opinions of the British Christians, seconding the principle which the Fathers of in the, it laid down, that schismatics were to be convinced, not compelled, wrote a book upon their error and converted many of them. Wolstan, when the militarism in ww1 civil power failed in its attempts to stop the slave trade of the Bristol people, succeeded by his persevering preaching. In the confessional he was so gentle, that penitents came to him from characteristics in the, all parts of England [Note 21]. This has been the spirit of the monks from the first; the student of ecclesiastical history may recollect a certain passage in St.

Martin's history, when his desire to shield the Spanish heretics from capital punishment brought him into great difficulties [Note 22] with the usurper Maximus. Works of penance indeed and works of mercy have gone hand in hand in shadow lines the history of the monks; from the Solitaries in Egypt down to the Trappists of this day, it is one of the points in which the unity of the monastic idea shows itself. They have ever toiled for others, while they toiled for themselves; nor for of david in the bible posterity only, but for their poor neighbours, and for travellers who came to them. St. Augustine tells us that the monks of militarism in ww1, Egypt and of the East made so much by manual labour as to be able to freight vessels with provisions for impoverished districts. Theodoret speaks of a certain five thousand of them, who by their labour supported, besides themselves, innumerable poor and strangers. Characteristics Of David In The Bible? Sozomen speaks of the monk Zeno, who, though a hundred years old, and the bishop of The Benefits Essay, a rich Church, worked for the poor as well as for himself. Corbinian in a subsequent century surrounded his German Church with fruit trees and vines, and characteristics of david in the sustained the poor with the and its impact produce. The monks of St. Gall, already mentioned, gardened, planted, fished, and thus secured the means of relieving the poor and entertaining strangers. Monasteries, says Neander, were seats for the promotion of various trades, arts, and sciences.

The gains accruing from their combined labour were employed for the relief of the distressed. In great famines, thousands were rescued from starvation. [Note 23] In a scarcity at characteristics of david in the the beginning of the Essay twelfth century, a monastery in characteristics in the bible the neighbourhood of shadow lines, Cologne distributed in one day fifteen hundred alms, consisting of bread, meat, and vegetables. About the same time St. Bernard founded his monastery of of david in the, Citeaux, which, though situated in the waste district described above, was able at length to sustain two thousand poor for of Learning months, besides extraordinary alms bestowed on others. The monks offered their simple hospitality, uninviting as it might be, to high as well as low; and to those who scorned their fare, they at least could offer a refuge in misfortune or danger, or after casualties. Duke William, ancestor of the Conqueror, was hunting in the woods about characteristics bible, Jumieges, when he fell in with a rude hermitage [Note 24]. Two monks had made their way through the forest, and The Philosophy of Learning Essay with immense labour had rooted up some trees, levelled the bible ground, raised some crops, and technology impact on society put together their hut. William heard their story, not perhaps in the best humour, and flung aside in contempt the barley bread and water which they offered him.

Presently he was brought back wounded and insensible: he had got the worst in an encounter with a boar. On coming to in the himself, he accepted the hospitality which he had refused at first, and built for them a monastery. The Philosophy Essay? Doubtless he had looked on them as trespassers or squatters on his domain, though with a religious character and characteristics of david in the object. The Norman princes were as good friends to the wild beasts as the monks were enemies: a charter still exists of the Conqueror, granted to the abbey of Essay, Caen [Note 25], in which he stipulates that its inmates should not turn the woods into tillage, and reserves the game for himself. Contrast with this savage retreat and its rude hospitality the different, though equally Benedictine picture of the sacred grove of Subiaco, and bible the spiritual entertainment which it ministers to all comers, as given in fast the late pilgrimage of Bishop Ullathorne: The trees, he says, which form the characteristics bible venerable grove, are very old, but their old age is vigorous and healthy. Their great grey roots expose themselves to view with all manner of curling lines and wrinkles on them, and the rough stems bend and twine about with the vigour and ease of gigantic pythons . Of how many holy solitaries have these trees witnessed the meditations! And then they have seen beneath their quiet boughs the irruption of mailed men, tormented by the thirst of plunder and the passion of blood, which even a sanctuary held so sacred could not stay.

And then they have witnessed, for twelve centuries and Versus Marijuana more, the of david greatest of the Popes, the technology on society Gregories, the Leos, the Innocents, and the Piuses, coming one after another to refresh themselves from their labours in a solitude which is in the bible, steeped with the inspirations and redolent with the holiness of St. Shadow Lines? Benedict. [Note 26] What congenial subjects for his verse would the sweetest of all poets have found in scenes and bible histories such as the foregoing, he who in his Georgics has shown such love of a country life and country occupations, and impact on society of the themes and trains of thought which rise out of the country! Would that Christianity had a Virgil to describe the old monks at their rural labours, as it has had a Sacchi or a Domenichino to paint them! How would he have been able to set forth the adventures and the hardships of the missionary husbandmen, who sang of the Scythian winter, and the murrain of the characteristics in the bible cattle, the stag of Sylvia, and the forest home of Evander!

How could he have pourtrayed St. Paulinus or St. Serenus in his garden, who could draw so beautiful a picture of the old Corycian, raising amid the thicket his scanty pot-herbs upon impact, the nook of land, which was not good for bible tillage, nor for pasture, nor for vines! How could he have brought out the poetry of those simple labourers, who has told us of that old man's flowers and fruits, and of the satisfaction, as a king's, which he felt in The Philosophy Essay those innocent riches! He who had so huge a dislike of cities, and great houses, and high society, and of david sumptuous banquets, and shadow lines the canvass for office, and the hard law, and the noisy lawyer, and of david bible the statesman's harangue,#8212;he who thought the country proprietor as even too blessed, did he but know his blessedness, and The Benefits Marijuana who loved the valley, winding stream, and wood, and in the bible the hidden life which they offer, and the deep lessons which they whisper,#8212;how could he have illustrated that wonderful union, of prayer, penance, toil, and literary work, the true otium cum dignitate, a fruitful leisure and a meek-hearted dignity, which is exemplified in the Benedictine! That ethereal fire which enabled the Prince of Latin poets to take up the Sibyl's strain, and to adumbrate the glories of a supernatural future,#8212;that serene philosophy, which has strewn his poems with sentiments which come home to the heart,#8212;that intimate sympathy with the sorrows of human kind and with the action and passion of human nature,#8212;how well would they have served to illustrate the technology impact on society patriarchal history and office of the monks in the broad German countries, or the characteristics bible deeds, the food words, and the visions of a St. Odilo or a St. Aelred!

What a poet deliberately chooses for characteristics of david in the the subject of his poems must be in technology and its its own nature poetical. A poet indeed is but a man after all, and in his proper person may prefer solid beef and bible pudding to all the creations of his own fine frenzy, which, in his character of poet, are his meat and drink. But no poet will ever commit his poetical reputation to shadow lines the treatment of subjects which do not admit of poetry. When, then, Virgil chooses the country and rejects the town, he shows us that a certain aspect of the town is uncongenial with poetry, and that a certain aspect of the country is congenial. Repose, intellectual and moral, is that quality of country life which he selects for his praises; and effort, and bustle, and excitement is that quality of of david bible, a town life which he abhors. Herein then, according to Virgil, lies the poetry of St. Benedict, in the secura quies et nescia fallere vita, in the absence of anxiety and fretfulness, of schemes and scheming, of love and squalor summary, hopes and fears, of doubts and disappointments. Characteristics Of David? Such a life,#8212;living for the day without solicitude for of Learning Essay the morrow, without plans or objects, even holy ones, here below; working, not (so to say) by characteristics of david in the bible the piece, but as hired by the hour; sowing the ground with the certainty, according to the promise, of reaping; reading or writing this present week without the consequent necessity of reading or writing during the next; dwelling among one's own people without distant ties; taking each new day as a whole in itself, an for esme, addition, not a complement, to the past; and doing works which cannot be cut short, for in the they are complete in every portion of militarism in ww1 definition, them,#8212;such a life may be called emphatically Virgilian. They, on the contrary, whose duty lies in what may be called undertakings , in science and system, in sustained efforts of the intellect or elaborate processes of action,#8212;apologists, controversialists, disputants in the schools, professors in the chair, teachers in the pulpit, rulers in characteristics in the the Church,#8212;have a noble and meritorious mission, but not so poetical a one. When the bodily frame receives an injury, or is militarism definition, seized with some sudden malady, nature may be expected to set right the evil, if left to itself, but she requires time; science comes in to shorten the of david process, and is violent that it may be certain.

This may be taken to illustrate St. Benedict's mode of counteracting the miseries of The Philosophy Essay, life. He found the world, physical and social, in ruins, and his mission was to restore it in the way, not of science, but of characteristics of david bible, nature, not as if setting about to do it, not professing to do it by any set time or by any rare specific or by any series of strokes, but so quietly, patiently, gradually, that often, till the work was done, it was not known to be doing. It was a restoration, rather than a visitation, correction, or conversion. The new world which he helped to create was a growth rather than a structure. Silent men were observed about the country, or discovered in the forest, digging, clearing, and building; and other silent men, not seen, were sitting in the cold cloister, tiring their eyes, and keeping their attention on technology and its on society, the stretch, while they painfully deciphered and copied and re-copied the manuscripts which they had saved. There was no one that contended, or cried out, or drew attention to what was going on; but by degrees the woody swamp became a hermitage, a religious house, a farm, an abbey, a village, a seminary, a school of learning, and a city. Roads and bridges connected it with other abbeys and cities, which had similarly grown up; and what the of david haughty Alaric or fierce Attila had broken to pieces, these patient meditative men had brought together and made to live again. And then, when they had in the course of many years gained their peaceful victories, perhaps some new invader came, and with fire and sword undid their slow and persevering toil in an hour. The Hun succeeded to the Goth, the fast food and obesity Lombard to the Hun, the Tartar to the Lombard; the characteristics bible Saxon was reclaimed only that the Dane might take his place. Down in with love summary the dust lay the labour and civilization of centuries,#8212;Churches, Colleges, Cloisters, Libraries,#8212;and nothing was left to them but to begin all over again; but this they did without grudging, so promptly, cheerfully, and tranquilly, as if it were by some law of nature that the characteristics of david bible restoration came, and they were like the militarism definition flowers and shrubs and characteristics in the bible fruit trees which they reared, and which, when ill-treated, do not take vengeance, or remember evil, but give forth fresh branches, leaves, or blossoms, perhaps in greater profusion, and with richer quality, for the very reason that the old were rudely broken off.

If one holy place was desecrated, the monks pitched upon another, and by this time there were rich or powerful men who remembered and loved the past enough to wish to have it restored in the future. Thus was it in the case of the monastery of Ramsey after the ravages of the fast food Danes. A wealthy Earl, whose heart was touched, consulted his Bishop how he could best promote the divine glory: the Bishop answered that they only were free, serene, and unsolicitous, who renounced the world, and that their renunciation brought a blessing on their country. By their merit, he said, the anger of the Supreme Judge is abated; a healthier atmosphere is granted; corn springs up more abundantly; famine and pestilence withdraw; the state is better governed; prisons are opened; the characteristics in the fetters unbound; the shipwrecked relieved. He proceeded to advise him, as the best of The Philosophy, courses, to give ground for a monastery, and to build and endow it. Earl Alwin observed in reply, that he had inherited some waste land in characteristics of david the midst of marshes, with a forest in the neighbourhood, some open spots of good turf, and others of meadow; and he took the Bishop to and squalor see it. It was in fact an characteristics of david bible, island in the fens, and as lonely as religious men could desire. The gift was accepted, workmen were collected, the pious peasants round about gave their labour. Twelve monks were found from Versus Marijuana, another cloister; cells and a chapel were soon raised. Materials were collected for a handsome church; stones and cement were given; a firm foundation was secured; scaffolding and machinery were lent; and in course of time a sacred edifice and of david in the two towers rose over technology, the desolate waste, and renewed the past;#8212;a learned divine from characteristics bible, France was invited to preside over the monastic schools [Note 27].

Here then I am led, lastly, to speak of the literary labours of the Benedictines, but I have not room to do more than direct attention to The Benefits Marijuana the peculiar character of their work, and must leave the subject of characteristics in the, their schools for some future opportunity. Here, as in other respects above noticed, the unity of monachism shows itself. The Philosophy Of Learning Essay? What the Benedictines, even in characteristics in the their latest literary developments, have been, in St. Maur in Essay the seventeenth century, and at Solesme now, such were the monks in their first years. One of the chief occupations of the disciples of St.

Pachomius in Egypt was the transcription of books. It was the characteristics sole labour of the monks of St. Martin in Gaul. Impact On Society? The Syrian solitaries, according to St. Chrysostom, employed themselves in making copies of the Holy Scriptures. It was the occupation of the monks of St. Equitius and bible of Cassiodorus, and of the nunnery of St. Csarius. We read of one holy man preparing the skins for writing, of another selling his manuscripts in order to gain alms for the poor, and of an abbess writing St. Peter's Epistles in letters of gold.

St. David had shown the love same reverence to St. John's Gospel. Abbot Plato filled his own and other monasteries with his beautifully written volumes [Note 28]. Of David Bible? During the short rule of Abbot Desiderius at Monte Cassino, his monks wrote out St. Austin's fifty Homilies, his Letters, his Comment upon the Sermon on militarism in ww1, the Mount, upon St. Bible? Paul and upon Genesis; parts of shadow lines, St. Characteristics? Jerome and St.

Ambrose, part of St. Bede, St. Leo's Sermons, the Orations of St. Gregory Nazianzen; the Acts of the Apostles, the The Benefits Of Hemp Essay Epistles and in the the Apocalypse; various histories, including that of St. Gregory of Tours, and of Josephus on the Jewish War, Justinian's Institutes, and many ascetic and other works; of the Classics, Cicero de Natur Deorum, Terence, Ovid's Fasti, Horace, and Virgil. Maurus Lapi, a Camaldolese, in the fifteenth century, copied a thousand volumes in less than fifty years.

Jerome, a monk in an Austrian monastery, wrote so great a number of books that, it is said, a wagon with six horses would scarcely suffice to draw them. Othlon, in the eleventh century, when a boy, wrote so diligently that he nearly lost his sight. That was in France; he then went to Ratisbon, where he wrote nineteen missals, three books of the Gospel, two books of Epistle and Gospel, and many others. Shadow Lines? Many he gave to characteristics of david in the bible his friends, but the list is too long to technology on society finish. The Abbot Odo of Tournay used to exult, according to his successor, in the number of writers which the Lord had given him. Had you gone into his cloister, you might have seen a dozen young men sitting in in the perfect silence, writing at tables constructed for the purpose. All Jerome's Commentaries on for esme with love and squalor, the Prophets, all the works of St. Gregory, all that he could find of Austin, Ambrose, Isidore, Bede, and the Lord Anselm, Abbot of Bec, and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, he caused to be diligently transcribed. [Note 29] These tranquil labourers found a further field in the illumination and binding of the characteristics bible transcribed volumes, as they had previously been occupied in the practice necessary for the then important art of calligraphy.

It was not running hand that the monks had to learn; for it was no ephemeral expression of in ww1 definition, their own thoughts which their writing was to convey, but the formal transcript, for the benefit of posterity, of the words of inspired teachers and Doctors of the characteristics of david bible Church. They were performing what has been since the printer's work; and Of Hemp Marijuana it is said that from the English monks is derived the small letter of the modern Roman type. In France the abbeys of Fontenelle, Rheims, and characteristics of david Corbie were especially famed for beauty of penmanship in the age of Charlemagne [Note 30], when literature was in fast food its most depressed state. Books intended for presents, such as that which the mother of Leo the Ninth presented to St. Hubert, and, much more, if intended for sacred uses, were enriched with gold and silver plates and precious stones. Here was a commencement of the cultivation of the bible fine arts in of Learning Essay those turbulent times,#8212;a quiet, unexciting occupation, which went on inside the monasteries, whatever rivalries or heresies agitated Christendom outside of them, and which, though involving, of course, an improvement in the workmanship as time went on, yet in the case of every successive specimen, whatever exact degree of bible, skill or taste each exhibited, had its end in definition itself, as though there had been no other specimen before or after. Brower, in his work on the Antiquities of Fulda, gives us a lively picture of the characteristics bible various tranquil occupations which were going on at one time within the monastic walls. As industrious bees, he says, their work never flagging, did these monks follow out their calling.

Some of them were engaged in describing, here and there upon The Benefits Of Hemp Essay, the parchment, the special letters and characters which were to be filled in; others were wrapping or binding the manuscripts in handsome covers; others were marking out in red the remarkable sentences or the of david bible heads of the chapters. Some were writing fairly what had been thrown together at random, or had been left out in the dictation, and were putting every part in fair order. And not a few of them excelled in painting in all manner of colours, and in drawing figures. For Esme And Squalor? [Note 31] He goes on to refer to an old manuscript there, which speaks of the monks as decorating their church, and of their carpenters' work, sculpture, engraving, and brass work. I have mentioned St. Dunstan in an earlier page, as called to political duties, which were out of keeping with the characteristics of david bible traditionary spirit of his Order; here, however, he shows himself in the simple character of for esme and squalor, a Benedictine. He had a taste for the arts generally, especially music. He painted and embroidered; his skill in smith's work is characteristics of david, recorded in the well-known legend of his combat with the The Philosophy evil one. And, as the monks of Hilarion joined gardening with psalmody, and Bernard and his Cistercians joined field work with meditation, so did St. Dunstan use music and painting as directly expressive or suggestive of devotion.

He excelled in characteristics of david writing, painting, moulding in wax, carving in with love summary wood and bone, and in work in gold, silver, iron, and brass, says the writer of his life in Surius. Characteristics In The? And he used his skill in musical instruments to charm away from himself and others their secular annoyances, and to rouse them to the thought of heavenly harmony, both by the sweet words with which he accompanied his airs, and by The Philosophy of Learning Essay the concord of those airs themselves. [Note 32] And then he goes on in the, to mention how on one occasion, when he had hung his harp against the wall, and the wind brought out from its strings a wild melody, he recognized in technology it one of the antiphons in the Commune Martyrum, Gaudete in C#339;lis, etc., and used it for his own humiliation. As might be expected, the monasteries of the South of Europe would not be behind the of david North in accomplishments of this kind. Those of St. Gall, Monte Cassino, and Solignac, are especially spoken of in ww1, as skilled in the fine arts.

Monte Cassino excelled in illumination and in of david bible mosaic, the Camaldolese in painting, and the Olivetans in wood-inlaying [Note 33]. While manual labour, applied to and obesity these artistic purposes, ministered to devotion, on the other hand, when applied to the transcription and of david multiplication of books, it was a method of instruction, and that peculiarly Benedictine, as being of a literary, not a scientific nature. Systematic theology had but a limited place in ecclesiastical study prior to the eleventh and twelfth centuries; Scripture and the Fathers were the technology and its received means of education, and of david bible these constituted the very text on which the pens of the monks were employed. And thus they would be becoming familiar with that kind of knowledge which was proper to fast food and obesity their vocation, at the same time that they were engaged in what was unequivocally a manual labour; and, in providing for the religious necessities of posterity, they were directly serving their own edification. And this again had been the practice of the monks from the first, and is included in the unity of their profession. St.

Chrysostom tells us that their ordinary occupation in his time was to sing and bible pray, to technology read Scripture, and to transcribe the sacred text. [Note 34] As the in the works of the early Fathers gradually became the literary property of the Church, these, too, became the The Philosophy subject-matter of the reading and the writing of the characteristics of david monks. For him who is going on to perfection, says St. Benedict in his Rule, there are the lessons of the Of Hemp Holy Fathers, which lead to of david bible its very summit. For what page, what passage of the Old or New Testament, coming as it does with divine authority, is not the very exactest rule of life? What book of the militarism in ww1 definition Holy Catholic Fathers does not resound with this one theme, how we may take the shortest course to characteristics of david bible our Creator?

But I need not here insist on this characteristic of monastic study, which, especially as regards the study of Scripture, has been treated so fully and so well by Mr. Maitland in his Essays on the Dark Ages. The sacred literature of the for esme with love monks went a step further. They would be naturally led by their continual perusal of the Scriptures and the Fathers to attempt to compare and adjust these two chief sources of of david bible, theological truth with each other. Hence resulted the peculiar character of the religious works of and obesity, what may be especially called the Benedictine period, the five centuries between St. Gregory and St. Anselm. Characteristics Of David In The Bible? The age of the Fathers was well nigh over; the for esme and squalor summary age of the Schoolmen was yet to come; the ecclesiastical writers of the intervening centuries employed themselves for characteristics bible the most part in arranging and digesting the patristical literature which had come down to them; they either strung together choice passages of the Fathers in caten , as a running illustration of the inspired text, or they formed them into a comment upon it.

The Summ Sententiarum of the same centuries were works of a similar character, while they also opened the way to the intellectual exercises of the scholastic period; for they were lessons or instructions arranged according to a scheme or system of doctrine, though they were still extracted from the works of the Fathers, and though the matter of those works suggested the divisions or details of the The Benefits Of Hemp Essay system. Moreover, such labours, as much as transcription itself, were Benedictine in their spirit, as well as in characteristics of david in the their subject-matter; for where there was nothing of original research, nothing of brilliant or imposing result, there would be nothing to dissipate, elate, or absorb the shadow lines mind, or to violate the simplicity and tranquillity proper to the monastic state. The same remark applies to a further literary employment in characteristics which the Benedictines allowed themselves, and fast which is the last I shall here mention, and that is the compilation of chronicles and annals, whether ecclesiastical, secular, or monastic. Characteristics Of David In The? So prominent a place does this take in their literature, that the author of the Asceticon , in the fourth volume of Dom Francois's Bibliothque des Ecrivains Bndictins, does not hesitate to point to the historical writings of his Order as constituting one of its chief claims, after its Biblical works, on the gratitude of in ww1, posterity. This, he says, is the praise especially due to the monks, that they have illustrated Holy Scripture, rescued history, sacred and profane, from the barbarism of the times and have handed down to posterity so many lives both of of david in the bible, Saints and of Bishops. [Note 35] Here again is definition, a fresh illustration of the Benedictine character; for first, those histories are of the most simple structure and most artless composition, and next, from the circumstance of their being commonly narratives of contemporary events, or compilations from a few definite sources of information which were at hand, they involved nothing of that laborious research and excitement of mind which is characteristics in the bible, demanded of the writer who has to record a complex course of history, extending over many centuries and countries, and who aims at the discovery of truth, in the midst of deficient, redundant, or conflicting testimony. Shadow Lines? The men who wrote history, says Mr. Dowling, speaking of the times in question, did not write by rule; they only put down what they had seen, what they had heard, what they knew.

Very many of them did what they did as a matter of moral duty. The result was something sui generis ; it was not even what we call history at all. It was, if I may so speak, something more, an actual admeasurement rather than a picture; or, if a picture, it was painted in a style which had all the characteristics of david in the minute accuracy and homely reality of the most domestic of the Flemish masters, not the lofty hyperbole of the Roman school, nor the obtrusive splendour, not less unnatural, of the Venetian. In a word, history, as a subject of criticism, is an shadow lines, art, a noble and beautiful art ; the historical writings of the middle ages is nature . [Note 36] Mention is made in in the this passage of the peculiarity in monastic historiography, that it proceeded from the impact on society motive of religious duty. This must always have been the case in of david bible consequence of the monastic profession; however, we have here, in addition to the presumption, actual evidence, and not on one occasion only, of the importance which the Benedictine Order attached to these notices and memorials of past times. In the year 1082, for instance, the Abbot Marquand of New Corbie, in Saxony, seems to have sent an order to all churches and monasteries subject to his rule to send to him severally the Of Hemp Versus Marijuana chronicles of their own places. Abbot Wichbold repeated the order sixty years later, and Abbot Thierry in 1337 addressed to the provosts and rectors subject to him a like injunction [Note 37].

Again, in 1481 the Abbot of Erfurdt addressed a letter to the Fathers of the Reform of Bursfeld, with the view of persuading them to take part in a similar work. If you were to agree among yourselves, he says, and make a statute to the effect that every Prelate is under an obligation to compose annals and histories of his monastery, what could be better, what more useful, what more interesting, whether for knowing or for reading? [Note 38] It is easier to conjecture what those literary works would be, in which a Benedictine would find himself at liberty to engage, than to pretend to point out those from which his vocation would debar him; yet Mabillon, equally with de Ranc, implied that all subjects do not come alike to him. Here we are recalled to the well-known controversy between these two celebrated men. The Abbot of characteristics of david bible, La Trappe, the fast food Cistercian de Ranc, writing to his own people, put forth some statements on the subject of the studies proper to a monk, which seemed to reflect upon the learned Maurists. Mabillon, one of them, replied, in a learned vindication of himself and of david bible his brethren. The Abbot had maintained that study of whatever kind should be kept in strict subordination to Of Hemp manual labour, and should not extend to any books except the Scriptures and the ascetic treatises of the Fathers. Mabillon, on of david in the, the other hand, without denying the necessity of manual labour, to which the Maurists themselves devoted an hour a day, seemed to allow to the Benedictine the free cultivation of the intellect, and an unlimited range of studies.

When they explained themselves, each combatant would appear to have asserted more than he could successfully maintain; yet after all there was a considerable difference of view between them, which could not be removed. The critical question was whether certain historical instances, which Mabillon urged in his favour, were to be considered exceptions or not to the rule of St. Benedict. I have certainly maintained in an earlier page of this Essay that such instances as Alcuin, Paschasius, or Lanfranc are no fair specimens of the Benedictine profession, and must not be taken to represent the monks generally. On Society? Lest, however, in characteristics of david saying this, I may be thought to be evading the of Learning testimony of history, as adduced by a writer, authoritative at bible once by his learning and as spokesman of the great Congregation of St.

Maur, I think it well to extract in my behalf some of his own admissions, which seem to me fully to bear out what I have been laying down above about the spirit and mission of his Order. Essay? For instance, he frankly concedes, or rather maintains, that the scholastic method of teaching theology and philosophy is foreign to the profession of a Benedictine, as such. Why, he asks, need we cultivate these sciences in the way of disputation? Why not as positive sciences, explaining questions and resolving doubts as they occur? Why is it not more than enough for in the religious pupils to be instructed in the more necessary principles of the food and obesity science, and thereby to of david make progress in the study of the Scriptures and the Fathers? What need of this perpetual syllogizing in form, and with love and squalor summary sharp answers to innumerable objections, as is the custom in characteristics of david bible the schools? Elsewhere he contrasts the mode of teaching a subject, as adopted by with summary the early Fathers, with that which the Schoolmen introduced.

The reasonings of the characteristics of david in the bible Fathers, he says, are so full, so elegantly set forth, as to be everywhere redolent of the sweetness and vigour of Of Hemp Essay, Christian eloquence, whereas scholastic theology is absolutely dry and sterile. Elsewhere he says that in the study of Holy Scripture consists the entire science of in the, monks. Militarism Definition? Again, he says of Moral Theology, As monks are rarely destined to the cure of souls, it does not seem necessary that they should give much time to the science of Morals. And though of course he does not forbid them the study of history, which we have seen to be so congenial to of david in the their calling, yet he observes of this study, when pursued to its full extent, It seems to cause much dissipation of mind, which is prejudicial to that inward compunction of heart, which is so especially fitting to the holy life of fast, a monk. Again, observing that the examination of ancient MSS. was the special occupation of the Maurists in characteristics in the his time, he says, They who give themselves to this study have the more merit with God, in that they have so little praise with men. Moreover, it obliges them to devote the more time to solitude, which ought to be their chief delight. I confess it is a most irksome and unpleasant labour; however, it gives much less trouble than transcription, which was the most useful work of our early monks. Elsewhere, speaking of the celebrated Maurist editions of the Fathers, he observes, Labour, such as this, which is undergone in silence and in quietness, is especially compatible with true tranquillity of mind and the mastery of the passions, provided we labour as a duty, and not for glory. [Note 39] I trust the reader will be so good as to keep in mind that I am all along speaking of the Benedictine life historically , and as I might speak of any other historical fact ; not venturing at all on what would be the extreme presumption of any quasi-doctrinal or magisterial exposition of it, which belongs to those only who have actually imbibed its tradition.

This being clearly understood, I think I may interpret Mabillon to mean that (be the range of studies lawful to a monk what it may) still, whatever literary work requires such continuous portions of for esme summary, time as not to admit of being suspended at a moment's notice, whatever is in the bible, so interesting that other duties seem dull and The Benefits Essay heavy after it, whatever so exhausts the power of attention as to incapacitate for attention to other subjects, whatever makes the mind gravitate towards the creature, is inconsistent with monastic simplicity. Accordingly, I should expect to find that controversy was uncongenial to the Benedictine, because it excited the mind, and metaphysical investigations, because they fatigued it; and, when I met such instances as St. Of David Bible? Paschasius or St. Anselm, I should deal with them as they came and as I could. Moreover, I should not look to a Benedictine for any elaborate and systematic work on the history of doctrine, or of heresy, or for any course of patristical theology, or any extended ecclesiastical history, or any philosophical disquisitions upon history, as implying a grasp of innumerable details, and The Benefits Versus the labour of using a mass of phenomena to the elucidation of a theory, or of bringing a range of multifarious reading to bear upon one point; and of david in the bible that, because such efforts of mind require either an energetic memory devoted to matters of time and place, or, instead of the tranquil and plodding study of one book after another, the shadow lines presence of a large library, and the distraction of a vast number of books handled all at once, not for perusal, but for in the bible reference. Perhaps I am open to the charge of refining, in attempting to illustrate the principle which I seem to myself to detect in the Benedictine tradition; but the principle itself which I have before me is clear enough, and is expressed in the advice which is given to us by technology on society a sacred writer: The words of the wise are as goads, and characteristics bible nails deeply fastened in; more than these, my son, require not : of making many books there is no end, and much study is an affliction of the flesh.

To test the truth of this view of the Benedictine mission, I cannot do better than appeal as a palmary instance to the Congregation of St. Maur, an intellectual school of Benedictines assuredly. Now what, in matter of fact, is the character of its works? It has no Malebranche, no Thomassin, no Morinus; it has no Bellarmine, no Suarez, no Petavius; it has no Tillemont or Fleury,#8212;all of technology impact on society, whom were more or less its contemporaries; but it has a Montfaucon, it has a Mabillon, it has a Sainte Marthe, a Coustant, a Sabbatier, a Martene,#8212;men of immense learning and literary experience; it has collators and publishers of characteristics in the bible, MSS. and of inscriptions, editors of the text and of the versions of for esme love and squalor, Holy Scripture, editors and biographers of the Fathers, antiquarians, annalists, paleographists,#8212;with scholarship indeed, and criticism, and theological knowledge, admirable as often as elicited by characteristics bible the particular subject on which they are directly employed, but conspicuously subordinate to it. If we turn to fast other contemporary Congregations of St. Benedict we are met by the same phenomenon. Their labours have been of the characteristics in the same modest, patient, tranquil kind.

The first name which occurs to me is that of Augustine Calmet, of the Congregation of St. Vanne. The Philosophy Essay? His works are biblical and antiquarian;#8212;a literal Comment on Scripture with Dissertations, a dictionary of the Bible, a Comment on the Benedictine Rule, a history of of david in the bible, Lorraine. I cast my eyes round the food and obesity Library, in which I happen at the moment to be writing; what Benedictine authors meet them? There is Ceillier, also of the Congregation of St. Vanne; Bertholet, of the same Congregation; Cardinal Aguirre of Salamanca; Cressy of Douai; Pez of Mlk on the Danube; Lumper of St.

George in the Hercynian Forest; Brockie of the Scotch College at Ratisbon; Reiner of the English Congregation. Their Works are of the characteristics of david in the bible same complexion,#8212;historical, antiquarian, biographical, patristical,#8212;calling to shadow lines mind the line of study traditionally pursued by a modern ecclesiastical congregation, the Italian Oratory. I do not speak of Ziegelbauer, Francois, and characteristics bible other Benedictines, who might be added, because they have confined themselves to Benedictine Antiquities, and every Order will write about itself. And so of the Benedictine Literature from first to last. Ziegelbauer, who has just been mentioned, has written four folio volumes on the subject. Now one of them is devoted to a catalogue and an account of Benedictine authors;#8212;of these, those on Scripture and shadow lines Positive Theology occupy 110 pages; those on history, 300; those on scholastic theology, 12; those on polemics, 12; those on moral theology, 6. This surprising contrast may be an exaggeration of the fact, because there is much of repetition and characteristics in the bible digression in his survey, and his biographical notices vary in length; but, after all allowances for such accidental unfairness in the list, the result must surely be considered as strikingly confirmatory of the account which I have been giving. But I must cut short an investigation which, though imperfect for the illustration of its subject, is already long for the patience of the reader. All human works are exposed to vicissitude and decay; and that the great Order of which I have been writing should in the lapse of thirteen centuries have furnished no instances of that general law is the less to be expected, in shadow lines proportion to the extent of its territory, the independence of its separate houses, and in the bible the local varieties of its constitution. To say that peace may engender selfishness, and humility become a cloak for indolence, and a country life may be an epicurean luxury, is only to enunciate the over-true maxim, that every virtue has a vice for in ww1 its first cousin. Usum non tollit abusus ; and the circumstance that Benedictine life admits of being corrupted into in the a mode of living which is not Benedictine, but its very contradictory, cannot surely be made an The Philosophy of Learning, argument against its meritorious innocence, its resolute cheerfulness, and its strenuous tranquillity.

We are told to characteristics of david in the be like little children; and where shall we find a more striking instance than is here afforded us of that union of simplicity and reverence, that clear perception of the unseen, yet recognition of the of Learning mysterious, which is the characteristic of the first years of human existence? To the monk heaven was next door; he formed no plans, he had no cares; the ravens of his father Benedict were ever at his side. He went forth in his youth to his work and to his labour until the evening of life; if he lived a day longer, he did a day's work more; whether he lived many days or few, he laboured on to the end of them. He had no wish to see further in advance of his journey than where he was to make his next stage. In The? He ploughed and sowed, he prayed, he meditated, he studied, he wrote, he taught, and then he died and went to heaven. He made his way into the labyrinthine forest, and he cleared just so much of space as his dwelling required, suffering the high solemn trees and the deep pathless thicket to close him in. And when he began to build, his architecture was suggested by the scene,#8212;not the scientific and masterly conception of a great whole with many parts, as the Gothic style in a later age, but plain and inartificial, the adaptation of received fashions to his own purpose, and an addition of chapel to chapel and a wayward growth of cloister, according to the occasion, with half-concealed shrines and militarism definition unexpected recesses, with paintings on the wall as by a second thought, with an of david bible, absence of display and a wild, irregular beauty, like that of the woods by which he was at first surrounded. And when he would employ his mind, he turned to Scripture, the The Benefits Marijuana book of of david in the bible, books, and fast and obesity there he found a special response to the peculiarities of his vocation; for there supernatural truths stand forth as the trees and flowers of Eden, in a divine disorder, as some awful intricate garden or paradise, which he enjoyed the more because he could not catalogue its wonders. Next he read the Holy Fathers, and there again he recognized a like ungrudging profusion and careless wealth of precept and of david in the bible of consolation. Food? And when he began to compose, still he did so after that mode which nature and revelation had taught him, avoiding curious knowledge, content with incidental ignorance, passing from subject to characteristics of david subject with little regard to system, or care to penetrate beyond his own homestead of thought,#8212;and writing, not with the sharp logic of disputants, or the subtle analysis of philosophers, but with the one aim of reflecting in his pages, as in a faithful mirror, the words and works of the Almighty, as they confronted him, whether in Scripture and the Fathers, or in that mighty maze of deeds and events, which men call the world's history, but which to him was a Providential Dispensation.

Here the beautiful character in life and death of St. Bede naturally occurs to the mind, who is, in his person and his writings, as truly the pattern of a Benedictine as is St. Of Learning? Thomas of a Dominican; and with an extract from the in the letter of Cuthbert to Cuthwin concerning his last hours, which, familiarly as it is known, is always pleasant to read, I break off my subject for of Learning the present. He was exceedingly oppressed, says Cuthbert of St. Bede, with shortness of breathing, though without pain, before Easter Day, for about a fortnight; but he rallied, and was full of joy and gladness, and gave thanks to Almighty God day and night and every hour, up to Ascension Day; and he gave us, his scholars, daily lectures, and passed the rest of the day in singing the Psalms, and the night too in joy and thanksgiving, except the scanty time which he gave to sleep. And as soon as he woke, he was busy in his customary way, and he never ceased with uplifted hands giving thanks to characteristics of david God.

I solemnly protest, never have I seen or heard of any one who was so diligent in thanksgiving. He sang that sentence of the blessed Apostle Paul, 'It is a dreadful thing to fall into the hands of the definition Living God,' and many other passages of Scripture, in which he warned us to shake off the slumber of the soul, by anticipating our last hour. And he sang some verses of characteristics of david in the bible, his own in with love and squalor English also, to characteristics the effect that no one could be too well prepared for his end, viz., in calling to mind, before he departs hence, what good or evil he has done, and how his judgment will lie. And he sang too the antiphons, of which one is, 'O King of shadow lines, Glory, Lord of Angels, who this day hast ascended in triumph above all the heavens, leave us not orphans, but send the promise of the Father upon us, the Spirit of Truth, alleluia.' And when he came to the words, 'leave us not orphans,' he burst into tears, and wept much. He said, too, 'God scourgeth every son whom He receiveth,' and, with St. Characteristics Of David In The Bible? Ambrose, 'I have not so lived as to be ashamed to have been among you, nor do I fear to die, for we have a good Lord.' In those days, besides our lectures and the Psalmody, he was engaged in two works; he was translating into English the and its on society Gospel of St. John, as far as the words, 'But what are these among so many,' and in the bible some extracts from the Not [Note 40] of Isidore. On the fast food Tuesday before Ascension Day he began to suffer still more in his breathing, and his feet were slightly swollen. However, he went through the day, dictating cheerfully, and characteristics of david he kept saying from time to time, 'Take down what I say quickly, for I know not how long I am to last, or whether my Maker will not take me soon.' He seemed to The Philosophy Essay us to be quite aware of the time of his going, and he passed that night in giving of of david bible, thanks, without sleeping. As soon as morning broke, that is on the Wednesday, he urged us to make haste with the writing which we had begun. We did so till nine o'clock, when we walked in procession with the Relics of the Saints, according to the usage of that day.

But one of our party said to Of Hemp Versus him, 'Dearest Master, one chapter is still wanting; can you bear our asking you about it?' He answered, 'I can bear it; take your pen and be ready, and characteristics write quickly.' At three o'clock he said to me, 'Run fast, and call our priests, that I may divide among them some little gifts which I have in my box.' When I had done this in much agitation, he spoke to each, urging and Essay entreating them all to make a point of saying Masses and prayers for him. Thus he passed the day in joy until the evening, when the above-named youth said to of david in the bible him, 'Dear Master, there is yet one sentence not written;' he answered, 'Write quickly.' Presently the youth said, 'Now it is written;' he replied, 'Good, thou hast said the truth; consummatum est ; take my head into thy hands, for it is very pleasant to me to sit facing my old praying place, and thus to call upon my Father.' And so, on militarism, the floor of his cell, he sang, 'Glory be to Father, Son, and Holy Ghost,' and, just as he had said 'Holy Ghost,' he breathed his last, and went to the realms above. It is remarkable that this flower of the Benedictine school died on the same day as St. Philip Neri,#8212;May 26; Bede on Ascension Day, and Philip on the early morning after the feast of Corpus Christi. It was fitting that two saints should go to heaven together, whose mode of going thither was the same; both of of david bible, them singing, praying, working, and guiding others, in joy and and its on society exultation, till their very last hour. 1. Owing to the temporary suspension of the Atlantis , the article on the Dominican Order was not written. 2. Helyot, Hist. Mon.

Ziegelbauer, Litt. Hist. Soame's Mosheim, vol. Characteristics Of David In The Bible? ii., p. 26. Brockie. Prf. ad Regul. Buckingham's Bible in the Middle Ages, p. 81, etc., etc. The Philosophy Of Learning Essay? 3. Butler, June 22. 4. Thomassin, Disc.

Eccl., t. i., p. 705. Calmet, Reg. Ben., t. ii., p. Characteristics In The? 25. Mabillon, Acta Sc. iv., p. 1, prf., p. xxx. Annal., t. i., prf., 19. 6. Mabillon, Act Benedict., t. iv., p. 1, p. xxxvii.

7. History of for esme with love summary, Civilization, vol. ii., p. 65, Bohn; and so Ampre. Characteristics? 10. Dial., i. 1. Vid . Essays, vol. ii., p. 284. Me ver primm dulces ante omnia Mus #8230; Accipiant, c#339;lique vias et sidera monstrent , etc., etc. Sin, has ne possim natur accedere partes, Frigidus obstiterit circm prcordia sanguis, Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus amnes , etc. Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas , etc. Fortunatus et ille , Deos qui novit agrestes, etc. 12. Voyage Littraire. Vid . also Calmet, Lorraine, t. i., p. 1043. Moreri, art.

S. Hubert. Gallia Christ., t. iii. p. Of Hemp Marijuana Essay? 966. Mabillon, Annal. Characteristics Of David? Bened., t. ii., pp. 16, 441, 606. Shadow Lines? Bucherii, Gest. Tungr. etc., t. i., p. 153. Helyot, Ordres Mon., t. vi., p. 296. 13. Vol. i., p. 237, etc. 14.

Hallam, Middle Ages, vol. Characteristics Bible? iii., p. 436. Forsyth, Antiqu., vol. i., pp. 37, 44, 179. Impact? Turner, Anglo-Sax., vol. ii., p. 167. Murdoch's Mosheim, vol. ii., p. 21, etc. Guizot, Hist. Civil., vol. ii., p. 75, Bohn.

15. Neander, Memorials, pp. Characteristics Of David Bible? 436, 451, 473, Bohn. Rader, Bavaria Sacra. Of Hemp Marijuana Essay? Calles, Arm. Germ., t. i., pp. Characteristics In The Bible? 200, 276, 317, 318. Guizot, Civil., vol. ii., p 134. Whitaker's Cornwall, vol. ii., p. 196. Fosbroke, Antiq. p. 16. 16.

Meyrick's Willibald, p. For Esme With Love And Squalor Summary? 68. Bavaria Sacra, p.119. Petri, Suevia Eccles., p. 96. Characteristics In The? Calles Ann. Technology Impact? Germ., t. i., p. 191. 17. Butler's Lives, Aug. In The Bible? 20. And Its? 18. Apud. Mabillon Act. Bened. 19. Thomass. Disc. Characteristics Of David In The? Eccl. t. iii., p. 513. 20. P. 93. Shadow Lines? The passage seems taken from Bede. 21. Bede, Hist. Eccles., i. 26. William of Malmesb. Ponfic. Angl. Of David In The Bible? 23. Militarism In Ww1? Eccl. Hist., vol. vii., p. 331, Bohn. 24. Duchesne, Script. North., p. 236. 25. Turner, Middle Ages, vol. v., p. 89. 27. Vid . Turner, Anglo-Saxons, vol. iii., p. 468. 28. Pallad, c. 39.

Cassian, Inst., iv., 12. Calmet, Reg., t. ii., p. 150. Characteristics Of David In The Bible? Thomassin, Disc. Eccl., t. iii., p. 505. Ziegelbaum, Hist. Litt. Bened., t. ii., p. Of Learning Essay? 510. 29. Annal. Camald., t. vii., p. 300: vid . other instances in Maitland's Dark Ages, and in the Buckingham's Bible in the Middle Ages, who, however, is shadow lines, deficient in references. 30.

Guizot's Hist. Civil., vol. ii., p. 236, Bohn. 32. Vid , also Whitaker's Cornwall, vol. i., p. 167, and the whole chapter. 33. Characteristics In The Bible? Meehan's Marchese, p. xxiv. 34. Hist. Litter. de St. Maur. 1770, p. 21.

35. P. 379. Printing, another tranquil work, was introduced into for esme love summary Italy by the Benedictines of Subiaco. Vid . Characteristics Of David In The Bible? Dr. Ullathorne's Pilgrimage. 36. Shadow Lines? Introd. Eccles. Of David? Hist., p. 56. 37. Ziegelbaur, t. ii., p. 401.

38. Ibid ., t. i., p. 424. For lists of monastic histories, vid . Mr. Dowling, Introd. E. H., p. The Benefits Of Hemp Marijuana Essay? 260; the Asceticon as above, 26. Ziegelbaur, t. Characteristics Bible? ii., p. 398. Balmez., Prot. and Cath., p. 195. 39. Stud.

Monast., ed. 1732; t. Of Hemp Versus Essay? i., pp. 52, 135; t. ii., p. 2; t. i., pp 145, 147, 191, 64. 40. The Bollandists have not been able to determine which of St. Isidore's works is characteristics of david bible, here intended. Not means Musical Notes, according to and obesity Du Cange. According to Leb#339;uf in Ampre, Hist. Bible? Litter. t. Technology Impact On Society? iii., p. 253, the characteristics bible word means penmanship.

Newman Reader #151; Works of in ww1 definition, John Henry Newman. Copyright 2007 by characteristics of david bible The National Institute for Newman Studies. All rights reserved .

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Security in Longhorn: Focus on Least Privilege. 2003 Professional Developers Conference (PDC) Longhorn preview build. Summary: Longhorn promises to characteristics of david in the bible, be a great platform for least-privilege applications. Get started today by writing managed code, first of technology and its all. When building desktop applications, make them LUA-compliant (and use the Windows Application Verifier to help check your work). (11 printed pages) I have long been an advocate of running with least privilege.

Many who know me have heard my rant that developers should quit running with administrative privileges while they are developing code, if only to help encourage more applications to be written to run in least-privilege environments. So I was very happy to hear at the 2003 Microsoft Professional Developers Conference (PDC) that one of the bible main goals of the next version of the Windows operating system, code-named Longhorn, is to make it easier for users to of Learning Essay, run with least privilege. When you buy a copy of Microsoft Windows XP Professional at bible your local software shop and install it on of Learning Essay a PC, the setup wizard creates accounts for you and anyone else who will use the computer. After Windows XP boots, it displays a pretty welcome screen that shows each user's name and characteristics in the bible allows them to log in. Each of these users is by default an administrator of the machine. Why? Because the user experience would be poor if it weren't this way. Users expect to be able to and obesity, install software on their machines, but you can't install 90 percent of today's software unless you're an administrator. Users expect software to characteristics in the, run without crashing, but 70 percent of Of Hemp software won't run properly unless the user is an of david bible, administrator, and that's an optimistic number.

Sadly, a large number of these applications fail in a non-administrative environment simply because they make poor choices about where to save application state. The Program Files directory is not intended as a place for storing state. It's a place for storing programsexecutable files. The place to store application state is called the user profile , and for storing shared user state, the The Philosophy Essay All Users profile suffices quite nicely. The Windows Logo Program guidelines explain this, but the vast majority of characteristics in the bible Windows software today was developed without consideration for Windows Logo guidelines.

But why, you might ask, should users want to run as non-administrators, especially home users? Well, if it were actually easy to do, the with and squalor home user would reap loads of benefits. Malware (a virus, worm, or other malicious code) loves having administrative privileges. Surfing the Web or reading e-mail as an characteristics of david in the bible, administrator is just plain dangerous these days. Technology Impact On Society? What about your kids? Wouldn't it be nice to characteristics of david in the, allow them to The Philosophy Essay, install and play games on your home computer knowing that they won't accidentally break something, install spyware, or remove the content rating limitations you've imposed? Think about it this way: running as an characteristics of david in the bible, administrator effectively turns off most of the security protections provided by Windows. Home and corporate users alike shouldn't be turning off these protections, especially when connected to for esme love summary, the Internet, which has become a rather dangerous neighborhood. Getting users and the programs they run to live happily in characteristics of david in the bible a least-privilege environment is going to significantly increase the security of the Windows platform.

Application and militarism in ww1 definition Deployment Manifests. One important feature that Longhorn introduces is the notion of characteristics application and deployment manifests. The former allows application developers to indicate the permissions their application requires to function properly, and the latter allows administrators to specify how much trust they place in the application. Marijuana? There's much more than this to these manifests, but I want to of david in the bible, point out that they are available for use by both managed and unmanaged applications alike, and shadow lines a large reason for their existence is to help users run applications with the characteristics of david bible least possible privilege. To learn more about these manifests, take a look at Chapter 1 of Brent Rector's book Introducing Longhorn for Developers. LUA, or Least-Privilege User Account , is an acronym I'm sure you'll see repeated over and over in Microsoft presentations from now on. Shadow Lines? The PDC 2003 presenters often pronounced the acronym as looah.

It's nothing fancy, not even anything really new. LUA refers to the practice of characteristics in the bible using non-privilege user accounts, both for interactive users and for shadow lines services. The Longhorn team wants to of david, simplify security. They believe that there should be two levels of access to the system: least privilege, and administrative. For Esme With Love And Squalor? They've even deprecated the Power Users group (referred to characteristics in the, in some circles as admin-lite) in Longhorn. With the Power Users group gone, application developers really need to shadow lines, make a choice. They need to decide which of the two levels of privilege (LUA or administrative) their application needs for Longhorn. If the characteristics application doesn't need administrative privileges, then it should be carefully written to work under a least-privilege account. That means testing (and, one hopes, even writing the code) using normal user accounts.

For example, a LUA application should write data files in a safe place, such as the user profile, as opposed to the Program Files directory tree. But what happens to applications that aren't rewritten for Longhorn? What if those applications don't run well under least-privilege accounts even on Windows XP? A Longhorn feature called Application Impact Management (AIM) might be able to help those apps run under LUA anyway, as you'll see shortly. If you think of an administrative account having high access, and a normal user account having low access, a Power User account can be said to shadow lines, have medium access. The Power Users group is allowed to read and write parts of the file system and registry that are normally off-limits to least-privilege accounts (that is, normal user accounts that don't hold membership in privileged groups such as Administrators or Power Users). Many people who tried running as normal users found that so much software failed that they decided to add their accounts to the Power Users group, which fixed nearly all the problems they were having.

But they weren't truly running with least privilege anymore. For example, on Windows XP, any malware that runs with this medium level of privilege will be allowed to compromise other applications stored in the Program Files directory, replace trusted COM components with Trojans, and so on. The next time the user runs under her administrative account on such a compromised machine, you can be sure that the malware will run as well through a previously installed Trojan. Therefore you are not getting any real protection running as a Power User. AIM: Application Impact Management.

The Longhorn team believes that running with least privilege is important. They want that pretty welcome screen to contain a list of user accounts that primarily consists of least-privilege accounts. But they also have their feet grounded in reality. Just as lots of major software today completely ignores the Windows Logo Program, much major software in the Longhorn timeframe may ignore the characteristics in the LUA initiative as well. Uninformed application developers will continue to write software that reads and writes data files from the Program Files directory tree. They will also continue to The Philosophy of Learning Essay, write registry data to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE instead of HKEY_CURRENT_USER. The former is off limits for of david writing by normal users, so the latter is Of Hemp Versus preferable for storing application settings, if the registry must be used at characteristics in the bible all. When Windows XP can detect that an application needs more privilege (this is rare, but happens occasionally with setup programs), it will inform the non-privileged user that the application requires administrative privileges to and obesity, run, conveniently popping up a dialog to collect the user name and password of an admin account. The program then runs under the specified account. But this doesn't always work because many applications aren't written to be installed under one account and used under another. Longhorn takes a completely different approach.

Instead of encouraging the user to elevate privileges so the application can function properly, Longhorn prefers to run the application under LUA. But what happens when the application attempts to write to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE or the Program Files directory tree? Longhorn gives the application its own virtualized view of the resource it's attempting to change, using a copy-on-write strategy. When the characteristics of david in the application attempts to write to a file in the Program Files directory, Longhorn will give the application its own private copy of the file and shadow lines it can party on. In this way, any malware that gets loose in an AIM scenario might try to overwrite a commonly used executable under the Program Files directory tree, perhaps WINWORD.EXE. But what it will end up overwriting is of david a private copy that only the malware can see. And Obesity? The version of WINWORD.EXE the user sees will still be the original, untainted version. Don't rely on AIM to save you. Write your application to run under LUA from day one. Even if every application were to be fixed in in the bible the Longhorn timeframe to run under LUA, there will still be applications that really do require administrative privileges. They include utilities such as backup software, hard drive defragmentation and repartitioning software, enterprise management software, and the list goes on.

So at some point the user will need to The Benefits Marijuana, use an administrative account to get certain work done. Of David? And let's face it, a lot of Of Hemp Marijuana Essay folks will ignore the advice to create LUA accounts and simply run as administrators all the time. The Longhorn team has devised a neat scheme to help protect you when you're running under an administrative account. Of David Bible? It's a feature called Protected Administrator , and when it's turned on, you can always run under an for esme, administrative account and feel reasonably safe, because the bible vast majority of applications that you run will be run with a special restricted token, a token similar to what you'd have in militarism in ww1 a LUA scenario. Only an application that you have blessed, or that your company has deployed and designated as trusted, will run with your full administrative token. One way to designate an characteristics, application as trusted is by signing its deployment manifest. Why is this useful? Let me give you an example. A user who normally runs as an administrator opens her Longhorn e-mail client and Essay starts browsing e-mail. She comes across a piece of mail that came from characteristics, someone she knows, and The Benefits Of Hemp Marijuana Essay opens an attachment.

Little does she know that her friend was recently infected by an e-mail worm, and characteristics this message contains malware. When the malware runs, it finds that it has very little privilege on fast the system. It can't modify anything in the Program Files directory tree. Characteristics Of David In The Bible? It can't change COM object registrations under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE. This isn't to say it can't do anything bad, but the shadow lines situation is a heck of a lot better than it would have been if the malware found itself running with administrative privileges. But wait, didn't I say the user was running as an administrator when she ran the e-mail application? Yes, that was in characteristics of david in the fact the case. But the e-mail application was not designated as a blessed admin app; in fact it was written as a LUA application. Thus it received a restricted token, and militarism in ww1 definition so did the malware as a result. This is the whole point of least privilege. Characteristics Of David? If you lose control of the system (perhaps because you accidentally ran some evil software, or perhaps because you just clicked the wrong menu item), the damage will be constrained or perhaps completely prevented.

Some security conscious administrators already implement this policy today. Of Hemp Versus? I'm one of them. I have two accounts, a normal one and characteristics an administrative one. I login as a normal user and occasionally switch to food, my administrative account when I need to administer my system in some way, for instance to add a virtual directory on my machine, create a database in Microsoft SQL Server, and so on. Of David In The Bible? (In case you were wondering, I end up spending about militarism definition 95 percent of my time running as a normal user, even when developing software.) The Longhorn team has formalized this approach, an idea often called right privilege at the right time in the Protected Administrator (PA for characteristics of david in the bible short) feature. This means I can just run as an The Philosophy Essay, admin all the time but still be running with least privilege. No more switching back and forth, juggling two user profiles, and so on. If this sounds like a neat idea, and you want to help make it possible for people to of david, actually use this feature, then you are going to need to get serious about writing applications that run with least privilege. With Summary? Because if this feature is enabled, an application that requires more privilege than it really needs will break unnecessarily even if an administrator runs it, unless it's been designated as a trusted admin application. Characteristics Of David Bible? Of course, AIM might come to your rescue, but you shouldn't rely on it, because Microsoft is estimating that 20 percent of applications probably won't be able to be made LUA compatible through AIM. Shadow Lines? If you happen to characteristics of david, fall in this 20 percent, your application will fail to run. If this happens enough, nobody will use the Protected Admin feature, and that would be a very sad thing indeed.

Other benefits will emerge as more applications are written that run with least privilege. For example, corporations will finally be able to lock down their workstations, allowing employees to technology and its impact, run under least-privilege accounts. This will significantly simplify administration and reduce costs. Now more than ever it's important to be writing applications that run with least privilege. Characteristics Bible? You can make a difference on this platform.

One of the messages from PDC 2003 was that managed applications are the future. Shadow Lines? By writing managed code, you can take advantage of the latest revolution in security on the Windows platform: security via code identity. The evidence-based security system provided by the common language runtime (CLR) and often referred to as CAS, or code access security, allows the CLR to place extra restrictions on code based on where it came from, who signed it, and so on. This added dimension of security opens up new avenues for software distribution. Of David In The? By running code in a secure sandbox, clients can now confidently run code downloaded from a central server, which makes features such no touch and click once deployment feasible, further reducing administration costs. And who wouldn't prefer a real Windows application running on their machine to for esme with summary, a browser-based application, if the of david in the bible deployment and security risks were similar? In Longhorn, each managed application can indicate the specific permissions it needs in order to function via the application manifest. Code listing 1 shows an example manifest generated when I built a default wizard-generated Longhorn Application project. Marijuana Essay? Note the TrustInfo section and the set of permissions expressed there.

These are the permissions that the application needs to run. Code Listing 1. An application manifest. A LUA-compliant managed application will always include a section like this, and bible the trust manager in Longhorn will use this information to determine whether to allow the militarism definition application to be installed on characteristics in the the machine. If the application is coded carefully, it might be able to run with such low privilege that the trust manager can assign it a score of no risk, and the application can be installed immediately and run without user intervention. However, if the application scores a more dangerous risk rating based on the permissions it requests, the user will be prompted with a dialog describing the potential dangers the application poses. And Obesity? The user can then choose whether to allow the application to characteristics, be installed and on society run.

Stating your intentions up front in in the bible the manifest is a good idea, because if you don't, the for esme love summary trust manager can only assume the characteristics bible worst about your application, and the risk rating expressed to the user will seem all the more sinister. With And Squalor? So it's a really good idea to express the permissions you need in your manifest. Don't skip this step. In a study mentioned at characteristics PDC 2003, Microsoft found that 40 percent of users always click No when presented with security dialogs such as ActiveX control download warnings. It's clear that if you want to distribute your software to users over militarism, the Internet, you're going to be hoping for a risk rating of no risk from the trust manager in Longhorn, so the user won't be prompted before installing and running your application. So you might be wondering whether there is a documented set of of david bible permissions that will always be scored no risk. It turns out shadow lines, that there is such a definition, and it's known as the SEE permission set . You may have heard this referred to at PDC 2003 as SEE (Secure Execution Environment), but most people find that term rather confusing, so I'm going to characteristics in the, simply call this the no-risk permission set . Longhorn will ship with a special permission set that will always score no risk with the default trust manager in Longhorn.

If you write an application whose permission requirements fall entirely within the no-risk permission set, it can be installed and run without showing any trust warnings at all. Code that is The Philosophy Essay granted permissions only within this set (at least as it's defined by Microsoft initially) should not be able to bible, harm your machine intentionally or accidentally. So if you want your application to install and shadow lines run without the in the user being prompted with a scary-looking dialog, you'll want to restrict yourself to activities that are allowed by this permission set. You should know that the Longhorn team is in ww1 definition considering making this permission set configurable by characteristics of david in the bible administrators, so what's considered no risk at one site might be different at another. But for the vast majority of Longhorn installations, the no-risk permission set will be the fast default one that ships with the operating system.

What does it look like? Have another look at the manifest in Code Listing 1. Note the in the ID given to the PermissionSet defined in the TrustInfo section, SeeDefinition. Here is what the no-risk permission set looks like for the PDC 2003 preview build: Unrestricted FileDialogPermission allows you to read or write files of the user's choosing via the food and obesity standard OpenFileDialog and SaveFileDialog classes, but you are not allowed to learn anything about the structure of the user's file system, including the name of the file the user chose. The IsolatedStoragePermission allows an assembly to read and of david write up to 5 megabytes of user-specific state on shadow lines the user's hard drive without having to prompt her with a file dialog. The SecurityPermission allows your code to execute in the first place. The UIPermission allows you to draw on in the the screen, but only in your own windows, and grants you limited access to the clipboard (you can't read its contents programmatically, but the user can paste from the clipboard into your controls). Militarism In Ww1? PrintingPermission allows you to print, but only if you do it through the print dialog. Your code can't silently start print jobs without the user knowing you're doing it. The Avalon-specific permission allows your code to create full screen windows as long as they have a border that's controlled by the operating system (so you can't spoof the login screen, for example).

Keep in characteristics of david in the bible mind that this definition will almost certainly change over militarism definition, time; it may even change before the characteristics of david bible Longhorn beta ships. Food And Obesity? So take my description here with a grain of salt. Hopefully this article will help motivate you to start looking at some of the least-privilege features in characteristics in the bible the .NET Framework such as isolated storage and common dialogs, because the final definition of the no-risk permission set will very likely require you to use these features to avoid a trust dialog. Defining a no-risk permission set is not a trivial task. The Longhorn team knows that if its definition is too restrictive, not enough applications will be able to use it. Shadow Lines? But if it's too permissive, malware will definitely misuse it. One hopes that the team can find the sweet spot. Characteristics Bible? Figure 1 is a diagram that shows the range of privilege for fast Longhorn applications, from bible, a blessed admin application all the way down to applications designed to food and obesity, run with the SEE permission set.

Figure 1. Types of applications. Building least-privilege applications has never been trivial. You need to have guidelines and characteristics in the tools to help. We saw some examples of these tools at PDC 2003, the first of which is Visual Studio 2005 (code-named Whidbey in the PDC 2003 timeframe). This new development environment provides a number of features that help make it easier to target a least-privilege environment. For example, you can choose a permission set you'd like enforced when you debug your application. Technology On Society? A great place to start for Longhorn applications would be the SEE permission set. For existing applications, your best bet is to target the Internet permission set, which is characteristics in the bible pretty close to how the SEE is for esme defined today.

Once you start debugging with reduced permissions, you're certain to run into characteristics some unexpected SecurityExceptions . Figure 2 shows a classic example where the Marijuana Essay developer uses a file dialog to prompt the user for a filename, and characteristics of david bible then tries to read the filename that was given. If you're granted FileDialogPermission (as you are in the SEE permission set), that allows you to prompt the user for militarism a file, but you specifically are disallowed from characteristics of david, seeing the filename the user picked. Instead, you must call a method ( OpenFile ) to open a stream that you can then use to read from the file. Visual Studio 2005 provides advice to help the shadow lines developer find the correct way to use the OpenFileDialog class to characteristics of david bible, avoid the security exception. Figure 2. Better tool support. Another useful tool that was announced at and its PDC 2003 is called PermCalc. This is a command line tool that evaluates an characteristics of david in the bible, assembly and shadow lines determines via heuristics the permissions it needs to run.

This feature is also planned for inclusion in Visual Studio 2005. This is a great way to characteristics, target least-privilege environments. A similar tool that exists today is called the Windows Application Verifier, part of the Windows Application Compatibility Toolkit. Militarism In Ww1 Definition? This tool can help you detect when your application violates rules such as writing to characteristics of david, protected parts of the file system or registry. Longhorn promises to be a great platform for least-privilege applications. Get started today by The Benefits Of Hemp Essay writing managed code, first of of david bible all.

When building desktop applications, make them LUA compliant (and use the Windows Application Verifier to help check your work). Militarism? If you can, target the Internet permission set for now, and you'll likely fit right into the SEE when Longhorn ships.

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3 setbacks essay Until last year, among other schools, Tuck, Ross, HAAS, Wharton, Harvard and INSEAD had required their applicants to share their failure/ setback stories. In The Bible! INSEAD and Of Hemp, Harvard have made it mandatory this year as well; Wharton has skipped failure question this year, while Tuck, Ross, and HAAS are still waiting to release their application questions. So what is the purpose behind Failure/ Adversity/Mistake question? The Purpose of Failure/ Mistake Question: Through adversity/ setback/failure question Business Schools want to know how their prospective candidates would deal with the challenges of life and of david bible, grow from them. The setback question may turn out to be a greater challenge for applicants who have bunch of accomplishments to boast of but cant think of failures.

So what you need to of Learning do is lot of of david bible, introspection and look for experiences when you could not achieve what you had deserved or expected. Then reflect on how that experience helped you grow as a human being and as a professional. Choosing your failure story: While choosing your setbacks / failure story, keep in The Philosophy mind that you may also discuss challenges which were not necessarily of your doing. For example, getting laid off from your company because of crumbling economy is your setback, not your fault. In The Bible! You may also choose an experience when the militarism definition, success seemed to be guaranteed, but things didnt work, and you had to bible face failure despite sincere efforts. Still, you grew from the experience and it taught you important lessons which you later used to deal with similar situations in your professional/ personal life.

However, if the essay prompt is and squalor summary, specific about your mistake, then obviously the ownership is completely yours. Of David In The! In either case, the most important part of your story should be to explain how the experience impacted you, what you learned from it, and how you applied that lesson later for self-improvement. Shadow Lines! Describe a situation taken from school, business, civil or military life, where you did not meet your personal objectives, and discuss briefly the effect . Failure/mistake questions by different schools: Since different schools ask failure/ mistake question in different ways, your will need to in the compose your responses accordingly. Fast Food And Obesity! For example, last year Harvard wanted you to share three setback stories, but this year, they want you to characteristics of david in the bible tell them something you wish you had done better. It is still a setback story, but with an obvious difference. Impact On Society! The setbacks you faced may not have been necessarily your faults. But now the characteristics in the bible, essay prompt is clearly asking about your failure/ mistake which you could have handled in a more mature manner. Definition! In either case, you need to look inward for an experience when you could not achieve what you had expected of characteristics of david in the, yourself. Similarly, INSEAD requires you to describe a situation taken from food and obesity, school, business, civil or military life, where you did not meet your personal objectives, which is also about not being able to characteristics of david in the bible meet your own personal standards.

Therefore, when choosing your setback/ failure story, you should make sure to discuss an experience when you later felt that things could have been better if you had dealt with the The Philosophy of Learning Essay, situation differently. Do not hesitate in sharing your weakness (but do not be over critical) Remember, Business Schools do not expect you to characteristics be a mistake free individual, but they do expect you to grow from your experience, learn valuable lessons and apply them for self-improvement. Shadow Lines! What to Avoid? Never start your essay with I wish I had done X better, because you do not want to reveal the suspense in the first sentence itself. Hook the reader by an engaging opening sentence in the form of a dialogue or a description or a quote and gradually unfold your story holding the Ad Coms interest until the end. The Structure of Failure/ Mistake essay : Your setback/ failure essay should have the in the, following four components: Within two weeks volunteering for the responsibility, I realized the challenges ahead of The Philosophy of Learning Essay, me. Characteristics Of David In The! Most of the technology and its on society, teams were reluctant to work separately on productivity improvement, in addition to their regular client-deliverables. My predecessor warned me of this and characteristics bible, advised me to report to management beforehand in such cases.

2. The action: ( explain how you handled it?) I ignored my predecessors advice because I did not want to antagonize the Marijuana, teams . I was receiving multiple follow-up e-mails demanding explanation for characteristics of david in the bible, marginal productivity improvement. But instead of sharing the defaulting teams names, I took the ownership of the failure on shadow lines myself and kept on promising the management that I would work hard with the teams to improve the situation. Characteristics Of David Bible! 3. The outcome/result: (explain what happened in the end and how it affected you?) Contrary to my expectations, things almost got out of control, and The Benefits Of Hemp Marijuana, then I decided to escalate against these teams. But it was too late. By that time, the Management had already lost faith in me. In a meeting, the characteristics of david in the bible, Senior Vice President of my company not only detailed my failures and its impacts on love and squalor client engagements, but also asked me whether I wished to continue in PIC role.

Humiliated, I offered to resign from the role I had voluntarily undertaken five months back. 4. T he significance/ effect : (explain how that failure taught you important lessons that you later used for self-improvement). This experience was a huge blow to my self-confidence but it taught me two great lessons: being assertive when required and allocating responsibilities to all. Last year, a similar situation occurred, and despite clear briefing of motives, many teams again showed reluctance to follow the required measures. But this time, I did not hesitate to warn the management who took proactive steps to steer the errant teams into place.

Thus, the single setback/failure that I faced in characteristics my professional life taught me valuable team- working skills which I am now practicing successfully.

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Essay On Family Values Essays and Research Papers. Family Values There are so many various types of people with different ethnic backgrounds, culture and manner of living . Characteristics! that are the cause of distinct values in The Philosophy, a family . These families have poor, mediocre or virtuous family values , however what one may consider as a mediocre family value may seem poor to of david in the bible, someone else and vice-versa. These family values differ from family to with and squalor summary, family world-wide. Characteristics In The Bible! The most significant values are family unity, honesty and education. Family unity, is a family. Education , Family , Father 895 Words | 3 Pages.

What is a family ? Since every family is different, who is to The Philosophy, say one family is characteristics of david in the bible, right or wrong from another. The . easiest way most people describe a family is the father, mother and children. But as time has changed, the militarism in ww1, so called traditional family has also. Gay Marriage is characteristics of david bible, not traditional, and is something in huge debate in times we live in; families now have two fathers or two mothers parenting children the The Benefits Of Hemp Essay, same way as heterosexual parents . Of David Bible! Is this so morally wrong? Families change as history. Extended family , Family , Family values 1307 Words | 3 Pages. Family Values Family Values The concept of family as the client has become an . integral part of nursing.

Research has shown that personal illness affects the family unit and fast food, not just the individual, plus, effectiveness of characteristics of david in the bible health care is improved when emphasis is placed on family (Harmon Hansen, 2001). The Benefits Versus Marijuana Essay! Nursing theorists have touched on family nursing; however, there is no complete theoretical framework for family nursing. Friedman, Bowden Jones (2003) address the lack of a complete family nursing. Family , Family therapy , Health 1088 Words | 3 Pages. Family Values Jeananne M. Bowers August 17, 2013 HSM/240 Public Policy Development in Human Services Lori Moon . Characteristics Bible! Family Values In todays society we are seeing more children disrespecting their parents rules and societys rules. This is creating a very unruly surrounding in society as a whole.

Technology and the need to have it all have created a society full of families that will do what they want, when they want, and how they want. Parents are forgetting the traditional and for esme love and squalor, practical. 2006 singles , Family , Respect 2160 Words | 6 Pages. ? Family Values Family Values The author will explain in this paper the importance of . family supporting patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) who are receiving in-center hemodialysis. Characteristics In The Bible! Describing how a family can work as a system in militarism in ww1, promoting the health of its members. Recognizing the of david in the bible, concept of family most used in the in-center dialysis unit along with identifying if it is the most helpful concept for considering family in with love and squalor, nursing practice. Finally, relating a nursing theory to. Dialysis , Health , Health care 975 Words | 4 Pages. ? Family Values September 10, 2012 Family Values Family nursing is of david in the, . still seen as a fairly new specialty area in The Benefits Versus Essay, nursing. There has been discussion to of david, define what family nursing is and food and obesity, what role family and nursing play in this matter. The consensus is that all definitions have as core concepts the notion of providing nursing care to characteristics of david in the, families and family members (Braun Foster, 2011).

Nurses have realized what an and obesity important role that families can play in promoting positive health. Family , Florence Nightingale , Health 973 Words | 3 Pages. Family Values Throughout my life I have been influenced and taught lots of things by many people. My biggest influences . were and still are my parents. I personally feel that a childs parents are the most important people in their life, because they are who influence you starting at characteristics in the birth. I have always said my parents are my foundation and The Benefits Of Hemp, the older I get the more I believe it and appreciate them for being who they are. I consider myself lucky; I was raised in a loving home with. Ethnic group , Family , High school 1473 Words | 4 Pages.

Real Family Values What are some things that you could never live without? You might say food, water, shelter, or clothing. . Other, less conventional, answers might include a cell phone, lip gloss, or Starbuck's coffee. However, according to psychologist Abraham H. Maslow, all people need belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization. Carol Shields sustained that family values include qualities such as nurturing caring, and emotional support in her essay entitled Family Is One of the Few. Abraham Maslow , Emotion , Family 785 Words | 3 Pages. Allison MacDonald HNC Social Care Social Care Theory For Practice Unit No-DH3K34 Outcome 1 Values Essay My underlying theory is . Characteristics In The! that everyone matters a lot, (Kohler, 2000). In this essay I am going to discuss social care values and my own personal value base.

We live our lives with values and principles and these differ depending on Essay individual backgrounds i.e. culture, gender, age and class. Some of the values I live my life by characteristics in the bible are respect, honesty, being non-judgemental, hard working and grateful. Anthony Giddens , Discrimination , Human rights 1279 Words | 3 Pages. Family Values NUR/542 Family systems nursing, while considered a relatively new specialty has, in reality been . The Benefits Versus! around for a long time. The involvement of the family in caring for an ill family member has long been recognized as therapeutic. True, the primary focus of nursing seems concentrated on the patient, but the of david in the, family and the home are where health is learned, lived, and experienced along with being the niche where multiple members encounter and respond to disease and illness across. Family , Health , Health care 1377 Words | 4 Pages. 1 Values Essay Word Count 1510 Within this essay I would like to show my knowledge and . understanding of shadow lines values in social care and how my own personal values link in with them. Characteristics Of David! I will also try and explain how social care values and personal values may conflict within a care setting. Then highlighting the importance of confidentiality, anti discriminatory practice and Of Hemp Essay, legislation.

Values are highly personal concepts that guide peoples reactions to their world. Characteristics In The! A value is a. Data Protection Act 1998 , Discrimination , International Federation of Social Workers 1681 Words | 5 Pages. ? Family Values University of Phoenix Dynamics of Family Systems NUR/542 Dr. Theresa Goodman . Shadow Lines! December 02, 2013 Family Values Although the importance of family in of david in the, the health of todays society has been mentioned by many health care professionals, only since the shadow lines, mid-1990s has the characteristics of david in the, true significance of family in the well-being of shadow lines humanity been fully recognized (Friedman, Bowden, Jones, 2003). There has been little attentionpaid to of david bible, the family as an object of systematic study. Family , Health , Health care 1073 Words | 4 Pages. Family Values Richard Rodriguez Analysis. 2012 Family Values Because of the opposing cultures and ideas that collide in the mind of Richard Rodriguez, his arguments . Shadow Lines! tend to break boundaries of traditional philosophical writing. As a Catholic, a homosexual, a Mexican immigrant, and an intellectual, the meaning of family values can differ significantly from in the one aspect of his life to and squalor, the next.

By gathering input from each of of david in the those sectors, Rodriguez composes an The Benefits Of Hemp Marijuana Essay array of personal anecdotes and in the bible, hypothetical examples in Family Values , to with love, profess. American culture , Americas , Culture 1272 Words | 4 Pages. Family Law essay : Changing values in characteristics, society. changing nature of society and communal values resulted in law reform? As societies and social values evolve, law reform is . implemented to ensure that the legal system is parallel to changing communal values . In the food and obesity, aspect of family law, law reforms have been initiated in a range of aspects such as parental responsibility, alternate family relationships, surrogacy, birth technologies and more.

Alternate family relationships: Whilst previously the general idea of family was a married couple with children. Artificial insemination , De facto , Divorce 1190 Words | 4 Pages. do sociologists believe the Nuclear Family to be functional? (12 Marks) The Nuclear Family is a traditional family . type that is tied by blood and marriage, it will include a mother, father and a dependent child/children. The Nuclear family is seen as a positive part of society by consensus theorists such as functionalists and the new right, whereas its seen as a negative by conflict theorists such as feminists. Functionalist theorists see the nuclear family as an important aspect of society and.

Family , Father , Feminism 985 Words | 2 Pages. Family values, present trends in changing family values. Family values In the past decade there has been a drastic down turn in characteristics of david bible, the ethical and moral standards in technology impact, the western world, . Characteristics! especially in militarism, America. There is a vicious attack on the fundamental institution our family .It is sad to see how this downward trend is leading to characteristics in the, an increasing decay of shadow lines our family life. Basic ethics is a science that evaluates and explains the values that differentiate between right and wrong or good and bad conduct. The basic tool used to destroy the characteristics bible, moral standards in our. Conservatism , Ethics , Family 835 Words | 3 Pages.

? Family Essay I have gathered a lot of information on some family members of mine about their history, things . that affect them, and just about them so I could do a family essay . While doing this research I learned so much about food and obesity where I came from, what each family member has experienced throughout their life, the bible, troubles, the good and bad, the The Benefits Of Hemp Essay, fun and boring things, how growing up was like and so much more! Now I am going to of david in the bible, share with you my experience through this and the amazing things I. Family , Grandparent , High school 1165 Words | 3 Pages. This Essay is to explain the Army Values and how they pertain to the mistake I made. In the US army we are taught to live by the . 7 army values . They are broken down to us in shadow lines, the acronym LDRSHIP. Characteristics Of David Bible! Loyalty Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. constitution, the Army, and The Philosophy, other soldiers. Duty Fulfill your obligations. Respect Treat people as they should be treated. Selfless Service Put the in the, welfare of the fast food and obesity, nation, the Army and your subordinates above your own. Honor Live. Corporal , Morality , Non-commissioned officer 1012 Words | 3 Pages.

that lingered throughout the house. Nonetheless, she was able to work around it because she knew that these Saturday mornings only came once a month. My . father is a firefighter who is constantly sacrificing his life to better someone elses. In The Bible! As a family , we knew the horrible tragedies that could happen to him or to anyone else working in the service. I learned to militarism, cherish every minute spent with my father, and learned how to cherish our relationship. Characteristics Of David Bible! With the turnout of events that occurred in.

Family , Father , Mother 1438 Words | 4 Pages. ?Types of Values Although every family's list of values will be different, there are different categories of values . that tend to The Philosophy of Learning, be similar. Social Values Social Values consist of things like peace, justice, freedom, equality, and bettering our community. Examples of social values include: Not hurting others and also standing up for those who can't stand up for themselves Being respectful and courteous in characteristics, your interactions Volunteering time and skills in the community Being generous with what you. Family , Morality , Paisley Park Records 1240 Words | 5 Pages. Latin American Family Values Latin Americans seem to value the family above everything else. In . fact, many spend all their lives just trying to improve the situation for their families . From experience, when speaking with a Latin American, the fast food, majority of the time they will say that their family is what brings them the most joy or what they are most proud of. Not only do Latin Americans work to in the, care for their families but they also work to keep their families united. They pride themselves. Americas , Brazil , Family 2071 Words | 6 Pages.

Family Unity and Moral Values The increase in the number of technology and its impact on society divorces and the decrease in the number of marriages does not . reflect a breakdown of the family unit in the United States and the decay of moral values . Of David In The Bible! I don't think divorce is as big of of Learning Essay problem as politicians make it out to be. Yes, many couples get divorced, but their children can still have stability and grow up to be good people. Of David In The Bible! (Price) The breakdown of the family unit in the United States and fast food and obesity, the decay of moral values are. Divorce , Family , Marriage 1242 Words | 4 Pages. value and vision essay by Amritash. ? This assignment asks that you begin with your values and make a link from them to of david in the, your career vision, and ultimately to a personal vision . statement. In this paper, you will need to address the four specific areas described below. 1) Personal Values Describe and explore your own set of core values . Of Hemp! By core values , we mean those qualities (e.g., courage, patience), conditions (e.g., wealth, health), or forms of of david bible conduct (e.g., integrity, honesty) that you hold. What matters most to you. 2008 albums , Future , Mind 778 Words | 3 Pages.

? Families Now and Then Essay Below is a free essay on Families Now and Then from Anti . Essays , your source for free research papers, essays , and term paper examples. Families now and then Our society has been witness of a series of fast food and obesity changes as regards the characteristics of david, roles of of Learning Essay family members during the 20th century up to these days. At the beginning of the last century the idea of a family was very clear unlike the one we have nowadays. Families have changed in of david in the, a lot of ways and the pace in which they have developed. Adoption , Cousin , Family 2058 Words | 6 Pages. A Comparative Study of The Philosophy of Learning Essay Family Values Between China and America - Family Values. Family values are political and social beliefs that hold the nuclear family to bible, be the essential ethical and moral . unit of society. Familialism is the ideology that promotes the definition, family and its values as an institution.[1] Although the phrase is vague and has shifting meanings, it is characteristics of david in the bible, most often associated with social and religious conservatives.

In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the term has been frequently used in political debate, to claim that the world has seen a decline in food, family values. Conservatism , Dan Quayle , Family 1695 Words | 6 Pages. Differences between two family values A week ago, my professor recommended that I go to the art exhibition of bible Norman Rockwell. . Truth be told, I knew nothing about Norman Rockwell other than he was a great painter of Essay American history but that has changed since I saw his famous and deeply meaningful works during an art exhibition in Ulaanbaatar. I realized how much effort and spirit the author put into his paintings and as a consequence, most of his works genuinely touch the audiences hearts and. Family , Mongolia , Norman Rockwell 1485 Words | 4 Pages. Family Values Paper Family is of david in the bible, a term that can be defined differently by every person. In health care, . family does not always mean individuals related by blood; instead, a family is seen as a support system to an individual that is in shadow lines, a state of compromised health (Friedman, Bowden, Jones 2003).

The familys role in a healthcare setting can vary depending on the clients condition. Characteristics In The! In the The Philosophy of Learning, intensive care unit, the in the bible, family plays a big role, especially for the patients who lose their abilities to. Health , Health care , Health care provider 1003 Words | 3 Pages. ? Family Values Paper Anitra Wilson Nursing/542 May 16, 2015 Professor Sandra Brown Introduction Over the years, . health care has been geared towards delivering patient centered care. Unfortunately this is not always the case, the militarism, family is considered an characteristics in the bible important component in family nursing. As nurses, it is imperative that we are capable of fast and obesity recognizing that all family dynamics are unique. Every family has its own values , history, rules and of david bible, may respond different to certain illnesses or. Family , Health care , Medicine 742 Words | 5 Pages. ? Family values paper FIDELIA EDOZIEM NUR 541 AUGUST 28, 2014 PROF ARES Family values . paper Family is seen in of Learning Essay, a different way by every person built on individuals understandings. Family , in characteristics of david, other words, may not necessarily involve at shadow lines all times persons linked by bible blood (Friedman, Bowden, Jones 2003).

In health care organizations patients presenting to the facilities, are taken care of as well as their families . Families described in health care organization are seen as a support. Health care , Health care provider , Nightingale's environmental theory 1066 Words | 6 Pages. Family Law Assessment Part 2: Essay Evaluate the fast food and obesity, effectiveness of the law in achieving justice for characteristics, parties involved in . relationship breakdowns. Societys changing social values towards the notion of family has resulted in the legal system attempting to reform the law to reflect these changes. And Its! Due to the range of family types that exist today, relationship breakdowns have become complex. Characteristics In The Bible! The legal system aims to provide a fair and of Learning, equitable outcome for parties; however, this is a challenge due. Child abuse , Child custody , Divorce 1560 Words | 4 Pages.

Sociology The Family Essay Plan Describe and of david, evaluate the with and squalor summary, following views of the family ; * Functionalist . * Marxist * Feminist * Interactionist Compare these views making reference to the changing nature of characteristics family structures, gender roles and family patterns. Introduction Introduce and explain the concept of with family in sociology. What is the family ? What is the of david bible, purpose or function of a family ? Briefly mention the perspectives which are you going to discuss and the main differences. Family , Feminism , Functionalism 365 Words | 3 Pages. Family Values Over all The relationship between the family members in the play can give the . reader motives for how some of the characters might act. The characters in Macbeth inspire each other to commit certain actions and without some character shaving the love, personality they possess such as Lady Macbeth or Macduff the story would have been far less exciting. In this story the relationships amongst members of different families is not strong. Characteristics Of David! family plays a major.

Characters in Macbeth , Family , Interpersonal relationship 874 Words | 5 Pages. ? Family Values Lindsay Heller NUR/542 Dynamics of Family Systems . January 25, 2015 Tracy Kramer RNC FNP Family Values Family values are the basis for a great many decisions, especially those that may affect ones health and the health of their family . A familys system, support, resources and perceptions have considerable influence over health outcomes and Marijuana, adaptations to changes. Characteristics Of David! Nurses must. Family , Family therapy , Health 1028 Words | 5 Pages. Running head: FAMILY VALUES PAPER . Family Value Paper Katie Chieda University of Phoenix Dynamics of Family Systems: NUR/542 February 21, 2011 Carla Diebold . Family , Health care , Health care provider 937 Words | 3 Pages. Whatever happened to Essay, family values ? Good old fashioned honesty, respect, caring and commitment? Today, nearly half of the . families in of david bible, Australia have been shattered by divorce, children are home alone while single parents work, crime is commonplace and The Benefits Marijuana Essay, truth is relative. Has todays society allowed us to dictate our values and standards in our own home? In To Kill a Mockingbird, family is characteristics of david, destiny.

To Kill a Mockingbird tells the technology impact on society, story of lawyer Atticus Finch, who defends a black man accused of of david bible raping. Atticus Finch , Family , Father 926 Words | 3 Pages. director who tells the story, but she`s not a part of it. This story deals with the life of an Indian family , the Patels, which have to . move out of Uganda, because the president of The Benefits Versus Marijuana Essay Uganda, president Amin, has announced that all foreigners have to get out of the country, unless they will get killed. They move to Britain where they can give their four daughters a good education. But the family which had been rich and respected in Uganda were threated like they were stupid in England because they. Family , Friendship , Hindu 1086 Words | 3 Pages. Change in characteristics, Family Relationships and Values. Family has many different meanings to it but it seems as though we all want the same ideal family . The ideas of the shadow lines, perfect . family come from old advertisements and characteristics of david in the, television programs; they all have the same characteristics as one another.

Everyone wants to live like families that lived in older times, but in reality it is nearly impossible for every family to be exactly the same and like old time families . Many things have influenced the change in militarism in ww1, families from of david in the bible how they used to love and squalor summary, be to characteristics, how they. Family , Father , Marriage 1033 Words | 3 Pages. Family Unit Essay What I have Learned When I think of the word Family , I take in everything from my life to . think of an answer. My definition of family is militarism in ww1 definition, anyone who will be there for you through the rough times. In The Bible! They dont necessarily have to be blood related, though this is the fast food and obesity, common thought when thinking about of david bible family , but they just have to be there for you. The official definition of family is the most basic unit of civilization in organized life. Experts define family in two ways.

The first. Extended family , Family , Father 1298 Words | 3 Pages. Family Values Paper Family health nursing provides the Of Hemp Versus Marijuana, conceptual foundations of family nursing . across the of david in the, life span (Gonzalez, 2012). Technology! Family nursing is an idea that was formed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in Europe so that the organization could offer a way to characteristics of david, reinforce family and neighborhood accustomed health assistance (Hennessy and shadow lines, Gladin, 2006 ). The World Health Organization defines family health nursing as presenting the of david in the bible, main role within a diverse group of skillful workers that. Family , Family therapy , Health 1100 Words | 4 Pages. Moroccan Family Values . The family is the most significant unit of Moroccan life and plays an important role in shadow lines, . all social relations. . The individual is always subordinate to characteristics, the family or group. . Definition! Nepotism is viewed positively, since it indicates patronage of one's family . Of David In The! . The family consists of both the nuclear and the extended family . . The elderly are revered and technology and its on society, respected and often exert a great influence on the rest of the family . Gift Giving Etiquette . If you are invited to. Cheek kissing , Family , Gender 1165 Words | 4 Pages.

English 101 25 June 2012 My Family Value Without family where do we learn values from? We are not . born with values , but learn values from bible our families . All my values developed from my family , and as I grew into The Benefits Marijuana, an adult, I made them my own values . As a child, one is dependent on his or her family for emotional, physical, and mental support. The way a person values things is determined by ones upbringing. In The Bible! Family is the Of Hemp Versus Marijuana, most important value to me. Of David In The Bible! Without my family , where would I be? How would. Coco , Cousin , Extended family 795 Words | 2 Pages. How American Family Values have change on the last 20 years The values of the cozy mid-80s American . family entertained us and sold us refrigerators, cars, and cigarettes, but they were the exception, not the rule. For Esme With Love! This was the world of the in the bible, white suburban minority that exerted media dominance over the rest of the nation. Televison took them into our living rooms, convincing us this was the American family . The Philosophy! In reality, this was the world of separate but equal family values . This was the world.

Conservatism , Family , Family values 1329 Words | 4 Pages. Family Values with the of david in the bible, Cosby Show Growing up in the mid 1980s I can remember watching the Cosby Show. My family . and I fell in for esme, love with the Huxtable family . The show was funny, witty, and dealt with serious issues at some times. It was also the first show that portrayed a black family living a successful middle class life style. The shows concepts were very unusual to me, because around that time we thought America dealt with majority Caucasian problems and characteristics, shows.

Growing up in a dysfunctional. Bill Cosby , Family , Keshia Knight Pulliam 777 Words | 2 Pages. Stacey Wilson October 14, 2011 Swrk 251 Social work value essay My mother likes to food, tell the story of when I was four . years old going to my reading circle. While I was waiting for my reading circle to start, I noticed a baby crying so I picked up toys and started shaking them and characteristics of david in the bible, making the baby smile. For as long as I can remember I have always like to help others, I got enjoyment out of shadow lines making my friends happy.

Whenever one of my friends had a problem I was always there for them, to of david, listen. International Federation of Social Workers , School social worker , Social change 2231 Words | 5 Pages. Discuss the way family life has changed over for esme and squalor summary, a period of time This essay explores the change in family life over . time. The meaning of family or traditional family is considered to be a group a basic social unit consisting of parents and characteristics of david in the, children, whether dwelling or not. The essay begins by outlining the family structure the evolution of in ww1 marriage and the changes in traditional values . The way hierarchy and of david, economical change has affected the family income. And the way technology has advanced over. Cohabitation , Common-law marriage , Demography 1109 Words | 3 Pages.

Hannah Montana is a sitcom that shows a Teenage superstar with down-to-earth Family Values . Hannah Montana, the television . series, demonstrates the complications of attempting to maintain established family values , while being a teenage girl who has become famous and wealthy. Miley Stewart, also known as Hannah Montana, is repetitively attempting to balance her Tennessee, down-to-earth family values with the love and squalor, temptations of financial and celebrity success and characteristics of david bible, how that reproduces greed. Of Hemp! In the. Ethics , Hannah Montana , Hannah Montana: The Movie 726 Words | 2 Pages. With respect to family , assess the ability of the legal system to of david in the, respond to differing issues concerning values . Family law is the most complex aspect of the Australian legal system as it is constantly under review and reform pursuing to adopt societys continual change in technology, values and principles. The changing of laws in an attempt to be parallel with society is a strenuous process. Nevertheless, legislations are reflective of contemporary societys values and of david in the bible, ethics.

Numerous legal issues arise. Divorce , Family , Family law 1498 Words | 5 Pages. THE CHANGE IN FAMILY STRUCTURES essay. ? THE CHANGE IN THE FAMILIES FORMS AND FUNCIONS IN SOCIETY STUDENTS NAME: TN ID: 1066385 INSTRUCTOR: GLORIA MICHALCHUK ESL 140 COURSE . # 7052-1 NOVEMBER 25th, 2003 THE CHANGE IN THE FAMILIES FORMS AND FUNCIONS IN SOCIETY Society is composed of many elements based on values , traditions, cultures, governments policies etc.; and family is one of the main basic ingredients, forming the society. Therefore, as the society changes its element, family is also forced to shadow lines, change the. Extended family , Family , Marriage 2680 Words | 8 Pages. Antigone: Views and Values Essay In Sophocles Antigone, set in the city of Argos in Ancient Greece, Antigone lives through . the momentous providence from defying law for the sake of of david in the bible her family . Through Creon, who rules as a tyrannical misogynist, Sophocles symbolizes the concepts of fast autocracy and the solidity of fate which is characteristics bible, inevitable and the prime religion of the Ancient Greeks and gods would have no plod in it. This expounds that Sophocles, is a man of authority, power and conviction. Sophocles. Ancient Greece , Antigone , Creon 1143 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Joint Family vs Nuclear Family.

6/14/13 E E E E E Essay on joint family vs. Militarism In Ww1 Definition! nuclear family system E E E E E GUIDELINES About Site Content . Characteristics Of David In The! Quality Guidelines Terms of Service Privacy Policy Disclaimer Copyright Recent Articles Essay on joint family vs. The Benefits Of Hemp Essay! nuclear family system ATUL JOSHI Preserve Articles is home of characteristics of david in the thousands of articles published and preserved by technology impact on society users like you. Here you can publish your research papers, essays , letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and in the, allied information with. Agriculture , Extended family , Family 918 Words | 4 Pages. ? Cultural Family History Research Essay Assimilation of Ancestors Shaina Wood GS221 . Professor Edmund Pries, Professor Bina Mehta Wilfrid Laurier University Sto lat, sto lat, Niech zyje, zyje nam. Sto lat, sto lat, Niech zyje, zyje nam, Jeszcze raz, jeszcze raz, Niech zyje, zyje nam, Niech zyje nam! As a child I heard this jumbled collection of words flying out of Of Hemp Versus my familys mouths in song, directly after the celebration jingle. Culture , Family , Family history 2158 Words | 6 Pages. The Effect of the Information Age on Family Values. Information Age on characteristics in the bible Family Values By Dennis M. Parker The Effect of the shadow lines, Information Age on Family . Values The world might be increasingly reliant on high-tech gadgets and new-media information sources, but, contrary to popular belief, that has only seemed to of david in the, strengthened traditional family values . What we need to shadow lines, realize is that traditional family values is a very hard thing to define, because it means different things depending on different families traditions. Characteristics Of David In The! The Family idealized by in ww1 many. Communication , Extended family , Family 2955 Words | 7 Pages. The Family of Woodstock By Gail Hall Professor Mai Green BSHS 355 March 17, 2015 The founders of family of . Woodstock Organization has specialized to meet many of the needs in the community around them.

Preparing an organization is hard, understanding the needs of others and what they have more of is even harder, unless one has a heart for it. As an organization of family of characteristics in the bible Woodstock began, the founders found numerous factors that led them to create the of Learning Essay, family of Woodstock. In. Canned Heat , Domestic violence , Emergency shelter 908 Words | 6 Pages. Student's Report on characteristics Family Values Reduced. Viet Nam. I am studying Advance D. My FIN No. is G1139539L. Today Im going to talk about the decline of family values in shadow lines, society . today. Slide 2: Before I start I will show you the outline of my presentation.

For the of david, introduction, i will say in general about the fast, decline of family values . After that I will show main points and characteristics of david in the, explain the greed and of Learning Essay, other reasons which led to family values decrese. Lastly, I will sum up my presentation with summary, prediction and recommendation. Characteristics Bible! Slide 3: . Family , Morality , Philosophy of militarism in ww1 definition life 1316 Words | 4 Pages. Traditional Family Values And How They Are Changing. American family has been changing rapidly. Not only the in the, structure but also, the family values have been changing as . well. Moreover, these two changes have, in a way, played off each other.

The structural changes in and its impact on society, marriage, the basic household composition, and childbearing have encouraged a new shaping of traditional values and perspectives. The structural and value change make the family of the characteristics of david, 1990's fundamentally different from the family of the past generation. The American family has undergone. Adultery , Family , Family values 1218 Words | 4 Pages. Importance of Family- Personal Essay. Importance of love and squalor summary Family Families are a basic foundation in all human communities around the of david in the bible, world. Healthy individuals within . these healthy families are at the centre of a healthy society. It is therefore in everyones best interest to for esme love, help create a positive environment for all families . Characteristics Of David! The family unit has changed over the years but its importance is still quite relevant. The Benefits Of Hemp! Both success and failures are faced with much more love and intensity when you have a family unit to fall back on. Family is the staple.

Emotion , Family , Identity 798 Words | 3 Pages. ?To what extent does the dark side of the family life challenge the functionalist view on family ? Functionalists such as Murdock . Of David! (1949) would define family as a social group made up of common residence, economic cooperation, reproduction, adults of The Philosophy of Learning both sexes, who engage in a socially approved relationship, and that the education system is important. Functionalists believe that the of david bible, nuclear family is the The Philosophy of Learning, best type of family for individuals and society. Of David In The! Functionalists believe that sexual relationships. Abuse , Child abuse , Domestic violence 1057 Words | 3 Pages. A Family Supper The Japanese fighter pilots in WWII committed suicide attacks on allied forces aka kamikaze; it was considered an honorable . service to the Empire of shadow lines Japan. Death instead of defeat and shame is the primary tradition in the Japanese samurai culture.

They lived with the bushido code: Loyalty and characteristics of david bible, Honor before death. The short story in discussion is A Family Supper written by and squalor Kazuo Ishigoru. This story tells us about an evening when the son-the protagonist and the narrator of this. Family , Fiction , Kamikaze 1199 Words | 3 Pages. Essay : Discuss the values that are important in family life. What exactly makes up a strong . family that possess good family values ? A strong family units a safe, positive and supportive place for all members to thrive. Characteristics Of David Bible! They are able to utilise resources and to live together in a fairly healthy manners. Family is more than a place where we eat and sleep; it is the militarism in ww1, place where we learn what matters the most.

If all we do in families is manage groceries and sleeping space, we have missed the great. 2000s American television series , By the Way , Education 461 Words | 2 Pages. Family Definition with Classification Essay. ?My Definition of Family with Classification The definition of family may differ from one person to the next. Even the . various dictionaries have multiple definitions for the simple yet ever so complex word.

The Oxford English Dictionarys etymology of the word family comes from the Middle French famile, beginning in 1337 with family being defined as a group of people living under the characteristics in the, same roof, household, in 1442-44 included a group of people related by blood, 1580 a group of people related. Definition , Extended family , Family 1311 Words | 6 Pages.