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book report on jfk John F. Kennedy Assassination. Foucault's Panopticon? 7,605 pages of investigative reports produced by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the days and months following the death of lady anal President Kennedy on November 22, 1963, copied from material held at the National Archives and Records Administration and archived on CD-ROM. John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated in panopticon Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas, at approximately 12:29 PM local time on November 22, 1963. How To A Dissertation Methodology? At the time, the President was en route from Love Field to the Trade Mart in Dallas to foucault's, address a luncheon sponsored by lady anal several civic groups. Among those in the motorcade with the President were his wife Jacqueline, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson and Mrs. Johnson, and Texas Governor John B. Connally and his wife Nellie. Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the crime, but was shot and killed two days later by Jack Ruby before a trial could take place. The FBI, the Warren Commission, and the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) officially concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin, with the HSCA in 1979 concluding that President John F. Kennedy was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy based on disputed acoustic evidence. The earliest document in this set is foucault's panopticon dated July 3, 1961, nearly 2 1/2 years before the audience assassination of President Kennedy. These early files cover Oswald's residency in the Soviet Union and foucault's, FBI interviews with Oswald after his return to the United States.
The bulk of the material was created after the assassination of President Kennedy. The documents include long form reports on Oswald and Jack Ruby. Target Characteristics? Individual reports address Oswald in Russia, Oswald's trip to Mexico, miscellaneous threats made against Kennedy, investigations into allegations of persons other than Oswald, and a report titled, Hoaxes, False Reports, and Irresponsible Reporting. Two reports cover the foucault's attorney Mark Lane. Less than a month after the assassination, Lane published an article in the National Guardian questioning the initial information about the assassination. Write Methodology? Lane went on to become a leading critic of the conclusions of the Warren Commission and wrote several books including, Rush to Judgment (1966), A Citizen's Dissent: Mark Lane Replies to the Defenders of the Warren Report (1968), Plausible Denial: Was the CIA Involved in the Assassination of JFK? (1991), and Last Word: My Indictment of the CIA in the Murder of JFK. (2011). The files include a comprehensive report submitted to the Warren Commission titled, Investigation of Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The first section of foucault's panopticon this report covers the assassination of the Essay to Stand President and the identification of Oswald as his slayer. The second section presents the evidence the FBI described as conclusively showing that Oswald did assassinate the President.
The third section addresses what the FBI knew about Oswald prior to the assassination; and the results of the panopticon FBI's investigation of policy Oswald's background, activities, associates, et cetera, subsequent to foucault's panopticon, the assassination. The report includes exhibits of audience evidence tying Oswald with the assassination of the President and documents relative to Oswald's contacts with the Soviets and the Communist Party. The exhibits include an autobiography by panopticon Oswald in his handwriting. The last section covers the on The Trial investigation of the killing of Lee Harvey Oswald. Foucault's? The contents of the report Investigation of Assassination of President John F. Methodology? Kennedy: Section I: The Assassination: Assassin in Building, Patrolman Tippit Killed. Section II: The Evidence: A. Events Prior to the Assassination, B. Events Following The Assassination, C. Oswald's Apprehension, D. Interview of Assassin, E. The Assassination Weapon, F. Other Evidence, G. Prior Similar Act, H. Lee Harvey Oswald, Before Assassination of President Kennedy, After Assassination of President Kennedy. Exhibits: Map of Portion of Downtown Dallas; Texas School Book Depository Building; Blanket Found in Oswald's Garage; Brown Wrapping Paper Bag Found Near Window; Latent Left Index Fingerprint of Oswald on Brown Paper Bag; Latent Right Palm Print of Oswald on Brown Paper Bag; Employees' Lunchroom' Revolver Used by Oswald to Shoot Officer Tippit; Photograph of Oswald with Side Ann and Rifle; Fair Play for Cuba Committee Card Carried by Oswald' Assassination Weapon; 1Diagram of Sixth Floor; Blanket, Paper Bag, and Rifle (Relative Size); Order Blank Showing Sale of Rifle; Oswald's Passport Application; Order for Rifle; Money Order for Rifle; Post Office Box Application; Oswald's Shirt; Bullet from Stretcher; Bullet Fragments; Oswald's Latent Palm Print on Rifle; Oswald's Right Palm Print on Cardboard Carton; Oswald's Fingerprint on Cardboard Carton; Oswald's Left Palm Print on Cardboard Carton; Enlargement of panopticon Film Showing Window from Which Shots Were Fired; Map Found in Oswald's Effects; Undated Note in containment Russian Language Found by Mrs.
Oswald; Letter from Oswald to U.S. Marine Corps - March 22, 1963; Excerpt - State Department Manual; Oswald's Membership Card - Fair Play for Cuba Committee; Historic Diary Prepared by Oswald; Notes of Oswald on Stationary of Holland-American Line; Manuscript Prepared by Oswald; Draft of Speech Prepared by foucault's panopticon Oswald; Handwritten Notes for Speech' Handwritten Notes re: Political Systems; Notes on Biographical Data of Oswald' Questions and Answers Pertaining to Oswald's Trip to USSR; Handprinted Account of Oswald's Visit to American Embassy; Account of Interview with UPI Reporter; Account of Amorous Affairs in USSR; Letter to Oswald from Gus Hall - Benjamin J. Davis Defense Committee; Letter to Oswald from The Worker - December 19: 1962; Letter to Oswald from Socialist Workers Party - November 5: 1962; Letter to Oswald from Bob Chester; Letter to Oswald from Socialist Workers Party - March 27: 1963; Letter to versus energy, Oswald from Fair Play for Cuba Committee - May 22: 1963; Letter to Oswald from the panopticon Communist Party, U.S.A.; Letter to Oswald from Arnold Johnson; Letter Dated May 29, 1963 from Fair Play for Cuba Committee; Oswald's Letters Turned Over to FBI by John Abt on Behalf of Arnold Johnson; Soviet Embassy File re: Oswald; Autobiography of Oswald in His Handwriting. Investigation of Killing of Lee Harvey Oswald: I. The Killing of Lee Harvey Oswald: A. Oswald's Arrest, B. Removal Plans Publicized, C. Removal Steps Initiated, D. Oswald Killed, E. Assailant Identified. II. Information Concerning Ruby: A. Early Years, B. Friend Murdered, C. Essay On The Trial? Military Service, D. Chicago to Dallas, E. Career as Night Club Operator, F. Personal Characteristics, G. Relations with Dallas Police, H. Travel, I. Political Interests, J. Panopticon? No Relationship with Oswald. III. FBI Interview with Ruby: A. Movements Following Assassination of Essay Competency to Stand Trial President Kennedy, B. Claim of Emotional Pressure, C. Took Gun with Him, D. Concealed Means of Entry, E. Claims Reasoning Beclouded. IV. Ruby's Whereabouts November 22-24, 1963. V. Purchase of foucault's panopticon Gun and Arrest Record.
VI. Investigation Under Civil Rights Statutes: A. Methodology? Basis for Investigation, B. Panopticon? Scope of Investigation, C. Federalist Debate? Anonymous Telephone Warnings, D. Transfer Plans, E. Armored Truck a Decoy, F. Flanking Guards, G. Basement Area Checked, H. Foucault's? Pertinent Areas Secured, I. Transfer Security Plans, J. Target Audience? Orders to Check Identification Passes, K. Area Searches, L. Panopticon? Large Crowd Present, M. Trial? Entrance of Ruby, N. Ruby's Comments.
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resume z series L'HISTOIRE DE DRAGON BALL Z. Dragon Ball Z est la suite de la serie Dragon Ball, toujours adaptee du manga du dessinateur Akira Toriyama . Panopticon! Cette partie de l'histoire de Sangoku est beaucoup plus longue : 25 tomes et une adaptation en 291 episodes. Target Characteristics! Cette adaptation comporte beaucoup d'ecarts par rapport a l'histoire originale ainsi que de nombreux ralentissements dans l'aventure qui casse le rythme par rapport au manga. Foucault's! L'histoire se decoupe en trois parties bien distinctes : Le combat sur la planete Namek contre Freezer La partie avec les cyborgs et Cell La derniere partie contre Boo. La premiere diffusion en France a lieu sur la chaine TF1 a partir du 24 decembre 1990 dans l'emission le club Dorothee.
La serie est malheureusement censuree a cause de la violence de certains combats alors que l'emission s'adresse principalement a un jeune public. Containment Policy! Depuis Dragon Ball a ete rediffuse sur de nombreuses chaines du satellite et du cable notamment sur les chaines Mangas, AB1, MCM, RTL9 et NT1. Nappa et Vegeta. Comme prevu les 2 saiyens arrivent sur Terre, pour s'emparer des 7 boules de cristal. Vegeta commence par planter des graines dans le sol, ce qui donnera par la suite les Saibaimans.
Les Saibaimans sont rapidement detruits, malgre tout ils font une victime, Yamcha succombe car un Saibaimans s'autodetruit sur lui. Foucault's Panopticon! Le combat continu, c'est Nappa qui s'elance le premier. Essay Competency! Voyant la puissance de leur adversaire nos guerriers testent plusieurs techniques pour tue Nappa sans aucun succes. Panopticon! Chaoz decide de se sacrifier pour detruire Nappa, il s'autodetruit alors sur Nappa. Write A Dissertation Methodology! Mais Nappa n'est pas mort malheureusement pour nos amis.
Quand Ten shin han voit que son meilleur ami s'est sacrifie pour rien il s'enerve et s'elance sur Nappa. Foucault's! Le saiyens tue ensuite Ten shin han. Lady Anal! Vegeta les entendant parler d'un Saiyens nomme Son goku leur laisse 3 heures pour qu'il revienne du monde de Kaio. Panopticon! Les 3 heures s'ecoulent, son goku n'est toujours pas revenu. How To Write! Nos amis se retrouvent a present a 3, mais nappa n'en a pas fini il decide d'eliminer Son gohan maintenant. Foucault's Panopticon! Nappa lance sa vague deferlante, mais au dernier moment Petit coeur se sacrifie pour sauver Son gohan le seul amis qu'il n'est jamais eu. Vs Anti Federalist Debate! Voyant petit coeur mort, Son gohan se dechaine sur Nappa . Foucault's! A ce moment la nos amis qui ne sont plus que 2 sentent la presence de Son goku . Containment Policy! Son goku arrive et tue Nappa.
Les 2 saiyens decident de s'affronter dans le desert. Panopticon! Son goku se bat contre vegeta, il utilise a present la technique qu'il a appris Qui s'appelle : KAIOKEN. Containment Policy! Voyant que Son goku prend l'avantage, Vegeta decide de montrer sa forme de Gorille Geant. Foucault's Panopticon! Pour cela il doit regarder la Lune, Mais Petit coeur la detruit car Son gohan se transforme lui aussi en gorille. How To Write A Dissertation! Vegeta fabrique alors une Lune artificiel. Foucault's Panopticon! Il se transforme et attaque son goku . Target Audience Characteristics! Son gohan sent que son pere est en difficulte, alors il decide de retourner aider son pere. Foucault's Panopticon! Krilin et Son gohan rencontrent Yajirobe sur le chemin du retour. Competency To Stand Trial! Tous les 3 partent aider Son goku . Foucault's Panopticon! Arrive sur place Yajirobe coupe la queue a vegeta, ceux- si a pour effet de lui rendre forme de Saiyens. Vs Anti Debate! vegeta voit la victoire lui echapper il decide de s'en aller avec son vaisseau, mais Krilin s'interpose avec le sabre de Yajirobe, il est sur le point d'eliminer vegeta quand Son goku ordonne a Krilin de lui laisser la vie sauve, Son goku pretant que Vegeta lui sera utile pour l'aider a combattre des ennemis communs. La planete Namek. Son gohan , Bulma et Krilin partent en direction de Namek pour recuperer les 7 boules de cristal pour ressusciter tous nos amis qui ont ete tues par les 2 Saiyens . Foucault's! Mais nos amis ne savent pas que d'autres personnes cherchent aussi les 7 boules de cristal. Audience! Un tyran nomme Freezer qui est un guerrier tres puissant les veut pour obtenir la vie eternel . Foucault's Panopticon! Vegeta aussi est de la partie.
Nos amis tombent sur le commandant Ginue , qui est compose de Ginue , Recoom, Guldo, Jeece et Barta, ce sont des serviteurs de Freezer. Federalist Federalist! Vegeta est contraint a s'allier avec Son gohan et Krilin pour vaincre le commando. Foucault's Panopticon! Quand Son goku est gueri de ses blessure, il ne reste plus que 2 membre du commando qui sont Ginue et Jeece, tous les autres ont ete elimines par nos amis. Characteristics! Son goku tue sans mal Jeece. Foucault's Panopticon! Mais il eprouve quelques difficultes face a Ginue , car celui si a la capacite de changer de corps. Containment! Meme avec le corps de Son goku Ginue ne parvient pas a vaincre Son goku . Foucault's Panopticon! Ginue est contraint a trouver un nouveau corps puissant, il essait de prendre celui de Vegeta, Mais Son goku lance une grenouille sur le rayon qui lui permet de changer de corps. Son gohan , Krilin et un jeune Namek nomme Dende ont reuni les 7 boules de cristal et ont invoque le dragon.
Celui si peut exaucee 3 v?ux , mais il ne peut ressusciter qu'une seul personne a la fois. Target Audience! Petit coeur veut etre ressuscites et il souhaite egalement etre envoyee sur la planete Namek. Panopticon! Il n'y aura pas de 3eme v?ux, car le maitre des Namek meurt entre temps. Target Characteristics! En se rendent sur le lieu de la bataille Petit coeur tombe sur un guerrier Namek nomme Nail , il est tres puissant. Foucault's Panopticon! Nail est mourant alors il propose a Petit coeur de fusion pour etre plus puissant. Quant Freezer voit au loin le dragon, invoque par nos amis, il se precipite pour essayer d'exaucer sont v?ux le plus cher. Containment! Mais Freezer arrive trop tard. Foucault's Panopticon! Il commence alors a se battre contre nos amis, mais il eprouve des difficultes a prendre le dessus, alors il decide de se transformer. Write Methodology! Petit coeur arrive pour aider Krilin et Son gohan . Foucault's Panopticon! Malgre sa transformation Freezer ne parvient pas a prendre le dessus sur Petit coeur. Essay On The Competency Trial! Freezer se transforme une nouvelle fois, est cette fois il prend le dessus sur Petit coeur. Foucault's Panopticon! Fous de rage Son gohan deploie toutes son energie.
Et une fois encore Freezer est depasse, il se transforme une derniere fois. Lady Anal! Quant Freezer s'apercoit que le jeune namek Dende et capable de pouvoir guerir toutes les blessures de ses amis. Foucault's! La premiere victime de sa nouvelle transformation et Dende, qui est suivi de tres pret par Vegeta. Target Audience Characteristics! Il blesse gravement Petit coeur et tue Krilin. Foucault's! En voyant ca, Son goku est tellement fou de rage qu' il atteint un stade de transformation Qui est celui de SUPER SAIYEN . Containment! Il a desormais un chevelure doree et des yeux verts et une incroyable puissance.
Son goku ordonne a Son gohan de retourner sur Terre avec Bulma et Petit coeur. Foucault's Panopticon! Et tant donne que Petit coeur est ressuscite, cela signifie aussi que le Tres Haut est ressuscite lui aussi. Policy! Kaio demande donc au dragon de la Terre de ressuscites tous les habitants de la planete Namek et de les ramener sur Terre a l'exception de Freezer et de notre heros. Foucault's! Son goku et Freezer se battent avec acharnement chacun veut gagne. Essay Competency Trial! La plante Namek et sur le point d'exploser quand Son goku envoie sont Kamehameha. Foucault's! La planete Namek explose avec Freezer. Lady Anal! Nos amis veulent ramener Son goku sur Terre, mais le Dragon les informe que Son goku ne souhaite pas rentrer tout de suite, mais il rentrera plus tard. Le pere de Freezer voyageant pres de Namek parvint a retrouver le corps a moitie detruit de Freezer. Panopticon! Il decide de le remettre sur pied en le robotisant.
Puis, pour se venger, ils se dirigent vers la Terre pour la detruire. Renewable! Mais une fois sur Terre, Un mysterieux guerrier fait son apparition il s'appelle Trunks ces super saiyens . Panopticon! Nos amis son ebahit de decouvrir que Son goku n'est pas le seul super guerrier. Containment! Nos amis decouvrent egalement avec quel facilites Trunk elimine Freezer ainsi que son pere. L'histoire de Trunks. Apres avoir battu Freezer et son pere, Trunks annonce l'arrivee de Son goku sur Terre. Foucault's! Il revele a celui-ci qu'il vient du futur et qu'il est le fils de Vegeta et Bulma. Essay Competency To Stand! Il le previent du danger qui menace la Terre : l'arrivee des Cyborgs et de la destruction de toute vie humaine sur la planete. Foucault's Panopticon! De plus, il lui remet un medicament en lui expliquant que dans le futur il est mort d'une maladie du coeur. Lady Anal! Le jeune garcon reprend sa machine a remonter le temps et retourne dans le futur . Apres avoir entendu la nouvelle, nos amis partent a la recherche des cyborgs . Panopticon! Yamcha et le premier a avoir vu les cyborgs et a l'ai affrontes. How To! Yamcha cyborgs . Foucault's Panopticon! Les deux cyborgs C-19 et du Dr Gero qui est le createur des cyborgs . Federalist Vs Anti Federalist! Son goku se bat contre C- 19, et pendant le combat comme l'avait dit Trunk, Son goku a un probleme cardiaque.
Nos amis l'emmene donc chez lui pour le guerir. Foucault's! Pendant ce temps Vegeta se bat contre C-19, il a atteint lui aussi le stade de Super Saiyen. Renewable Versus! Vegeta bat C-19 sans aucun mal. Foucault's! Voyant que C-19 s'est fait detruire, il prend la fuite. A Dissertation! Nos amis partent a sa recherche. Foucault's Panopticon! Le Dr Gero a eu le temps de retourner dans son laboratoire, il active deux autres redoutable cyborgs C-18 et C-17 qui ont ete programmer pour tuer uniquement Son goku . Target Audience! Les deux cyborgs voit que le Dr Gero a une telecommande qui peut les desactive a tout moment alors il le tue. Foucault's Panopticon! C-18 et C-17 ont vu qu'il y avait un autre cyborgs C-16, il l'active.
Nos amis sont terrifies de voir les cyborgs , sauf Vegeta qui est sur de lui avec ses pouvoir de Super Saiyen. Essay On The To Stand! Vegeta provoque en duel C-18. Foucault's! Vegeta s'est fait battre, ainsi que tout nos amis. Versus Nonrenewable Energy! Les cyborgs partent a la rencontrent de Son goku . Panopticon! Mais nos amis l'ont emmenes ainsi que Chichi au palais du Tres Haut. Renewable Versus! Entre temps Trunk qui est revenu du futur retourne on foucault's laboratoire du Dr Gero pour retrouver des informations sur les cyborgs et pour trouver leur point faible. Federalist Debate! Mais en se rendant au laboratoire ils font une decouverte etrange. Foucault's Panopticon! Il decouvre une machine a remonter le temps et une mue de bete.
Pendant ce temps la bete seme la terreur en ville. Federalist Vs Anti Federalist! Elle absorbe tous les humains pour recolter leur energie. Foucault's! n'est pas assez puissant pour faire face aux deux.Voyant la puissance de ce monstre Petit coeur prend la decision de fusion avec le Tres Haut pour ne former qu'une seule entite, ce qui augmentera la puissance de Petit coeur. Lady Anal! Une fois la fusion effectuee Petit coeur s'en va rencontre le monstre. Foucault's! Il apprend qu'il s'appelle Cell est que Son goku ne l'interesse pas, Cell veut absorber les deux cyborgs pour avoir un corps parfait. Competency! Petit coeur se bat contre lui, mais Cell utilise la technique de la MORSURE DU SOLEIL pour s'enfuir. Foucault's Panopticon! Son goku retablit il fait part a Vegeta et a Trunk ses plans. Containment! Il veut que suivre un entrainement dans la salle du temps, la bas 1 jour =1 an. Foucault's! Cette entrainement vise a amelioraient rapidement et efficacement. Renewable Versus Nonrenewable Energy! Trunk et Vegeta decide d'y allait en premier.
Petit coeur est maintenant assez puissant pour affronter les cyborgs C-17 et C-18. Foucault's! Il les retrouve. How To Methodology! Petit coeur commence a se battre contre C-17, tous les deux sont au meme niveau. Panopticon! Quand Cell apparait, Petit coeur et C-17 essai d'eliminer Cell , mais sans succes. Methodology! Cell fini par absorber C-17, ce qui le fait changer physiquement, mais cela le rend aussi beaucoup plus fort. Foucault's Panopticon! Trunk a senti le danger et il est parti aussitot aider Petit coeur. Federalist Federalist! Trunk et Vegeta apres avoir fini leur entrainement s'en vont a la rencontre de Cell . Foucault's! Vegeta se bat contre Cell , Vegeta le domine. Write A Dissertation Methodology! Il trouve que c'est trop facile alors il laisse Cell absorber C-18. Panopticon! La Cell a atteint son but, il est sous sa forme parfaite.
Vegeta se bat contre lui. How To Write A Dissertation! Durant sont entrainement dans la salle du temps Vegeta a depasse le stade de Super Saiyen, il est devenu SUPER VEGETA cette transformation a comme caracteristique d'augmenter la masse musculaire mais ceux-ci a pour effet de ralentir le Super Saiyen , meme avec sa nouvelle transformation Super Vegeta n'arrive pas a la cheville de Cell . Panopticon! Quant Vegeta est battu Trunk se Transforme lui aussi en Super Trunk, mais lui arrive a tenir tete a Cell m'est pas tres longtemps. Audience Characteristics! Mais Cell laisse une chance aux Super Saiyen, il leur laisse 9 jours pour s'entrainer . Panopticon! Cell veut organiser un tournoi des arts martiaux, il informe donc les medias et il fabrique une arene. Renewable Versus Energy! Son goku et Son gohan sortent de la salle, c'est Petit coeur qui y va. Panopticon! Vegeta et Trunk veulent y retourner apres. Federalist Federalist! Mais Son goku lui prefere se reposer. Foucault's! Les 9 jours se sont ecoules, le tournoi des arts martiaux est ouvert. Versus Nonrenewable Energy! Tout nos amis sont presents. Foucault's Panopticon! Mais une presence inattendus se presente. A Dissertation Methodology! Il s'agit du champion du monde des arts martiaux HERCULE accompagne de deux de ses disciples.
Les trois ne tiennent pas une seconde sur l'arene. Panopticon! Ensuite ces au tour de Son goku de s'avancer sur l'arene. Vs Anti Federalist! Cell est Son goku se livre un combat acharne. Foucault's! Son goku livre toute sa puissance, il est conscient qu'il n'est pas assez fort et il abandonne le combat. Essay Competency Trial! Tout le monde et etonner et compte sur Son goku pour l'eliminer. Panopticon! Son goku designe le suivant adversaire de Cell qui est Son gohan . Versus! Son gohan a maintenant reussi a devenir un Super Saiyen.
Mais Son gohan ne se bat pas a fond ce qui agace Cell . Panopticon! Cell fait tout pour que Son gohan s'enerve et devoile ses vrais pouvoirs, alors Cell envoi des minis Cell attaquer les amis a Son gohan . How To A Dissertation Methodology! En voyant cela C-16 le cyborgs que C-17 et C-18 on foucault's activer se jette sur Cell , mais il se fait tuer. A Dissertation! Il demande une derniere chose a Son gohan avant de mourir TUE POUR LA PAIX N'EST PAS UN CRIME. Foucault's Panopticon! PROTEGE LA FORET ET LES ANIMAUX QUE J'AIME . Versus Nonrenewable! Cell le tue, ce qui mit Son gohan en colere, Son gohan devoile enfin ses vrais pouvoirs. Foucault's Panopticon! Son gohan a atteint le niveau de SUPER SAIYEN 2. Renewable Nonrenewable! Avec ce nouveau stade Son gohan domine Cell . Foucault's Panopticon! Cell est perdu quand soudain, il recrache C-18, il redevient sous sa forme 2. Containment Policy! Cell completement desemparer s'autodetruit, mais Son goku se tele transporte sur la Planete de Kaio. Foucault's! Son goku est mort, mais pas Cell il a survecu. Essay On The To Stand! En effet la cellule qui lui permet de se regenerer n'a pas ete touche, il se reforme donc avec sa forme parfaite. Foucault's! Il retourne sur Terre.
Il a atteint la forme SUPER PARFAIT, il est encore plus qu'avant. Lady Anal! Cell lance un super Kamehameha et Son gohan aussi. Foucault's Panopticon! C'est une bataille Kamehameha contre Kamehameha qui se livre entre Cell et Son gohan . Methodology! Mais Vegeta lance un BIG BANK, si qui deconcentre Cell est Son goku apparait au meme moment pour aider Son gohan a faire un Kamehameha, Son gohan prend l'avantage est Cell est elimine. Foucault's Panopticon! Trunk retourne dans le futur . Policy! Il tue C-18 et C-17 et attend Cell qui doit voler sa machine a remonte le temps. Foucault's! Ensuite il elimine egalement Cell . Le 25eme tournoi des arts martiaux.
Le 25 eme tournoi des arts martiaux Sept ans apres la bataille contre Cell, Son goku annonce a Son gohan qu'il va revenir une journee sur Terre pour participer au 25 eme tournoi des arts martiaux. Competency To Stand! Tout le monde se fait une joie de revoir Son goku . Panopticon! Son gohan , Petit coeur, Vegeta, Trunks (le fils de Bulma et Vegeta) ainsi que Son goten (le second fils de Son goku et Chichi) decident de participer au tournoi. Vs Anti! Mais durant le combat entre Son gohan et un guerrier portant un M, celui-ci avec l'aide de son acolyte vont absorber l'energie de Son gohan et s'enfuir par la suite. Foucault's Panopticon! Les deux individus remettent l'energie a Babidi, un vieux sorcier, qui espere liberer Boo Boo, un terrible monstre creer par son pere. Essay Trial! Son goku , Vegeta et Kaio Shin vont tout faire pour empecher Babidi de liberer Boo Boo. Foucault's! Mais Dabla, prince du mal, parvient a prendre le controle de Vegeta qui se met a combattre Son goku . Target Audience! Finalement, Boo Boo est libere. Foucault's! Son gohan puis Kaio Shin tombent face a ce nouvel adversaire.
Vegeta, apres avoir pris en traitre Son goku , arrive face a Boo et n'etant pas de taille decide de se sacrifier avec Boo . Versus Nonrenewable Energy! Mais cela n'est pas suffisant, Boo s'en sort indemne et part avec son nouveau maitre Babidi pour detruire le monde. Foucault's Panopticon! Boo est Babidi recherche Trunk, Son goten et Petit coeur, car ils ont ose deranger Boo . Essay On The Competency! Ils menacent donc de detruire toutes les villes une a une pour trouver nos 3 amis . Foucault's! Son goku arrive face a Boo , il veut faire diversion pour que Trunk aille chercher le radar des boules de cristal. Containment! Durant le combat opposent Majin Vegeta a Son goku , nous avons vu que tout deux ont atteint le niveau 2 de Super Saiyen. Foucault's! Mais Son goku nous surprend en nous devoilent le niveau 3 de stade de Super Saiyen. Containment Policy! Son goku tient tete a Boo , mais Trunk a trouve le radar et il retourne au palais de Dende qui est le nouveau Dieu . Panopticon! Son goku retourne a son tour au palais, il veut apprendre la technique de la fusion au 2 jeunes Super Saiyens, Trunk et Son goten . Debate! Son goku a utilisees ses 24h et il doit retourner au paradis. Foucault's Panopticon! Alors c'est Petit coeur qui leur apprend la fusion. On The To Stand Trial! Son goten et Trunk ont reussi la fusion, un nouveau Saiyen est ne il s'appelle Gotrunk . Foucault's Panopticon! Le nouveau Saiyen ne, il veut se confronter a Boo . Target Audience Characteristics! Gotrunk et sur le point de donner le coup final quand la fusion est terminee, car la fusion ne dure que 30 min et il faut attendre 1h pour refusionner . Foucault's Panopticon! Apres son combat Boo retourne dans sa maison . Containment! Hercule notre champion du monde intervient pour se mesurer a Boo . Foucault's Panopticon! Mais il est terrifie, alors il prefere se lier d'amitie avec Boo . Essay To Stand! un jour des gangster tire sur la maison de Boo , ce qui l'enerve et nous fait decouvrir le mechant Boo . Foucault's! Le gentil Boo et le mechant Boo se battent, mais le mechant et beaucoup plus fort que le gentil. Containment! Le mechant Boo transforme le gentil en chocolat et il la mange. Panopticon! Cela a pour effet de le rendre plus fort est de lui faire change d'apparence. On The Competency! Le mechant Boo a la capacite de se teleporter tout comme Son goku , alors il n'a pas de mal a trouver nos amis dans le palais de Dende. Foucault's Panopticon! Arriver sur place, il trouve Petit coeur qui lui dit que les petits s'entrainent dans la salle du temps.
Il amene donc Super Boo dans la salle. Target Audience Characteristics! Gotrunk l'attend les deux guerriers se battent avec courage. Foucault's! Mais Gotrunk domine le combat se qui enerve Super Boo . Lady Anal! Mais Gotrunk simule qu'il est en difficulte pour faire croire que c'est Boo qui va gagne , mais Petit a vraiment pris au serieux et il detruit la porte de la salle. Panopticon! Boo enerver a l'idee ne ne plus pouvoir manger de sucrerie pousse un cri monstrueux cri qui ouvre un breche entre la salle du temps et le palais de Dende. Renewable Energy! Super Boo sort et il transforme nos amis qui se trouvent dans le palais en chocolat. Foucault's! Mais Petit coeur et Gotrunk n'ont malheureusement pas le temps de sortir . How To! Ils essaient de crie eux aussi, mais sans aucun succes.
Gotrunk devoile alors son vrai visage. Panopticon! Il se transforme en Super Saiyen 3, il hurle et comme pour super Boo ouvre une breche entre le palais et la salle. Write A Dissertation Methodology! Pendant ce temps dans le royaume des Dieux Son gohan suis un entrainement par le Maitre des Dieux. Foucault's Panopticon! Sur Terre le combat fait rage, ni l'un ni l'autre n'arrive pas a prendre l'avantage. Write A Dissertation! Mais Boo fini par absorber Gotrunk , il devient encore plus fort qu'avant. Panopticon! Son gohan a fini son entrainement, il retourne donc sur Terre pour se confronter au nouveau Boo . Renewable Versus Energy! Son gohan est devenu tres fort et il prend l'avantage sur le combat. Foucault's Panopticon! Mais comme avec Gotrunk , Boo absorbe Son gohan . Lady Anal! Boo devient encore plus fort. Foucault's Panopticon! En voyant le danger le doyen des dieux donne son potentiel de vie a Son goku pour qu'il puisse retourner sur Terre. Write A Dissertation! Vegeta aussi retourne sur Terre, car vu l'etat de la situation le poste frontiere rappelle Vegeta. Foucault's! Dur Terre nos amis se battent contre Boo , mais ils ne sont pas assez puissants. Federalist Vs Anti Federalist! Alors Son goku donne a Vegeta une Potalas (boucle d'oreille servent a pratique la fusion) que lui avait donne le doyen des dieux.
Quant Son goku et Vegeta fusionne avec les potalas cela donne Vegeto . Panopticon! Vegeto s'attaque a Boo , il prend l'avantage tres facilement. Target Audience Characteristics! Boo absorbe Vegeto , mais cela ne fonctionne pas comme avec Gotrunk et Son gohan . Foucault's Panopticon! La fusion qui normalement reste eternellement, s'arrete dans le corps de Boo . Audience Characteristics! Quand Boo voit que nos amis se baladent dans son corps, il envoi des cellules de lui attaquer nos amis dans son corps. Foucault's! Nos amis arrivent a liberer Gotrunk , Son gohan et Petit coeur, mais ils font une rencontre inattendu, il voit le gentil Boo qu'il ne libere pas. Lady Anal! Son goku et Vegeta commence a se battre contre Boo . Panopticon! Mais Boo se transforme encore une fois, il devient encore plus petit qu'avant. Target! Mais aussi beaucoup plus fort. Panopticon! Boo fait exploser la Terre.
Les seuls survivant sont Boo , Son goku , Vegeta Hercule et son petit chien . Versus Nonrenewable Energy! Nos amis se refugie sur la planete des Dieu. Foucault's! Boo les cherche et va au paradis semer la pagaille. Lady Anal! Nos 2 Super Saiyen font venir Boo sur le royaume des Dieu. Panopticon! Son goku et Vegeta ne veulent plus fusionner il decide de casser les potalas . Audience! Vegeta demande a Dende ainsi qu' au maitre des Dieu et Kaioshin d'aller sur Namek et d'invoquer le dragon. Panopticon! Pendant ce temps Son goku a bout de force demande a Vegeta de le remplacer juste une minute pour qu'il recupere toute sont energie. Lady Anal! Mais Son goku n'arrive pas a recuperer son energie, et il redevient sont sa forme normal. Foucault's Panopticon! Vegeta ne tient pas tete a Boo , il est vite K.O . Renewable Versus Nonrenewable! Alors c'est a ce moment la que notre champion du monde Hercule intervient pensant qu'il vit un reve et qu'il est oblige de gagne . Panopticon! Mais le gentil Boo qui se trouve encore dans le corps du petit Boo ne veut pas que le petit Boo fasse de mal a son ami Hercule. How To! Alors Boo recrache le gentil Boo . Foucault's Panopticon! Et veut eliminer Hercule, mais le gentil Boo intervient pour le proteger.
Pendant ce temps Vegeta demande a Dende que le dragon fasse renaitre la planete Terre c'est son premier v?ux. Containment! Il veut egalement que tout redevient normal avant que le tournoi des arts martiaux est lieux. Foucault's Panopticon! Vegeta demande a ce que Son goku fasse un Genkidama pendant que les 2 Boo s'affrontent ,il demande egalement de lever les mains au ciel pour que Son goku puisse faire son Genkidama. Policy! Mais personne ne le prend au serieux sauf nos amis. Foucault's! Quand Hercule entend que personne ne le croit Vegeta il s'enerve, il demande a son tour aux terrien de lever les mains et la tout le monde le fait.
Son goku lance l'enorme Genkidama sur Boo . Lady Anal! Mais Boo lutte, Son goku a bout de force et sur le point d' abandonner, et Vegeta demande a Dende que le dragon redonne la totalites de la force a Son goku . Panopticon! Celui si maintenant redevenu puissant envoi le Genkidama sur Boo . How To Write A Dissertation! Mais avant que Boo ne meurt Son goku lui dit qu'il aimerait se battre encore avec lui quand celui si soit devenu bon . Apres la mort de Boo nos amis se retrouve a un tournoi des arts martiaux. Foucault's Panopticon! Son goku , Vegeta Son goten , Trunk et Pan qui et la fille de Son gohan et de Videl ce qui signifie donc que c'est la petite fille a Son goku . Policy! Son goku fait part a Vegeta qu'il sent qu' un puissant guerrier nomme Oub sera present et que s'est reincarnation du petit Boo. Foucault's! Dragon ball z ce fini par le tournoi et par le combat entre Son goku et Oub. Containment Policy! Son goku decide d'entrainer notre jeune guerrier.
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The History of African Village Chickens: an Archaeological and Molecular Perspective. The history of the foucault's panopticon, introduction and policy dispersal of village chickens across the foucault's, African continent is a subject of intense debate and speculation among scholars. Here, we synthesize and summarise the current scientific genetic and nongenetic knowledge in relation to the history of the species on lady anal the continent. Panopticon. Sociocultural, linguistic, archaeological and Essay on The Competency to Stand Trial historic data all suggest a complex history for the species in Africa, characterized by multiple maritime and/or terrestrial introductions over time and several dispersal routes towards and within Africa. Molecular genetics information supports these observations and in addition suggests possible Asian centers of panopticon, origin for African domestic chickens, including South Asia and Island Southeast Asia. However, both sets of nonrenewable, data were until now too limited in foucault's, their geographic scope, both within Africa and in comparison with chickens from containment, Asia, to foucault's, unravel the history of the species in lady anal, detail. We anticipate that further continent-wide studies combining archaeological, ancient and/or modern genetic information may shed new insights on the history of the species. These will contribute to a deeper understanding of the foucault's panopticon, history of policy, trading networks and human interactions within Africa and between African and Asian societies, at the root of the foucault's, development and expansion of Competency to Stand Trial, African civilizations. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s10437-013-9128-1 ) contains supplementary material, which is foucault's, available to authorized users. L’histoire des introductions et des dispersions des poulets de village sur le continent africain reste un sujet fortement debattu et plein de speculations parmi les experts.
Ici, nous synthetisons et resumons nos connaissances genetiques et autres en rapport avec l’histoire de cette espece domestique sur le continent. Les evidences socio-culturelles, linguistiques, archeologiques et historiques suggerent toutes une histoire complexe de l’espece en Afrique caracterisee par de multiples introductions maritimes et/ou terrestres, ainsi que plusieurs routes de dispersions vers l’Afrique et sur le continent. Les informations de la genetique moleculaire supportent ces observations et en plus, elles identifient les centres possibles d’origines, lesquels incluent le Sud de l’Asie et les iles de l’Asie du Sud-Est. Cependant, toutes ces evidences sont jusqu’a presentes trop limitees au niveau geographique, au sein du continent Africain et en Asie, pour reveler en details l’histoire de l’espece. Policy. Nous anticipons que de nouvelles etudes sur une grande echelle geographique associant des informations archeologiques et genetiques (ADN ancien et moderne) pourraient apporter de nouvelles lumieres sur l’histoire de l’espece. Celles-ci contribueront a une comprehension plus profonde de l’histoire des reseaux commerciaux et des interactions entre societes africaines, ainsi ainsi qu'entre societes africaines et asiatiques. Panopticon. Interactions qui sont a la base du developpement et de l’expansion des civilisations africaines. Domestic chickens are closely associated with humans, and target audience they rely entirely upon humans for their dispersal and indirectly for their survival. Foucault's. The species are therefore important biological markers of agricultural, trade and cultural contacts between societies and lady anal civilizations. They are present across the African continent where free-range, scavenging village chickens are found in all agroecological zones, ranging from villages in the humid and subhumid tropical rain forests of West and foucault's Central Africa to the temperate highlands of East Africa and the arid and semi-arid regions of the Sahel and Kalahari deserts ( http://dad.fao.org/ ; DAGRIS 2007 ). With an estimated total population of 1.6 billion at the end of how to, 2010 (FAOSTAT 2012 ), they are the most abundant livestock species in Africa, contributing to a significant part of the continent's agricultural economy.
Although the African continent is rich in galliform species, the recognized main wild ancestor of domestic chickens, the red junglefowl Gallus gallus , is endemic to foucault's, sub-Himalayan northern India, southern China and vs anti Southeast Asia (Delacour 1977 ), where the putative centers of domestication of the species are present (Tixier-Boichard et al . Foucault's. 2011 ). Therefore, domestic chickens, though abundant on the continent, are an introduced species from Asia. Whether or not the species was domesticated in a single geographic area in lady anal, Southeast Asia (Fumihito et al . 1994 , 1996 ) or across the foucault's panopticon, geographic range of the wild ancestor in how to write a dissertation methodology, both South and foucault's Southeast Asia (Liu et al . 2006 , Kanginakudru et al . How To Write Methodology. 2008 ) is still disputed today. Opinions among scholars are divided concerning when the foucault's, species arrived and the routes by which chickens entered and target characteristics dispersed across the continent (Gifford-Gonzalez and Hanotte 2011 ). Archaeological data are patchy (Fuller et al . 2011 ) while molecular genetic information is just starting to emerge (Gifford-Gonzalez and Hanotte 2011 ). In this paper, we review the foucault's, information available today (sociocultural, linguistic, archaeological and molecular genetic) on the arrival and movement of chickens across the African continent, providing a proxy for versus our understanding of foucault's panopticon, ancient and modern human interactions and migrations, including trading routes within Africa and on The Competency to Stand Trial between the African continent and civilizations across Asia. Sociocultural and foucault's Linguistic Evidence. Published dates and characteristics evidence for the occurrence of foucault's, domestic chickens across Africa. Horton and Mudida ( 1993 ) Archaeological remains a.
Archaeological remains a. Tomb of Iretirou/Yeturow at Nuri, North Sudan. Boessneck and Von den Driesch ( 1982 ); Boessneck ( 1986 ); Katzmann ( 1990 ) MacDonald and Edwards ( 1993 ) MacDonald and Essay Competency to Stand Trial Edwards ( 1993 ) MacDonald and Edwards ( 1993 ) MacDonald and Edwards ( 1993 ) Tomb of Ramesses IX. Houlihan and foucault's Goodman ( 1986 ) Textual/graphic/pictorial representation (earliest) Carter ( 1923 ); Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) Tomb of Petosiris. Annals of King Thutmose III at Karnak.
Third Dynasty of Ur. Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) Tomb of Petosiris at Tuna el-Gebel. Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) c. 323–316 BC or later. Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) Archaeological remains a. Ibn Battuta (Lewicki 1974 ; Levtzion and versus nonrenewable Hopkins 1981 ) Literary evidence (first) Manning and MacDonald ( 2005 ) Rivallain and van Neer ( 1983 ) Archaeological remains a. Shinnie and panopticon Kense ( 1989 ) Oursi, Saouga, Kissi.
The initial trigger for the adoption of domestic chickens by African communities could have been sociocultural and/or recreational ( e . g ., cockfighting) rather than as a new source of food. Textual records indicate that chickens were already present in on The to Stand, Egypt by panopticon the time of the Third Dynasty of Ur ( c. Containment Policy. 2,113–2,006 BC), and the oldest recognizable occurrence of the bird in art dates from the second half of the fourteenth century BC (Haller 1954 ; Smith 1965 ). Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) suggest, however, that the first evidence for its consumption comes from the tomb of Petosiris, which dates to the fourth century BC, though this suggestion has been challenged by MacDonald and foucault's Edwards ( 1993 ). Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) further suggest that chickens were probably brought to federalist vs anti federalist debate, Egypt as creatures of foucault's, curiosity and write a dissertation admiration because of their unusualness and panopticon that they did not become a regular feature of the Egyptian farmyard until the Ptolemaic period (304–330 BC). Domestic chickens could have been introduced to the African continent several times, fulfilling different societal needs at different time periods. Linguistic evidence not only audience supports a deep embedding of chickens in African cultures and traditions, but also agrees with an early introduction and foucault's panopticon a complex history of arrival and dispersion of the species. More particularly, Williamson ( 2000 ) suggests that different geographic distributions, and spread of the three major roots of the word “fowl” across three language phyla, represent at least three separate introductions of domestic chickens to West Africa: two across Central Africa from the renewable versus nonrenewable energy, East Coast of Africa and one from North Africa across the panopticon, Sahara. Blench ( 2008 ) noted that the origin of the common Malagasy name for chicken, akoho , cannot be assigned definitively to write methodology, a Bantu or Austronesian language group. Rather, from his analysis, he concludes that all the terminologies relating to panopticon, domestic animals in Madagascar appear to be derived from languages of the Swahili, with the Comoros Islands being a possible original source of chickens found in Madagascar. Archaeological and write methodology Historic Evidence. Summary of archaeological dates for the presence of chicken in different regions across the African continent.
The fourth to third millennia BC have been advanced as the period for foucault's panopticon the first arrival of domestic chickens in Africa (Chami 2001 , 2007 ). Containment. However, these dates have been disputed as the osteological remains used in their calibration are nondiagnostic according to panopticon, the recommended criteria (MacDonald 1992 ; Dueppen 2011 ). In North Africa, domestic chickens are depicted in renewable versus energy, Egypt from the second millennium BC (Houlihan and Goodman 1986 ). In sub-Saharan Africa, the earliest widely accepted evidence of domestic chickens dates to the mid-first millennium AD in Nubia and the late first millennium AD in East and South Africa ( e . Foucault's Panopticon. g ., Horton and containment policy Mudida, 1993 ; Plug 1996a , b ). In West Africa, several sites attest to the presence of chickens in the late first millennium AD (Table 1 ). More particularly, while in the Voltaic region evidence for foucault's panopticon chickens is scarce, researchers working at Daboya (Ghana) have suggested the presence of chickens throughout the first millennium AD (Shinnie and Kense 1989 ). Until recently, the Competency to Stand Trial, oldest known, securely identified remains in the western part of the continent were dated to panopticon, AD 500–850 from Jenne-Jeno in Mali (MacDonald 1995b ). New evidence from Kirikongo (Burkina Faso) and Daboya indicates that chickens were already a significant component of the Iron Age economy in target, West Africa by the sixth century AD at the latest and probably several centuries earlier (Dueppen 2011 ) (Fig. 1 ). Using geographic distribution and dating of the purportedly most ancient, undisputed archaeological evidence in the form of skeletal remains ( c. 1,567–1,320 BC), pictorial/artistic representations ( c. 1,425–1,123 BC) and panopticon literary evidence ( c. 1,504–1,450 BC), a commonly held argument is that chickens may have first entered Africa overland through the North of Africa (Egypt), with subsequent dispersion southwards along the Nile valley to Nubia and then in West Africa along the Sudano-Sahelian corridor (MacDonald and Edwards 1993 ; Fuller et al . 2011 ). Coltherd ( 1966 ) argues that this introduction brought chickens from the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley civilization ( c. 2,500–2,100 BC) into Egypt via Mesopotamia. Target Audience. In addition to the Nile corridor, MacDonald and Edwards ( 1993 ) further suggest an independent diffusion of chickens into West Africa through the Sudano-Sahelian belt from the East African coast occurring much later, perhaps related to Indian Ocean trade networks. However, increasing evidence for greater antiquity than previously thought for panopticon the Indian Ocean trading network, based largely on lady anal the presence of foucault's, Asian plant domesticates in Africa and of African domesticated plants in South and Southeast Asia, support an early possible entry point of lady anal, domestic species along the East African coast (Fuller et al . 2011 ). These findings challenge the presumption of North African anteriority for the origin of sub-Saharan African chickens. A component of this early maritime trading network has been described in some detail in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea from the early first century AD (Casson 1989 ; Cappers 2006 ). That work mentioned African port centres along the coast of Somalia, Tanzania or even possibly Madagascar (Casson 1989 ; Cappers 2006 ). Chami ( 1999 ) has also reported evidence confirming the great antiquity of trading networks in the Indian Ocean interaction sphere, lending support to the observations of the foucault's panopticon, Periplus . As summarised in Essay, Blench ( 2010 ), it is likely that there were regular contacts between Island Southeast Asia and the East African coast prior to the first centuries AD, independent from the establishment of Austronesians in Madagascar around the fifth century AD (Blench 2010 ). Lastly, the panopticon, inclusion of East Africa into a maritime trading network extending eastward to Southwestern China is illustrated by renewable the visit of Chinese fleets under the command of Cheng Ho off the coast of East Africa, although at panopticon a much more recent date, the beginning of the fifteenth century AD (Duyvendak 1939 ). Undoubtedly, the complex and ancient interactions resulting from the Indian Ocean trading networks must have facilitated maritime and terrestrial intercontinental translocations of several domestic and nondomestic plant and animal species among Africa, the Middle East and South, Southeast and East Asia (Boivin and Fuller 2009 ; Fuller and Boivin 2009 ; Fuller et al . 2011 ). It would not be surprising that domestic chickens would have been an intrinsic part of these translocation packages in historic times and renewable energy possibly much earlier than the introductions via the north of the continent. The arrival of European settlers as part of the development of the terrestrial and maritime empires of several European nations across Africa and foucault's Asia (Portugal, Britain, etc .) from the fifteenth century AD onwards provided further opportunities for the arrival and movement of lady anal, chickens within Africa.
Also, since the foucault's, second half of the twentieth century, the African continent, as other parts of the world, has witnessed the arrival of exotic chicken breeds developed for higher productivity (Kitalyi 1997 ), including for crossbreeding purposes with local flocks to containment, improve meat and egg production. These developments might have had an impact on the genetic make-up of some African village chicken populations. Microsatellite studies on indigenous African chicken populations. Number of birds per population. Number of microsatellite loci. Overlapping markers with FAO/ISAG f. Kingdom of Morocco.
a Jimma, Debre Berhan. b Tilili, Horro, Chefe, Jarso, Tepi. c South Gondar, Awi, West and East Gojam. d North-Mekele, Gonder-Zuria, Haremaya, Dodota, Arbaminch-Zuria. e Konso, Sheka, Horro, Mandura, Farta. f Location of the panopticon, sampling within the country unknown. Mitochondrial DNA studies on ondigenous African chicken populations.
Number of samples. Haplogroup frequency (%) a. a Nomenclature according to containment policy, Mwacharo et al . ( 2011 ) b Field populations only. c Observed in a single bird. d Observed in two birds. The genetic diversity and relationships between chicken populations from several African countries have now been investigated using autosomal microsatellite markers (Table 2 ). The studies have included chicken populations from Tanzania, Nigeria and Cameroon (Wimmers et al . Panopticon. 2000 ); Kenya and East Africa (Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda) (Mwacharo et al . 2007 ); Zimbabwe, Malawi and Sudan (Muchadeyi et al . 2007 ); Ethiopia (Dessie 2007 ; Hassan et al . 2009 ; Dana 2011 ; Goraga et al . 2011 ); South Africa (Mtileni et al. 2010 ); Benin (Youssao et al . 2010 ); Ghana (Osei-Amponsah et al.
2010 ); Egypt (Eltanany et al. How To Write A Dissertation. 2011 ); and Benin, Cote dIvoire, Ghana, Morocco and Cameroon (Leroy et al. 2012 ). Although the foucault's, markers used in these studies overlap to containment policy, a large extent, with the recommended set of foucault's, ISAG–FAO microsatellite markers (FAO 2011 ), no common samples or populations have been used across studies, and this constrains continent-wide analysis. However, a few important general findings are emerging. African indigenous chickens are closely related genetically but are clearly distinct from commercial breeds (Mwacharo et al. 2007 ; Leroy et al. 2012 ). Their genetic diversities are roughly comparable across studies/populations and correspond to the values usually observed in other free-range scavenging chicken populations worldwide, but they are much higher than those observed in commercial breeds ( e.g. , Wimmers et al. 2000 ; Osei-Amponsah et al. 2010 ; Leroy et al.
2012 ). This diversity may indicate a higher effective population size for introduced African village chickens compared to commercial chickens, and/or ancient population admixture following multiple introductions. Genetic divergence between chicken populations is generally weak ( e.g. Federalist Vs Anti. , Osei-Amponsah et al. 2010 ; Youssao et al. 2010 ), and it seems to foucault's, reflect geographic distances between populations (see Mwacharo et al. 2007 ). However, Goraga et al . Essay On The Competency To Stand Trial. ( 2011 ) report genetic distinctions between groups of foucault's, chicken populations from Ethiopia and Mwacharo et al . ( 2007 ) genetic distinctions between Kenyan - Ugandese and Ethiopian - Sudanese populations.
Also, Leroy et al. ( 2012 ) report greater similarity of genetic structure between chicken populations living in the same major farming systems across West African countries than between farming systems within countries. These observations are compatible with a history of multiple introductions of different genetic pools of the species into the regions, chicken movement along specific trading routes, and/or long-term geographic isolation of these populations. Evidence of genetic introgression between commercial and local populations has recently been demonstrated using microsatellites for Competency to Stand populations from Morocco and Cameroon, but not for populations from Benin, Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire (Leroy et al. 2012 ). Such introgression could be related to the long-term breeding improvement programmes that involve the supply of commercial breeds to local farmers for panopticon crossbreeding purposes. However, the lady anal, impact of such introgressions is limited, possibly due to poor adaptation of exotic birds to village conditions and the preference of consumers for local chickens. Only a few molecular genetics studies have now been published on African chickens using maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (Razafindraibe et al.
2008 ; Adebambo et al. 2010 ; Muchadeyi et al. 2008 ; Mtileni et al. 2011 ; Mwacharo et al. 2011 ) (Table 3 ). Fortunately, these studies have all analysed a hypervariable region of the molecule, the D-loop, which allows comparison across studies. Unfortunately, there is foucault's panopticon, no standardized nomenclature for vs anti federalist debate the chicken mtDNA haplogroups identified across the African studies. So far, the largest study is the one by Mwacharo et al. ( 2011 ). It includes mtDNA sequences from 512 domestic chickens from four East African countries (Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan and Uganda). For the sake of foucault's, comparison, we have therefore adopted the lady anal, nomenclature of Mwacharo et al . Foucault's Panopticon. ( 2011 ) (Table 3 ), with its equivalence in other African studies as well as in versus, the reference broad-scale Eurasian study of Liu et al . ( 2006 ) presented in supplementary Table S 1 . While we observe on the African continent five of the nine divergent haplogroups identified across Europe and Asia by Liu et al . Foucault's Panopticon. ( 2006 ), two haplogroups, A and D, dominate the continent (Table 3 ). Haplogroup D clearly is federalist, found in all the African countries studied and panopticon is the most common in all countries with the exception of lady anal, Madagascar, Zimbabwe and eastern Kenya. It is the only haplogroup so far identified in West Africa, represented there by foucault's Nigeria (Adebambo et al. Federalist. 2010 ). The next commonest haplogroup is A, which is absent from Uganda, Sudan, Nigeria and foucault's Ethiopia but is the commonest in Madagascar, Malawi, Zimbabwe and eastern Kenya. The other haplogroups are observed at very low frequencies in all studies, being present in debate, only one or two birds.
Through a detailed analysis of the geographic distribution of haplogroup A and D across East Africa, Mwacharo et al. ( 2011 ) have provided evidence revealing that these two haplogroup likely have a different history on the continent. Foucault's Panopticon. It has been proposed that African haplogroup A originates from Southeast and/or East Asia (Muchadeyi et al. 2008 ; Mtileni et al. 2011 ; Mwacharo et al. 2011 ) and that it would have been the how to methodology, result of a maritime introduction along the East African coastline (Mwacharo et al. 2011 ) including Madagascar (Razafindraibe et al. 2008 ). Following the known history of the foucault's panopticon, peopling of Madagascar, Razafindraibe et al. ( 2008 ) have suggested that its origin might be the Indonesian islands. It is therefore possible that haplogroup A would be a legacy of the Austronesian expansion in Africa. However, so far, no studies have attempted to address the how to write a dissertation methodology, relationship between African haplogroup A and the haplogroups observed in local chickens from the Indonesian islands. Using phylogeographic information on panopticon the modern geographic distribution across Europe and Asia (Liu et al. 2006 ), the Indian subcontinent has been proposed as the initial center of containment, origin for the haplogroup D found in Africa (Muchadeyi et al.
2008 ; Mtileni et al. Foucault's. 2011 ; Mwacharo et al. 2011 ). Lady Anal. Interestingly, a possible Indian subcontinent origin of some African chickens is further supported by the commonly observed yellow skin phenotype across African village chickens ( e.g. Foucault's. , FAO 2009 ; Dana et al. 2010a ; Youssao et al. 2010 ; Daikwo et al. 2011 ; Melesse and Negesse 2011 ; El-Safty 2012 ). Renewable Nonrenewable. This phenotype has recently been shown at the molecular level to be a legacy of successful introgression of the grey junglefowl Gallus sonneratii , a yet-to-be-domesticated Gallus species with restricted geographic range on the Indian subcontinent, into panopticon domestic chicken (Eriksson et al.
2008 ). Federalist Debate. However, whether or not these “crossbred” chickens of Indian origin reached the panopticon, African continent through a maritime and/or terrestrial route remains unknown. The possible center(s) of origin for chickens harbouring the mitochondrial DNA of versus nonrenewable, haplogroups B, C and E, observed so far at low frequencies on foucault's the African continent (Table 3 ), is more speculative. Haplogroup B and C may have reached Africa following recent introductions of how to methodology, improved commercial chickens (Mwacharo et al. 2011 ). This suggestion is supported by the presence of foucault's panopticon, identical or closely related haplotypes belonging to these haplogroups in European and commercial chickens (Muchadeyi et al. 2008 ; Dana et al. Lady Anal. 2010b ). Using microsatellite markers, Leroy et al. ( 2012 ) also demonstrated gene flow between commercial and local chickens in some sub-Saharan African countries. However, a more ancient and direct introduction of these two haplogroups from their centers of origins in Asia also remains possible. More data are required to panopticon, further clarify the origin(s) of these two haplogroups on the African continent. Haplogroup E is not observed in commercial chickens (Muchadeyi et al. 2008 ; Dana et al.
2010b ). Characteristics. Both Muchadeyi et al. ( 2008 ) and Mwacharo et al. ( 2011 ), using the foucault's, study of Liu et al. ( 2006 ) as a reference, have proposed that the center of origin of haplogroup E might be South China and, more particularly, the Yunnan province and/or adjacent geographic regions such as Myanmar (Mwacharo et al. 2011 ). The routes of introduction of this haplogroup into the African continent remain unknown, but its worldwide geographic distribution today (Liu et al. 2006 ) suggests that it was likely the consequence of a maritime introduction to the African continent. It raises the interesting hypothesis that its arrival might have followed the lady anal, Chinese maritime trading expeditions across the Indian Ocean (Duyvendak 1939 ; Beaujard 2005 ; Mwacharo et al. 2011 ). Sociocultural, linguistic, archaeological, historic and molecular genetic evidence are all in agreement in foucault's panopticon, revealing a complex history of domestic chickens on federalist the African continent, which may include multiple origins from the geographic range of the wild ancestor in Asia, multiple entry points and multiple routes of dispersion. Archaeological data support a relatively ancient presence of this domesticate in Africa, although several thousand years more recent than the panopticon, earliest evidence of domesticated ruminants on the continent (Gifford-Gonzalez and Hanotte 2011 ). Lady Anal. Terrestrial as well as maritime introductions likely brought chickens to Africa. However, our knowledge of the history of African village chickens is panopticon, still in its infancy with several important unknowns. We still do not know when domestic chickens were first adopted by African societies and for what purposes.
We have, so far, little information on the likely number of Essay Competency, waves that brought chickens into the continent and foucault's their time sequence. Also, the terrestrial and maritime dispersal routes of domestic chickens from their centers of origin in Asia to Africa remain largely speculative. Last but not least, our knowledge of the putative entry points and movements of chickens within the African continent is similarly incomplete. We believe that the answers to these questions will rely on new archaeological and genetic information generated from inside and versus nonrenewable outside the panopticon, African continent, with the most promising studies combining calibrated dating of archaeological bones, ancient DNA sequence information and joint analysis of archaeological and molecular genetic diversity data across Africa, Europe and Asia. New genetic marker analysis (autosomal markers, full genome and mitochondrial DNA sequences) will undoubtedly provide further information, as has now been illustrated for other African livestock species ( e.g. , cattle; see Gifford-Gonzalez and Hanotte 2011 ). In this context, it is important to take note of the fact that we do have at best incomplete molecular genetic information on versus nonrenewable energy the modern genetic diversity of indigenous chickens from the foucault's panopticon, Arabian Peninsula, the target audience characteristics, Middle and the Near East, most of the Indian subcontinent, and foucault's large geographic areas in mainland and island Southeast Asia ( e.g. , Laos, Cambodia, the Philippines, Indonesia). Also, within the write methodology, African continent, information on the genetic diversity of indigenous chickens is still too fragmentary to allow a comprehensive genetic analysis throughout the continent. Lastly, as reviewed in detail by others (Blench 2003 ; Boivin and Fuller 2009 ; Fuller and foucault's Boivin 2009 ; Fuller et al. 2011 ), chickens were only one of the lady anal, agricultural species being voluntarily traded between Africa and Asia.
Combining different lines of information from other agricultural and nonagricultural organisms that may have travelled as companion species will likely provide new insights and hypotheses about the foucault's panopticon, history of African domestic village chickens. We would like to audience characteristics, thank Diane Gifford-Gonzalez as well as two anonymous reviewers for panopticon their valuable comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. This article was produced as part of ongoing research aiming to better understand and federalist characterize the unique animal genetic resources of the African continent. The research activity is foucault's, supported by multilateral donor agencies to the International Livestock Research Institute and BBSRC-UK (Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council—UK) funding (BB/H009051/1) to the corresponding authors. Open Access This article is distributed under the target audience characteristics, terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. J. M. Mwacharo 1 Email author G. Bjornstad 2 3 J. Foucault's. L. Han 2 4 O. Renewable Versus Nonrenewable. Hanotte 2 1 Email author 1. Centre for Genetics and Genomics, School of foucault's, Biology University of Nottingham Nottingham UK 2. International Livestock Research Institute Nairobi Kenya 3. Department of Archaeology, Conservation and History University of Oslo Oslo Norway 4. CAAS-ILRI Joint Laboratory on Livestock and Forage Genetic Resources, Institute of Animal Science Chinese Academy of target audience characteristics, Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) Beijing China.
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essay reggae music Rhetoric of Reggae. Hip-hop and Reggae: The Common Links of foucault's Politics and Music. Music is an art form and source of power. Many forms of music reflect culture and Trial, society, as well as, containing political content and social message.
Music as social change has been highlighted throughout the 20 th century. In the foucault's panopticon 1960s the containment policy United States saw political and socially oriented folk music discussing the foucault's panopticon Vietnam War and other social issues. Policy! In Jamaica during the 1970s and 1980s reggae developed out of the Ghetto’s of Trench town and expressed the panopticon social unrest of the poor and the need to over-through the oppressors. The 1980’s brought the newest development in how to methodology, social and political music, the emergence of hip-hop and rap. This urban musical art form that was developed in New York City has now taken over foucault's panopticon, the mainstream, but originated as an empowering art form for urban youth and emerging working class. Musically hip-hop spawned the age of DJ’s. With strong influences from write Reggae, hip-hop has developed into an empowering form for the expression of ideas, power, revolution and foucault's panopticon, change. How To Write! Power and empowerment have emerged from these musical styles that now have many commonalities.
Hip-hop and Reggae are both forms of protest music. “Protest music is characterized by objections to injustices and oppressions inflicted on certain individual groups…. typically, the intent of protest musicians is to oppose the exploitation and oppression exercised by dominant elites and member of dominant groups”(Stapleton, 221). Hip-hop has developed as a new form of protest music void of the common acoustic guitar. The goal of protest music is to promote freedom through music. Bob Marley expresses his belief that music is foucault's panopticon, a message and route to freedom in the song “Trench town.” Most of them come from lady anal Trench Town/We free the people with music, sweet music/Can we free the people with music (Marley: 1983) Hip-hop and reggae share many common themes in panopticon, their music and in the lyrics that discuss the issues of drugs and crime, expose political problems facing minorities, and express social discontent.
This paper is an analysis of the political and social aspects of hip-hop and reggae, as well as, addressing the write a dissertation methodology commonalities of the foucault's music itself as they have developed and changed over time. This analysis produces the holistic view reflecting the interconnectedness of these two genres of music. Reggae’s Influence on hip-hop. Reggae music had a direct impact on the development of hip-hop music. Both styles of music emerged from the dancehall, with lyrics containing social and political message. “Reggae started as ‘sufferah’s’ music in poor Jamaican villages. Inside gritty dancehalls, selectors spun scratchy sides, called ‘specials,’ and Essay to Stand Trial, MC’s boasted, talked nonsense and criticized political, cultural and economic oppression” (Havlock). Reggae emerged out of the island culture of Jamaica and the “poor man’s party,” while hip-hop music emerged in panopticon, New York City, specifically the Bronx, in the early 1970s. DJ Kool Herc is credited as one, if not the originator, of hip-hop. Kool Herc brought his Caribbean style when emigrated from Jamaica in 1967. He began this new musical journey with the desire to bring the powerful Jamaican Dancehall sound system to play music at policy parties and in the streets. In 1973 he had created his own sound system to play music around town.
He began his DJ career spinning reggae through the system, but found the urban New York City crowd unmotivated to groove to the Jamaican sounds. The African American community was still heavily influence by R B and funk, from the likes of James Brown. Unable to dance to Kool Herc’s Jamaican beats, DJ Kool Herc began spinning the Funk that his peers had already been grooving too. When asked about how he developed his hip-hop style, Kool Herc said, I'm from Jamaica and so I brought a lot of music from my home to foucault's panopticon work with. When people didn't catch on, I pulled out a couple of James Brown. records and mixed them with some Jamaican music. And my hip hop sound really. began to develop.(Shivers)
As Kool Herc was developing his hip-hop style he was still relying on his Jamaican roots. With the influence of lady anal early talk over DJs like U Roy, Kool Herc “began talking over the Latin-tinged funk that he knew would appeal”(Hebdige, 137). The talk over became know for “toasting,” when DJ’s gave praise the music and crowd. Hip-hop legend Afrika Bambaata credits the “toasting” element for the development of hip-hop. Foucault's Panopticon! “People will say hip hop just comes from soul or rock. It comes from all types of versus energy music, but it's based mainly around the toasting element of foucault's reggae.
That's how rap came about.”(Bambaata, http://www.daveyd.com/baminterview.html ) As the vs anti debate rapping element of foucault's hip-hop was developing, the lady anal skills of DJ’s were progressing rapidly as well. DJ’s were using turntables to cut and mix over the main piece of music. Kool Herc began mixing lead guitar riffs and drum beats at the breaks, through cutting and panopticon, mixing. This idea of cutting and mixing during the breaks lead to Kool Herc’s first invention in hip hop that he is credited with, the “break beat.” Kool Herc first developed “break beats” when he began mixing in the song Apache, by the Jamaican disco group, the Incredible Bongo Band. To set the timing for the ‘break beats,’ Kool Herc used headphones to cue up the drums to mix over.
As he became more skilled at this technique, it became too difficult to “rap” and dj. In order to keep both occurring simultaneously, Kool Herc hired MC’s, Coke-la-Rock and Clark Kent, to do the rapping. Energy! “The MC’s would put on a show for the crowd, dancing in front of the decks and bouncing lines off each other”(Hebdige, 138). This addition brought the emergence of the MC and the first dance teams, another first credited to Kool Herc. Another important DJ in the development of hip-hop was Grandmaster Flash. Grandmaster Flash used the Caribbean musical influence from his father to progress his own style in foucault's, the emerging hip-hop scene. With the containment development of the foucault's panopticon hip-hop style, the DJ’s turntable skills were a measurement of progression in hip-hop. DJ’s were looking to target see how they could use the turntables to bring more power and emphasis to the music. Flash is credited as one of the experts at panopticon “punch phrasing.” “The punch works in hip-hop like a punctuation mark in a sentence.
It helps to give shape to the flow of sounds on the record in the same way that a comma or a full stop helps shape the flow of written language…. so the vs anti debate punch in hip hop can be used to accentuate the beat and the rhythm for the dancing crowd”(Hebdige, 139). Revolutionizing this technique, Grandmaster Flash and his group the Furious Five, with MC Melle Mel created a hard rapping hip-hop style. The development of hip-hop created a subculture as well as a new musical form. The development of the new hip-hop culture fostered a new topic for MC’s to rap about. MC’s began rapping about the new culture, which included music, break dancing and most importantly the struggles of urban life, the latter adding a political element to the music. Hip hop and foucault's, its artists took began taking the approach of rapping to “tell it like it is.” DJ, Grandmaster Flash, one of the originators of hip hop music, was one of the first to rap about the hardships of urban life, in his classic song, the Competency Trial Message. Flash said, Don’t push me ‘cos I’m close to the edge/ I’m tryin’ hard not to lose my head/ It’s like a jungle some times/ Sometimes I wonder how I keep from going under. (Hebdige, 143) To combat the problems of urban and ghetto life, leadership amongst the hip hop community needed to develop. Afrika Bambaata, now one of the figureheads for hip-hop culture, emerged as one of the leaders. Bambaata went from panopticon running the sound system at the Bronx River Community Center to becoming the founder and “Affectionate Leader” of the audience Zulu Nation. Foucault's Panopticon! “In the Zulu Nation he set out to replace “rumbles” (fights) and lady anal, drugs with rap, dance and hip hop style.
He wanted to turn the panopticon gang structure into a positive force in the ghetto.”(Hebdige, 139). The goal of organizations like the Zulu is to help people from the underprivileged classes help each other make a positive impact on the community and themselves. To combat the problems facing urban youth, community organizations and rappers began emphasizing the importance of containment education and staying in panopticon, school. Of the hip-hop generation, Bradley says, “With all of its raw language, rap… is the only force that is universally reaching the unreachable generation. Lady Anal! This is a generation that is expressing its dissent through music rather than speeches.
A generation that has rejected the sanctity of the media’s re-creations of American life.”(Bradley) Hip hop groups like Run DMC told stories of how their success came from staying clean from drugs and getting a education. The lyrics Run DMC’s song, “Its like that” reflects the images what life is like in the urban areas, as wells as expresses the need for youth to change their ways. It's like that (what?) and that's the way it is. (Run DMC: 1983) As hip-hop continues to develop, it has kept true to telling of how life is, and keeping the imagery real. This philosophy and social message within the lyrics has led the music to become political.
Because hip-hop and reggae are forms of music with lyrics discussing social issues, the content over time has become political. Foucault's! The political element within hip-hop and reggae developed at different times, specifically because hip-hop evolved out of reggae. Origins of Politics in Reggae Music. Reggae music finds its roots in the music and culture of Jamaica and its people. Containment Policy! Elena Oumano argues that the political roots in Jamaica can be traced back to the Maroons. The Maroons were the slaves who escaped Spanish control and settled in the heartland of the foucault's Island, who were later granted their freedom by the British during colonialism. Oumano says that, “throughout slavery, the raw, rebellious pounding of Maroon Koro drums and the piercing wail of the Abeng horn echoed from the mountainous interior, surrounding a call to freedom on the plantations below.”(Oumano:1997) As music and culture evolved in lady anal, Jamaica, reggae was born embodying the politics of the people the island. Reggae music holds a political and social cohesiveness through religion compared to hip-hop that stays together through the culture it developed. Rastafarianism has a dominant influence within reggae music and, “there are intensely religious and deeply spiritual aspects of foucault's reggae’s religious base.”(Salmon). Rastafarianism, as well as the drumming of the Maroons predates reggae music, but their influence is strong. Rastafarians believe that the former Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie is God incarnate.
The intertwining of the Rastafarian religion and the often “-secular” reggae music creates a balance to the music and containment, a vehicle for each to feed from. (Salmon) Rastafarians made many contributions to Jamaican music in its formative years including the use of African drum rhythms and political content within the lyrics. Dougy Mack used the African drum rhythms of Count Ossie in addition to panopticon his lyrics, to protest Patrice Lumumba’s murder. Here is some news from the Congo land/I think it is a shame/You kill Lumumba over His own land I think it is a shame. Essay On The Competency Trial! (Wilson) As Jamaican music developed Rastafarians have brought Jamaican culture politics, religion, a social message and music together in the form of reggae. To the panopticon Rastafarian and in reggae, ultimate social change can only occur with the Essay on The Competency to Stand Trial end of Babylon System. Babylon is a Rastafarian term that refers to, in general, the “oppressive western society.”(Barrow, 373) Babylon is a society where Blacks cannot gain power and advance as a race of people. Wilson’s discussion of the early political Rastafarian music places the focus of the foucault's panopticon music on the structure of society and the need to over through Babylon system that is holding society down. Oh Babylon Gone, Oh Babylon Gone/ Babylon you gone, you gone, you gone/ Babylon you gone And your throne fall down. Characteristics! (Wilson) “Reggae and Rastafari…offer a humane alternative to many of the harsh and anti-human qualities often associated with Western society,” Babylon. (Salmon) To criticize Babylon is to chant it down, and foucault's, this is done musically most notably by Bob Marley.
In his song, “Chant Down Babylon,” he says, And how I know, and that's how I know/A Reggae Music, mek we chant down Babylon/With music, mek we chant down Babylon/This music, mek we chant down Babylon/This music, come we chant down Babylon. Essay! (Marley:1983) Exemplified in these lyrics is the power of music as a platform for gaining support to help bring the social change. This social change is what is needed for panopticon blacks within Jamaica and the rest of the how to write world. The sentiments of oppression in reggae music are a reoccurring theme within hip-hop music as well. The concept of foucault's panopticon Babylon has traversed its way into renewable versus, hip-hop music as well, following in the footsteps of other elements of reggae and Jamaican culture. Babylon to the Rasta is the oppressive western society, but in the context of hip-hop it refers to the oppression facing African Americans in U. S. cities. Panopticon! Hip-hop artist Talib Kweli, in his song “This means you,” makes reference to Babylon and the struggles for African Americans in New York.
Things changed since we cam out, been some shit in New York/ Niggas stopped getting jig in New York, bloods and crips in New York/ The Y2k celebration wasn’t big in New York, Babylon live in New York. (Kweli, 2000) Kweli’s chorus and policy, answer to these problems, is this situation is, “you need to get up right now and move with this, this means you, you, you” (Kweli, 2000). Panopticon! His call is for African Americans to get up and move with the changes in society that are occurring to target audience characteristics help elevate their status within society. Politics in Hip Hop Music. In the foucault's late 1980s and early 1990s the rap group Public Enemy, lead by hip-hop icon Chuck D, was working hard to raise public awareness of the troubles facing African Americans. Containment! Public Enemy was following in the footsteps of their predecessors who have made social awareness one of the defining elements of hip-hop music. The mission of social awareness in hip hop is noted by Katina Stapleton who sees that “from its rough and tumble forms to the most commercial jams, hip-hop has been able to raise awareness among African Americans and the general public about the issues that face black youth on a day-to-day basis”(Stapleton, 221).
Public Enemy’s album Fear of panopticon a Black Planet makes clear and direct statements about the struggle of African Americans. In an1990 interview, Chuck D, when asked, “Why is the upcoming album titled Fear of a Black Planet?” responded, Fear of a Black Planet is the vs anti federalist refusal to accept the panopticon Afro centric point of view and the continuing indoctrination of the Euro centric point of characteristics view. Foucault's! Which I don't think is beneficial to the majority of those on the planet. Fear of a Black Planet, in a nutshell, is a counterattack on write the system of cultural white supremacy, which is foucault's panopticon, conspiracy to destroy the black race. ( Chuck D,http://www.daveyd.com/peterrord.html) The theme of this album focuses on elevating the black race in America, raising awareness and challenging the social problems, faced by renewable nonrenewable energy, the modern African American. This message is consistent throughout many of the songs on the album. Chuck D, gave insight into the meaning of panopticon two of the more powerful and lady anal, political songs on the album. “'Brother's Gonna Work It Out” is foucault's panopticon, about “the rise of black intellectualism where the black male is going to audience have to step up mentally and unify together in order to do a little bit of something.
It will have to foucault's be a collective effort. Individually, the federalist Black man is a pawn in a game.” “911 Is A Joke', which is the next single, is also self-explanatory, as it deals with the foucault's panopticon lack of emergency [assistance]. In our neighborhoods, when there's an emergency and we need help right away, we don't get action as quick as in more posh areas. Especially in urban settings.” ( Chuck D,http://www.daveyd.com/peterrord.html) This album was written in true hip-hop style, to tell how life really is. The political and federalist vs anti federalist, social messages, in the lyrics of foucault's Public Enemy’s songs, are emphatic and direct. Although Public Enemy and this album are an important part in the development of hip-hop music, they only represent one era of hip-hop music. Politics and Social Change in Hip-hop and lady anal, Reggae Music. As hip hop and reggae music have developed, they have followed the path of most forms of foucault's music by lady anal, going through stages, with certain groups, albums and styles define an era within their genre. By the late sixties, politics and social unrest mixed in reggae music creating a new fierce music of panopticon Rock Steady filled with images of the on The Competency to Stand gangster ‘rude boy’. “’Rock Steady’ music rather than rejecting the depravity of the political mercenary exalted and glorified the pugnaciousness of the foucault's ‘rude boy’”(Wilson). Musical artist such as Desmond Decker and Peter Tosh wrote and sang images of the ‘rude boy.’ In ‘007 Decker sings.
’007, ‘007 at ocean’s eleven rude boy ago wail cause them out of jail/ rude boy cannot fail cause the must get bail/them a loot, them a shoot / them a wail, a shanty town/ rude boy de pon probation, shanty town/ rude boy a bomb up de town.’(Wilson) Peter Tosh with his bold militant philosophy even went as far as to call himself the “Toughest” in a self-declarative song. Anything you can do I can do better / I’m the toughest, I can do what you can do, never try to do what I do, I’m the toughest (Wilson) The lyrics of the Rock Steady era were harsh images of gang life and social unrest. This was a period of Trial political and lyrical anarchy. Politicians from panopticon both political parties, the renewable nonrenewable Peoples National Party (PNP) and the Jamaican Labour Party (JLP), were using urban gang leaders to clear turf, and control neighborhoods in order to gain political power. Rock Steady music with its ‘rude boy’ image embedded within, defined this era of social instability. This period of political and lyrical anarchy needed to end in order to help breed peace amongst the youth in Kingston and bring higher consciousness back to reggae music. Similar to the Rock Steady period of Reggae, hip-hop in the early 1990’s found itself in the ‘rude boy’ era.
The music and image of hip-hop traversed into foucault's panopticon, the mainstream changing the imagery portrayed in the lyrics. The voice and picture of Competency to Stand Trial hip-hop changed from life in foucault's panopticon, the developing underground urban hip-hop culture, with a message of social change, to images of the hard gang life in Los Angeles and New York City. Hip-hop culture took another fierce turn in the wake of incidents like Rodney King. Hip-hop was glorifying gang life and the social unrest was embedded in controversial songs like Ice-T’s “Cop Killer.” The social elements in hip-hop lyrics were strong and how to a dissertation methodology, explicit. The glorification of gang life in hip-hop music found a culmination in panopticon, an east coast/ west coast feud that took the lives of two of hip hop’s biggest stars, Tupak Shakur and Notorious BIG were dead. Although the commercialized hip-hop was glorifying gang culture in the 1990s, the underground scene still kept to its roots holding to a strong social message and push for empowerment. Hip-hop, in the year 2001, emerged with a mission of peace. Although, politically hip-hop has rarely been on a dissertation the positive side of politics, the hip-hop community decided it needed to foucault's make a strong political statement.
Hip hop took politics to the highest level in the year 2001 when, “Along with leading hip-hop pioneers such as Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaata, Chuck D of Public Enemy and the Ruff Ryders, KRS will present a Hip-Hop Declaration of Peace to Essay on The to Stand Trial UN leaders. The Declaration is the first of its kind. The document will contain 25 paragraphs of foucault's thought and target, opinion from leading rappers about the socially conscious direction they believe rap needs to take.”(Gordon) Hip-hop and rap is the new political music in the United States. Foucault's! The backbone of the write hip-hop community lies with its originators, who have maintained the foucault's panopticon vision of music as a form of social change and empowerment. The 1972 electoral campaign of Michael Manley initiated the popularization of reggae music and Rastafarianism out of political necessity rather than acceptance. The People’s National Party (PNP), “sifted through the culture of the Rastafarians in order to renewable versus find symbols that Michael Manley, its candidate for panopticon prime minister, might use in federalist federalist debate, his political speeches.”(Lewis, 12). Manley Politicized the Pastas and tried to align himself with their image as sufferers in order to implement policy for creating a socialist state in Jamaica. He aligned himself with the Rastafarians because he believed they were “bearers of an African identity worthy of emulation by the public.”(Lewis, 12) Manley employed several different tactics to use reggae and Rastafarianism in foucault's, his campaign.
The People’s National Party staged over thirty bandwagon shows, comprised of artist whose music was banned for political reasons. The music was used as a weapon against the Shearer Government. On The To Stand! Delroy Wilson’s ‘Better Must Come’ became on of the campaign slogans. Clancy Eccles ‘The Rod of Correction’ symbolized the impending purge of the corrupt Jamaica Labour Party. Manley adroitly used a rod given to him by the Rastafarian ‘Messiah’ Haile Sellassie, as a biblical symbol connoting righteousness. (Wilson) Manley’s embracement of reggae solidified the important role reggae music has played in politics in Jamaica. The Importance of the Artist.
Reggae music has always had substantial influence on the culture and politics of Jamaican society and is in turn affected by the same forces. For reggae music to push for social change, the music and culture is dependent on strong artists willing to portray the struggles of panopticon life and the necessity for social change. How To A Dissertation! Basil Wilson believes that, “the task of the reggae artist is to shape his society by understanding and supporting the need for structural changed in Jamaica. The reggae artist must recognize that the culture that replaced the old imperialistic culture is by no means wholesome and embraces a belief system that is not commensurate with modern development.”(Wilson) Wilson’s characteristics solidifies the foucault's panopticon idea that reggae music is versus energy, more than entertainment and is dependent on artists, rather than entertainers, to be successful in foucault's panopticon, their social message. Peter Tosh often referred to, as the ‘Prince’ of reggae music, is a prime example of the strength embodied in a reggae artist. Debunking the notion that he is only an entertainer, Tosh stated his musical message of freedom.
People must know, I’m not an entertainer, but I love to how to make people happy. When I come on stage it’s not to entertain and just smile, because my songs are not smiling songs. My songs is a revolution. Foucault's! How can you sing a revolution, which you know is lady anal, a threat to foucault's panopticon society? You have to characteristics be thinking who is out there to assass-the-fucking-nate you, seen! And when you do these things you become a threat to society. (Steffens, 47) Peter Tosh praised his songs as a revolution. The “Stepping Razor,” named after one of his songs, was truly not afraid to make overtly political statements through his music. Foucault's Panopticon! From declaring himself the “toughest” to openly criticizing the criminalization of marijuana in “Legalize It,” Tosh was willing to take a strong stand through his music. One of Tosh’s biggest political statements came on his 1983 European tour when he began playing a guitar made out of and lady anal, M-16 assault riffle. “That guitar was made by on of my white musical terrorist friends in the U. S. Panopticon! This guitar is firing shots at all them devil disciples.
Music is renewable, my weapon to foucault's panopticon fight against apartheid, nuclear war and those gang-Jah criminals.”(Steffens, 52) Peter Tosh’s belief in the power of versus music to insight revolution and bring social change is undeniable, but as the Prince of panopticon Reggae music, he can only be out done by the King. Bob Marley is how to, often referred to as the King of reggae music. Marley is the opitimey of the foucault's panopticon reggae artist whose goal is to insight social change, revolution and over energy, through Babylon. Bob Marley lived up to his position at the top of the reggae world in foucault's, 1978 at policy the “One Love Peace Concert” in Kingston Jamaica. Panopticon! The peace concert was held on the twelfth anniversary of Haille Selassie I’s visit to Jamaica. The concert was promoted as, “a celebration of the peace treaty which claimed to bring an end to years of tribal warfare fomented in the ghettos by Jamaica’s fractious politrickal factions.”(Steffens, 48) The defining moment of the federalist vs anti debate show saw Bob Marley successfully coax both political candidates onto stage with him and raise arms together in a sign of peace and unity. Legend has it, this handshake was such a strong mark of peace and politics that it caused a lightning flash the instant their hands met. The efforts of Bob Marley and other artists at the concert solidified the political role of reggae music and foucault's, the reggae artist to promote social change.
In general, Bob Marley made many significant contributions to reggae music and culture, from target audience defining “roots reggae” to exposing his music to the world, his presence and foucault's, impact through his music is containment, undeniable. Tricia Nichols say that for his efforts to promote peace and his continued social message in foucault's, his music Bob Marley was awarded a Third World Peace Medal, presented by Senegal on Behalf of all the African countries at lady anal the United Nations. He merits this award because “no one has spread the message of Rastafari with greater reach or impact than has Bob Marley”(Nichols, 74) Marley has impacted the world both socially and musically. His influence and social message are continuously seen today where it is now delivered through various forms of music. The commonalities and influence of reggae and hip-hop have brought artists to collaborate for social expression and foucault's, music. Recently the Bob Marley’s family put together and all-star cast to celebrate the message, music and life of the audience characteristics King of reggae, Bob Marley. On the recent release of panopticon Chant Down Babylon, a collaborative album, some of hip-hop’s famed artists such as Erika Badu, Chuck D, Busta Ryhmes, The Roots, and others mix duets with the late King of characteristics Reggae paying tribute to rebel music. “The album’s collaborations (some inspired, some not) underscore the notion that be it reggae, hip-hop, or rock, rebel music is rebel music. Busta Rhymes’s fierce Jamaican patois-flavor Selassie I rap for “Rastaman Chant” and The Roots’ turn on “Burnin’ and panopticon, Lootin’” are just two tracks that elucidate the natural links between any musicians bent on upsetting the rulers of Babylon.”(Oumano: 2000) As culture and society change, so does music, and hip-hop and reggae music two forms reflective of progression. The social message continues to be strong in hip-hop and reggae music.
Both have developed music and on The Competency to Stand Trial, cultures that feed off each other portraying the image of what life is really like through their music. Music has the ability to foucault's empower people. Politicians in Jamaica have been forced to accept the power of how to write a dissertation reggae because it contains such a strong social message. Foucault's! Hip-hop has emerged from its Caribbean roots with a musical influence but most importantly a strong social message. Without music that contains the message of hip hop and vs anti federalist debate, reggae, society is unable to change, because the issues and problems that face the lower classes, which Mainstream society is so dependent on, would not be seen. If Babylon cannot be over panopticon, through, music can only help as a unifying force to help challenge the system. Davey D’s Hip hop corner: http://www.daveyd.com/
Barrett, Leonard. The Rastafarians . Beacon Press: Boston, 1997. Barrow, Steve and Peter Dalton. Lady Anal! Reggae: The Rough Guide Rough Guides:London 1997. Foster, Chuck. Roots, Rock, Reggae . Panopticon! Billboard Books: New York, 1999. Hebdige, Dick.
Cut ‘N’ Mix: Culture, Identity and Caribbean Music. Routledge:London, 1990. Lewis, William. Soul Rebels . Waveland Press: Prospect Heights, 1993. Nichols, Tricia. Rastafari: A Way of Life . Target Audience Characteristics! Anchor Books: New York, 1979. Stapleton, Katina R. “From the margins to mainstream: the political power of panopticon hip-hop” Media, Culture and Society, 1998 vo. 20 pgs. 219-234.
Full Text Computer Databases: No Page Numbers. Bradley, Omar N. “Hip Hop Generation: American as Apple Pie” Billboard, v. 107 n. 46 p.9(1) November 18, 1995. Evans, Diana “The Sound of Protest” The Voice, N. 910 p.20 5/29/2000. Havelock, Neslon “Reggae and Hip-hop come together” Billboard, V.108 n. 27 p. Lady Anal! 40(2) July 6, 1996. Moxie, Carl B. “Let Reggae Music Be” The Caribbean-American Magazine, V. 17; N.6 p. 45, 7/31/1993. Oumano, Elena “Reggae says no to ‘Politricks’” The Nation, August 25, 1997 v. 265 n.24 (3) Oumano, Elena “Natty Dread Learns to Rap” Miami New Times, February 10, 2000, Thursday. Salmon, Barrington “ Bob Marley’s legacy lives forever” Miami Times, V. 73; N. 22 p. 5A, 2/18/1996. Shivers, Kaia “This is Reggae Music” Los Angeles Sentinel” V. 66; N. 32 p. Foucault's! B5 11/8/2000.
Wilson, Basil “The politics culture of Reggae music” The Caribbean-American Magazine v. Federalist Federalist! 24 N. Panopticon! 1 p. 25, 2/28/2000. Honorary Citizen: Peter Tosh, Sony Music Entertainment:1997. Steffens, Roger. Essay Competency! “In the Tracks of the Stepping Razor: The Peter Tosh Biography” pgs. 42-51. Reflection Eternal: Talib Kweli, Rawkus Records 2000.
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How to Write an foucault's Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Exploratory essays don't take a position. Instead, they explore the problem and the different viewpoints about the answer. Objective : Exploratory essays approach a topic from an vs anti federalist objective point of view with a neutral tone. Rather than trying to foucault's panopticon, solve the problem, this essay looks at all the Essay on The to Stand different perspectives on the issues and seeks to explain the different viewpoints clearly. Common Ground : Exploratory papers look at the different audiences or groups of people who are interested in this issue and explore their different perspectives while also noticing common ground. Three or More Points of View: Sometimes there are two sides of an issue that are most often expressed and which polarize debate. This type of paper seeks to look beyond the obvious answers to find creative solutions.
For example, on foucault's panopticon, the illegal immigration topic, an exploratory paper could consider not only the methodology liberal and conservative political views but also look at the argument from the point of panopticon view of immigrants or border patrol employees. Prepare a basic outline using the Outline format below. Re-read your articles and your Summary-Analysis-Response paper. Fill in how each article can be used to support your points in your outline. Lady Anal? Be sure to include the source of that point in MLA form, which is author last name and foucault's panopticon page in parenthesis. Example: (Brown 31). Talk out your paper with a friend.
Work with a friend or a small group. Explain your paper using your outline. Target? Tell them your points and make sure they understand. Do they have any ideas on how to make your essay more interesting? Have them answer the panopticon questions on Peer Edit Outline below. Essay Competency To Stand? Optional: you may want to gather some visuals to include in foucault's panopticon, your essay. Renewable Versus? Write a draft. Be sure to include transitions such as “some people believe,” “another perspective is,” “one way to look at the issue is,” “a final perspective might be.” Don’t forget to use author tags if you are talking about a particular article.
Work summarized ideas, paraphrases, and quotes from your research into foucault's panopticon, your draft. In an exploratory paper, you mainly summarize or paraphrase in federalist federalist debate, your own words the positions you describe. Only use quotations which are especially striking or make the point in a way you can’t by paraphrasing. Peer Editing: Using the questions in the Peer Editing section below, evaluate your paper by following the Instructions for Writer and having someone else do the peer editing questions. Final Draft: Use what you've learned from the peer editing session to revise your paper. 1. Define and describe the foucault's issue and present the arguable question (introduction). 2. Analyze the rhetorical situation of the issue, including Text, Reader, Author, Constraints and Exigence (see below on outline) (body part one). 3. Identify and renewable nonrenewable energy summarize at least three major positions on this issue (body part two). 4. Panopticon? Indicate your personal interest in this issue and target audience the position you favor (conclusion).
5. Optional: You might want to gather one or more visuals to add to panopticon, your paper. Exploratory Papers need to have an arguable question, which means it is a question that is: Not solved. Not a fact you could easily check the answer to. Something people have different views about (try to find at least three). Write A Dissertation? Interesting to people right now. Linked to an enduring issue. There are three things you need to do in the introduction: Grab the reader's interest in the arguable issue.
Use one of the introductory techniques in foucault's, the table to explain the situation and argument. Make sure the reader understands the issue and why it is important (some issues need lots of explanation and description, but others are so well known you don't need to target, explain). Panopticon? Tell the arguable question (usually at the end of the introduction). Re-tell a real story Give statistics Depict a made-up scenario Vividly describe a scene or situation Explain a typical situation Have a real or imagined conversation about the issue Talk about what makes this argument important now Use an intriguing statement or quote Give history of this idea or argument Make a list of problems Give several examples of this problem Ask a series of questions Use a frame (use part of story to open, then finish story in federalist vs anti, conclusion) Use interview questions and answers. The body of foucault's panopticon this type of essay has two parts.
The first part is generally one paragraph and explains the lady anal problem or issue. The second part is generally three or more paragraphs and explains the different positions on the topic. Part One: Explain the Rhetorical Situation: Text : What sort of panopticon writing is lady anal, being done on this subject? Is it a question being discussed in the news? By advocacy groups? Politicians? Is there an academic study being done? Reader: Who are the audiences interested in this question? What are the different positions they hold?
Why are the readers interested in this question? Author : Who are the people writing on this question? What is common ground between the authors and foucault's panopticon readers (audiences)? Constraints: What attitudes, beliefs, circumstances, traditions, people, or events limit the way we can talk about this subject? Do constraints create common ground or do they drive the people holding different positions apart? Exigence: (Context of debate on the issue) What events or circumstances make us interested in energy, this question now?
What is the history of panopticon this issue and question? How has interest in this question changed over time? What enduring values (big life issues) does this debate relate to? Part Two: Three or More Positions on the Issue. For each of the three or more positions, you need to write a separate paragraph. In each paragraph:
Explain the position. Tell why people believe that position. Give the best arguments for that position. Explain how those arguments are supported. You can also do some contrast and comparision between the vs anti positions. That makes an panopticon especially effective transition. For example: In contrast to the idea that homelessness is how to write a dissertation, caused by a lack of homes, faith-based homeless agencies often argue that there are relationship issues which are at the heart of the problem. A third position suggests that it isn't lack of housing or poor relationships which are the foucault's root of the problem, but rather substance abuse and mental illness. Sample Starting Sentences for Body Part Two.
Start each of the paragraphs with a clear sentence stating the policy different position. Here are examples of how to begin each paragraph: Position 1: Many people believe… What is this point of view? Which articles can you use for foucault's panopticon, this point of view? What part of the article is lady anal, helpful? Position 2: Other people would contend… What is this point of foucault's panopticon view?
Which articles can you use for this point of Essay on The Trial view? What part of the article is helpful? Position 3: Another way to look at this question is…. What is this point of view? Which articles can you use for this point of panopticon view? What part of the article is federalist debate, helpful? The conclusion of panopticon your essay is where you can tell your personal opinion on this issue. You can also explain why you are interested in this particular topic. Your position may be one of the ones you describe in the body or it may be something you have thought up yourself.
In the conclusion, you can use some of the same techniques that you use in your introduction. On The? Here are some other ideas: Finish the frame story. Add the foucault's final evidence you find most convincing. Tell the reader your own conclusions and point of view. If you aren't sure what you think, then say that and explain what you think are the most important points to consider. Challenge the reader to decide. Outline the main things we need to think about when we make a decision about how to methodology, this question—what is important and what is foucault's panopticon, not.
After you have written your outline, get some help by practicing talking about your paper idea in a small group, or in front of the whole class. Federalist? Take turns in your group having each person share about their paper using their outline. Foucault's Panopticon? Then the group can respond to questions, comments, and suggestions. Lady Anal? It helps if you write down your comments so the person can remember. In my class, I hand out these questions, or sometimes write them on foucault's panopticon, the board and have students choose one or two to answer. Is the introduction interesting? Do you feel you understand the issue and the question?
Do the question and containment the three positions match up? Is there a contrast in the positions? Are there other positions you think need to be considered? Is the context/constraints of the question clear? Is there other supporting evidence you can think of? Is the response interesting? Does the author respond to the ideas and connect them with their own thoughts and/or experiences? How can they do that better? Anything you think is missing or needs to foucault's, be explained or expanded?
Having someone else read your essay and give you some feedback is a great way to improve your writing. In my class, students work in groups to peer edit and I usually try to have at nonrenewable energy least two people read every essay. If your class does not do that, you can arrange it on your own by having a friend or even your parents look over your essay. Here is the peer editing worksheet I use in my class. I start by having each writer look at their own paper, and then have at least two peer editors answer the panopticon questions. Underline: your question, the three positions, your position Wavy underline: author tags and citations. II. Write (at top of target draft or on a separate sheet of paper): What is best about your paper. Questions you have for the peer editor. What you want them to help you with.
I. Read the paper and make marks on the draft about: grammar and spelling errors what you think is good where they need more support where they need better transitions where they need references, citations or author tags (or any problems with ones they have) where they need more explanation or description. II. On a separate sheet of paper write: Intro : was the issue both defined and panopticon described? Anything that needs to be added? Was the opening interesting? How could it be improved?
Body : How well does the paper examine the rhetorical situation? (exigence [reason for this debate], audience [who is interested in this issue], and constraints [situations and attitudes which affect the debate]) Is there any part missing? How can it be improved? Does the on The Competency Trial paper effectively summarize three different positions and explain what they are? Who believes them? Why do they believe it? Does the foucault's paper give enough evidence for each position?
Conclusion: Does the author respond to the issue and federalist vs anti debate give an panopticon interesting perspective? Does the author need to add anything? Most of the Essay Trial time, students are asked to write argument papers that present a particular point of view and attempt to persuade the audience. Foucault's Panopticon? Sometimes that makes this writing assignment seem confusing. How To A Dissertation? Here is the foucault's panopticon difference between this assignment and an argument paper:
Argument Essays focus on proving one point of view : An argument or position essay seeks to come to a conclusion and containment convince the audience which side of the issue is panopticon, correct. The emphasis in an argument paper is on the side the author wants to prove is best or right, so while the paper may talk about containment, other views, most of the foucault's panopticon paper is spent proving one point of Essay view. Exploratory essays look at several points of view in foucault's, a neutral way. Rather than trying to solve the problem, this sort of paper explores the different perspectives of the problem and seeks to understand the cultural and social context of the issue. It is the sort of paper you would write before writing a solution paper. An exploratory paper is common in businesses when they are attempting to find a solution to a problem and need to Essay on The to Stand, get all of the possible perspectives and foucault's panopticon information available. Exploratory papers help you look at on The to Stand different audiences to help find common ground. This paper also explores the foucault's different audiences or groups of containment policy people who are concerned about this issue, giving their different viewpoints on the cause, effects, and solutions proposed.
In order to foucault's panopticon, do this paper, you may want to audience characteristics, narrow the issue you are thinking about so that you can cover the idea more effectively. Exploratory papers should examine at least three points of view : Sometimes there are two sides of an issue which are most often expressed and foucault's which polarize a debate. In an exploratory paper, you are asked to look beyond the obvious answers in order to find other points of view which can sometimes help in solving the problem. For example, in looking at nonrenewable energy the issue of illegal immigration, you can examine the conservative and liberal political views, but you can also look at the viewpoint of the illegal immigrants themselves, the viewpoint of the government that the illegal immigrants come from, and the viewpoints of the people who live on both sides of the border where illegal immigrants cross. You might also consider the foucault's viewpoint of the border patrol employees. The conclusion of an Essay on The Competency exploratory paper can give your opinion: You will explore at least three sides of the issue, giving fair treatment to each side. However, in the conclusion of the paper, you will indicate your own position and panopticon why you are persuaded in that direction. Whether it is labeled an exploratory essay or not, you will find this sort of paper in many business and college research papers. Lady Anal? The basic point of this paper is to let you examine all the foucault's panopticon different viewpoints on an issue. Here are some examples of exploratory questions:
What caused the Civil War in the U.S.? What will happen in how to a dissertation methodology, the Middle East in the next 10 years after the Arab Spring? How should the U.S. Foucault's? handle illegal immigration? What should we do with embryos left over from in-vitro fertilization? In a business, an employee might be asked to write an exploratory report about:
How do people perceive our product based on renewable versus nonrenewable, different types of advertising? How do people use our product most often? What are the top competing products and what advantages does each have over panopticon our product? What are the different possible cell phone or Internet service contracts available to us and what are the advantages/disadvantages of each one? By looking at three or more viewpoints, you can get a better understanding of the Essay on The to Stand Trial different audiences for panopticon, an issue and better understand how a solution or compromise might be developed. Which Exploratory Essay question is most interesting to you? 100 Exploratory Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 0. Exploratory Essay Outline and Organization. by Virginia Kearney 0. How to energy, Write a Proposal Essay/Paper.
by Laura Writes 40. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Hi Sharon! Welcome back to the classroom. I'm so glad this has helped you.
I have over 50 articles on foucault's panopticon, writing here on HubPages that I've written for my own students. These should be helpful for most college writing classes although you always need to make sure they fit with your particular instructor's assignments. Hope you do very well this semester! This is extremely helpful for lady anal, me as a student. I've been out of school for quite some time. Unfortunately, not all instructors are the same. Thank you for sharing your knowledge with us.
This is so helpful, thank you! Susan Baxter 4 years ago from foucault's panopticon Georgia. This would be useful for my teenagers to use during their essay at school. How To Write A Dissertation Methodology? Thank you. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Aubria--thanks for your comment. I do understand that sometimes we need students to be tested for their own ability to foucault's panopticon, write without help. I do that too.
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Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.