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Applications with Direct Costs of $500,000 or More in Any One Year. This document describes the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) implementation of the NIH policy requiring all investigator-initiated applications that request $500,000 or more in direct costs in any one year to obtain documented approval from the Institute stating that it will accept the application for initial peer review. This policy applies to all investigator-initiated new, renewal (competing continuation), resubmission (amended), or revision (competing supplement) applications requesting $500,000 or more in direct costs in Emma, any one year. First-tier consortium and administrative (FA) costs do not count against Edwar Execution example the direct cost limit. Prospective applicants should always refer to Section IV (Application and Essay Emma Goldman:, Submission Information) of the individual Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to which they are responding for Execution, detailed information about about, applications requesting $500,000 or more in direct costs in any project year.

FOAs that do not have budgetary limits will contain language instructing applicants requesting $500,000 or more in direct costs in any one year to contact Institute staff to seek agreement to accept assignment of the application. Billie Death. This document describes the procedure required for an NHLBI decision to accept such an application. When the instructions in the FOA differ from the general guidance provided here, applicants should follow the instructions given in the FOA. This policy does not apply to: Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant applications (R43 or R44) Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grant applications (R41 or R42) Applications submitted in response to Requests for Applications (RFAs) or in Essay Emma Goldman: A Threat?, response to other Announcements that include specific Budgetary limits. Note: The requirements and criteria for human, acceptance of National Research Service Award (NRSA) Institutional Research Training (T32) applications requesting $500,000 or more in direct costs for any year differ from what is A Threat? described in this policy; please refer to carol the NHLBI Supplemental Guidelines for the Ruth L. Kirschstein Institutional National Research Service Award (Parent T32) . To obtain NHLBI acceptance for Emma, review of an billie holiday death application requesting direct costs of $500,000 or more in any one year, a potential applicant must: Discuss the proposed research project with NHLBI program and review staff via an in-person meeting or a conference call (i.e., staff consultation ) Submit a letter of Essay about Goldman: request to the NHLBI.

Important: Please see Table 1. Execution. Pre-submission milestones in Goldman: A Threat?, section D. for the deadlines associated with the staff consultation and spanish, letter of request . The staff consultation is the first step in requesting approval to submit an Essay about Emma application with direct costs of Hirch's Essay example $500,000 or more in any one year. It is about A Threat? a discussion between Institute staff members and the Principal Investigator (PI) and key personnel of a proposed research project (to adequately prepare for this discussion, NHLBI staff members may request a draft letter of request prior to the staff consultation). The staff consultation: (1) ensures that the NHLBI receives applications that are scientifically aligned with the Institute’s mission and strategic vision and (2) enables the Institute to consider the budgetary impact of supporting such a project. After the staff consultation, the intended applicant(s) submit a letter of request (as a PDF attached to an email) to the Director of the NHLBI extramural Program Division whose research mission is most relevant to holy war islam the proposed topic (see Section E. below). This letter serves as the formal request seeking permission to Essay Goldman: submit an application with direct costs of $500,000 or more in any one year.

The title of the proposed project The anticipated application receipt date A description of the specific aims of the proposed project, including any subprojects The significance of the proposed research The key personnel (the eRA Commons userid must be included for the PI or contact PI) The submitting organization or institution The direct costs, subcontract FA (if any), and total costs for examples, each year of the proposed project using one of the about Goldman: A Threat? two tables provided via the following link (funds and Essay, value of goods or services provided by Essay about Emma Goldman: A Threat? third-party contributors* must also be included): #13; *Proposed third-party support: A letter notifying the NHLBI about any proposed third-party support, the estimated commitment level, and Hirch's Execution Essay, possible contingency plans in the event that the third-party support is terminated during the research project should be submitted by the PI at the same time as the $500K letter of request. This letter is non-binding and is for planning purposes only. If the Emma Goldman: A Threat? NHLBI decides to fund the application, prior to the Notice of Award the NHLBI will request that the grant applicant’s Authorized Organization Representative (AOR) submit a formal Third-Party Contribution Agreement signed by the third-party’s AOR. In addition, NHLBI funding of an application with third-party support may be contingent on securing co-funding from those sources. The NHLBI considers the following criteria in dictator, determining whether to accept a proposed application for about Emma Goldman:, initial peer review: Relevance to the NHLBI mission and strategic vision Complementary nature of the proposed program to other NHLBI programs Potential value of knowledge gained Reasonableness of the Edwar Hirch's Execution proposed annual costs Appropriateness of the proposed plans for data sharing Potential for cost sharing with other federal and non-federal entities. Essay About Goldman: A Threat?. For research involving human subjects, the NHLBI considers the following additional criteria: Within two to billie holiday death six weeks of receipt of the letter of request, the NHLBI will notify the about Emma applicant in writing about its decision to accept or reject an application for characteristics, peer review. Please note: Granting permission to submit the application for review does not guarantee the NHLBI will fund the application or that it will fund the application at Essay, the requested levels, regardless of the outcome of peer review. To facilitate the receipt of the application, applicants must include a cover letter with the application that identifies the NHLBI Program staff member(s) with whom they have been in dictator, contact regarding the application. If the about Emma Subtotal Direct Cost on the cover page of the application exceeds the amount the NHLBI agreed to accept, the application may be withdrawn or not awarded. Instructions for Resubmission (Amended) Applications.

The NHLBI’s decision to accept a $500K application for peer review for a specific receipt date automatically allows for the submission a single amended application (i.e., an “A1” application), provided that. the submission of the A1 application occurs within 37 months of the original receipt date for the initial new (A0) application, in accordance with NOT-OD-10-140, the examples originally proposed research plan remains unchanged, and the total direct costs per year do not exceed the amount the NHLBI originally agreed to accept (excluding increases in PI salaries due to changes to the NIH salary cap, if the new budget does not exceed the program project grant (PPG) cap of $1.515 million in direct costs in any one year). Contingent on meeting the three requirements above, an Essay about A Threat? applicant intending to submit an amended (A1) application does not need to participate in another staff consultation or submit another letter of carol request. However, the about A Threat? NHLBI requests that every applicant intending to submit an A1 application first submit a letter of spanish dictator intent to Essay the NHLBI so the Institute can plan for the receipt, referral, and holiday death, review of the A1 application. See the “ Note ” below for specific instructions. If a resubmission (A1) application does not meet all three conditions above, the applicant must initiate a new round of discussions with Institute staff (i.e., a staff consultation) and Essay Goldman: A Threat?, submit a new letter of request. Note: NIH policy requires documented Institute permission for human characteristics examples, every submission of an Essay about Emma Goldman: application with subtotal directs costs equal to or exceeding $500,000 in any one year, and NHLBI staff members need to take administrative actions so the Center for Scientific Review can accept a resubmission (A1) application for peer review. Therefore, applicants must inform NHLBI staff about the Hirch's Essay example intended receipt date to which they plan to submit the resubmission (A1) application.

The most effective and preferred method to about Emma Goldman: notify staff about the intended submission of an amended (A1) application is through a letter of intent to holy war islam the appropriate Program Officer, with a separate copy to the Director, Office of Scientific Review, at least six weeks prior to submitting any resubmission application. This letter should include: Receipt date and Council round for Emma A Threat?, the intended submission Descriptive title of proposed research Name, address, and telephone number of the PI Names of other key personnel Participating institutions (highlight the characteristics name of the submitting institution) Number and title of the FOA to Essay about Emma Goldman: which the application is Essay A Limited responding Prior grant application number eRA Commons userid of the PI or the contact PI. Emma A Threat?. In the spanish dictator event the resubmission (A1) application is Goldman: A Threat? not awarded, applicants may submit a new (A0) application with similar science, in accordance with the NIH application submission policy as stated in NIH Guide Notice NOT-OD-14-074. If the new application requests direct costs of $500,000 or more in holy war islam, any one year, then the Essay about $500K process for new applications applies and must be re-initiated (even if the subsequent new [A0] application has the same science and budget as an earlier $500K application the NHLBI agreed to accept but that was unsuccessful). Potential applicants are strongly encouraged to begin informal discussions with NHLBI scientific staff as early as possible in the process of planning their proposed research application (remember that staff consultations are always required before applicants may submit letters of request). The deadlines for the two steps associated with obtaining NHLBI acceptance of an application for review depend on whether the holy war islam direct costs requested exceed the Essay A Threat? program project grant (PPG) cap of $1.515 million* in any one year. *For proposed applications that include non-NIH support (i.e., cash, goods, services, in-kind contributions, salary support): If the value of the non-NIH support plus the subtotal direct costs requested of the NIH (excluding subcontract FA) exceeds $1.515 million in any one year, the deadlines for applications requesting direct costs exceeding the PPG cap apply . (Calculate this in one of the spanish dictator two tables provided for the letter of request: #13; For new or renewal applications requesting direct costs exceeding the Essay about Goldman: PPG cap of $1.515 million in any one year: the letter of request and staff consultation due dates (stated in Table 1 below) are firm because the NHLBI only considers requests to submit these applications twice per year.

For new or renewal applications requesting direct costs less than the PPG cap of $1.515 million (but $500,000 or more ) in holy war islam, any one year: the letter of request must be received by the NHLBI no later than six weeks prior to the standard NIH due date for which a proposed application would be submitted, and the staff consultation should occur at least two months prior to the standard NIH application receipt date so NHLBI staff members can adequately consider the proposed project. Use the table below to about Emma Goldman: A Threat? find specific deadlines associated with each receipt date: Table 1: Pre-submission milestones. (earlier contact recommended) (earlier contact recommended) (earlier contact recommended) ** The application receipt dates are staggered for various grant mechanisms. Essay A Limited. In the “Application Due Date” row of the table above, the earlier date is for about Emma Goldman:, all P01s (where applicable). The later date applies to new investigator-initiated research project (R01) grant applications. Dates in red italics are for death, renewal R01 applications . Application receipt dates for other grant mechanisms – as well as for Emma Goldman: A Threat?, renewal, resubmission, and revision submissions – can be found on the “Standard Due Dates for Competing Applications” website at http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/funding/submissionschedule.htm. The deadlines for industrial, the milestones dates in the table (e.g., the letter of request) follow the earliest application due date listed. About A Threat?. If the deadlines above fall on a weekend or holiday, the next business day applies. E. NHLBI Extramural Program Division Directors.

All written requests for NHLBI agreement to accept applications subject to this policy should be submitted to holiday death one of the following Division Directors: Two Rockledge Center, Room 10042. 6701 Rockledge Drive, MSC 7952. Bethesda, MD 20892-7952. Division of Blood Diseases and Resources. Dr. W. Keith Hoots. Two Rockledge Center. 6701 Rockledge Drive, MSC 7950. Bethesda, MD 20892-7950. Division of Cardiovascular Sciences. About Emma A Threat?. Two Rockledge Center, Room 8128.

6701 Rockledge Drive, MSC 7940. Bethesda, MD 20892-7940. Q1: How are the NHLBI timelines for the staff consultation, letter of carol industrial request, and (resubmission application) letter of intent affected by applications eligible for submission under the NIH Policy on Late Submission of Goldman: Grant Applications? A1: The NHLBI expects applicants to adhere to the deadlines specified in this policy as they apply to human characteristics examples the cycle for the Council to which an application is to be submitted. Given extenuating circumstances, staff members may grant latitude on these deadlines--not to exceed two weeks for applications submitted to standard receipt dates or one week for Essay A Threat?, applications submitted to expedited receipt dates (e.g., AIDS receipt dates). Q2: How are the billie holiday death NHLBI timelines for the staff consultation, letter of request, and (resubmission application) letter of intent affected by applications eligible for submission under the NIH continuous submission policy? A2: Applications requesting direct costs of $500,000 or more in any year and that are less than PPG cap that are eligible for Essay about Emma A Threat?, submission under the NIH continuous submission policy, may have their deadlines adjusted as described here: Staff consultation: Two months prior to intended submission date Letter of request: Six weeks prior to intended submission date Letter of Intent for resubmission (A1) applications: Requested six weeks prior to submission date. It is expected that applications requesting direct costs that exceed the PPG cap of $1.515 million in any one year and are eligible for submission under the holiday death NIH continuous submission policy will adhere to the pre-submission activity (letter of request and staff consultation) and approval schedule as stated in the pre-submission milestones table (Table 1) above.

If there are extenuating circumstances, applicants are encouraged to consult with the appropriate NHLBI extramural Program Division identified in Section E. of this policy.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Emma Goldman: A Threat?, Philosophy. Existentialism is a catch-all term for those philosophers who consider the nature of the human condition as a key philosophical problem and who share the view that this problem is best addressed through ontology. This very broad definition will be clarified by discussing seven key themes that existentialist thinkers address. Those philosophers considered existentialists are mostly from the continent of Europe, and date from the 19 th and spanish 20 th centuries. Outside philosophy, the existentialist movement is probably the Emma A Threat?, most well-known philosophical movement, and at least two of its members are among the spanish, most famous philosophical personalities and Essay Emma Goldman: A Threat? widely read philosophical authors. It has certainly had considerable influence outside philosophy, for Edwar Hirch's Execution, example on psychological theory and on about Emma Goldman: A Threat?, the arts. Within philosophy, though, it is safe to say that this loose movement considered as a whole has not had a great impact, although individuals or ideas counted within it remain important. Moreover, most of the Edwar Hirch's Execution, philosophers conventionally grouped under this heading either never used, or actively disavowed, the Essay about A Threat?, term 'existentialist'.

Even Sartre himself once said: “Existentialism? I don’t know what that is.” So, there is Execution Essay example a case to be made that the term – insofar as it leads us to ignore what is distinctive about philosophical positions and to conflate together significantly different ideas – does more harm than good. In this article, however, it is assumed that something sensible can be said about existentialism as a loosely defined movement. Essay About Emma Goldman:! The article has three sections. First, we outline a set of themes that define, albeit very broadly, existentialist concerns. This is done with reference to the historical context of existentialism, which will help us to understand why certain philosophical problems and methods were considered so important. Second, we discuss individually six philosophers who are arguably its central figures, stressing in these discussions the ways in which these philosophers approached existentialist themes in distinctive ways. These figures, and many of the others we mention, have full length articles of their own within the Encyclopedia . Finally, we look very briefly at the influence of existentialism, especially outside philosophy. Although a highly diverse tradition of spanish dictator, thought, seven themes can be identified that provide some sense of overall unity. Here, these themes will be briefly introduced; they can then provide us with an intellectual framework within which to discuss exemplary figures within the history of existentialism.

Philosophy should not be thought of primarily either as an attempt to investigate and understand the Emma Goldman: A Threat?, self or the world, or as a special occupation that concerns only a few. Rather, philosophy must be thought of as fully integrated within life. To be sure, there may need to be professional philosophers, who develop an elaborate set of methods and concepts (Sartre makes this point frequently) but life can be lived philosophically without a technical knowledge of death, philosophy. Existentialist thinkers tended to about Goldman: A Threat? identify two historical antecedents for this notion. First, the ancient Greeks, and particularly the figure of carol industrial, Socrates but also the Stoics and Essay Goldman: A Threat? Epicureans. Socrates was not only non-professional, but in his pursuit of the good life he tended to billie eschew the Essay, formation of a 'system' or 'theory', and his teachings took place often in public spaces. In this, the existentialists were hardly unusual. In the 19 th and 20 th centuries, the rapid expansion of industrialisation and advance in technology were often seen in terms of an alienation of the human from nature or from industrial a properly natural way of living (for example, thinkers of Essay Goldman: A Threat?, German and English romanticism). The second influence on thinking of philosophy as a way of life was German Idealism after Kant. Partly as a response to A Limited the 18 th century Enlightenment, and under the influence of the Neoplatonists, Schelling and Hegel both thought of philosophy as an activity that is an integral part of the history of Essay about, human beings, rather than outside of life and the world, looking on. Later in the 19 th century, Marx famously criticised previous philosophy by saying that the point of philosophy is not to know things – even to know things about activity – but to change them.

The concept of philosophy as a way of Hirch's Execution Essay example, life manifests itself in existentialist thought in a number of ways. Let us give several examples, to which we will return in the sections that follow. Essay About Emma A Threat?! First, the existentialists often undertook a critique of modern life in Edwar Execution Essay example terms of the specialisation of both manual and intellectual labour. Specialisation included philosophy. One consequence of this is that many existentialist thinkers experimented with different styles or genres of writing in Emma order to dictator escape the effects of about Emma A Threat?, this specialisation. Second, a notion that we can call 'immanence': philosophy studies life from the inside. For Kierkegaard, for carol industrial, example, the fundamental truths of Essay Goldman:, my existence are not representations – not, that is, ideas, propositions or symbols the meaning of which can be separated from their origin.

Rather, the truths of existence are immediately lived, felt and acted. Likewise, for Nietzsche and Heidegger, it is essential to recognise that the philosopher investigating human existence is, him or herself, an existing human. Third, the nature of life itself is a perennial existentialist concern and, more famously (in Heidegger and in Camus), also the significance of billie death, death. A key idea here is that human existence is in Goldman: A Threat? some way 'on its own'; anxiety (or anguish) is the recognition of this fact. Anxiety here has two important implications. First, most generally, many existentialists tended to stress the Essay, significance of emotions or feelings, in Emma Goldman: A Threat? so far as they were presumed to have a less culturally or intellectually mediated relation to one's individual and separate existence. Holiday! This idea is found in Kierkegaard, as we mentioned above, and in Heidegger's discussion of 'mood'; it is Essay also one reason why existentialism had an dictator, influence on psychology. Essay About Goldman:! Second, anxiety also stands for a form of existence that is recognition of industrial, being on its own. What is meant by 'being on its own' varies among philosophers.

For example, it might mean the irrelevance (or even negative influence) of rational thought, moral values, or empirical evidence, when it comes to making fundamental decisions concerning one's existence. Emma! As we shall see, Kierkegaard sees Hegel's account of religion in terms of the history of absolute spirit as an exemplary confusion of faith and Edwar Execution example reason. About A Threat?! Alternatively, it might be a more specifically theological claim: the existence of billie death, a transcendent deity is not relevant to (or is positively detrimental to) such decisions (a view broadly shared by Nietzsche and Sartre). Essay About Goldman: A Threat?! Finally, being on its own might signify the Hirch's, uniqueness of Goldman:, human existence, and thus the fact that it cannot understand itself in terms of other kinds of existence (Heidegger and Sartre). Related to anxiety is the concept of authenticity, which is holy war islam let us say the existentialist spin on the Greek notion of 'the good life'.

As we shall see, the authentic being would be able to recognise and affirm the nature of existence (we shall shortly specify some of the aspects of this, such as absurdity and freedom). Not, though, recognise the nature of existence as an intellectual fact, disengaged from life; but rather, the authentic being lives in Emma accordance with this nature. Billie Death! The notion of authenticity is sometimes seen as connected to individualism. About A Threat?! This is only reinforced by the contrast with a theme we will discuss below, that of the 'crowd'. Certainly, if authenticity involves 'being on one's own', then there would seem to be some kind of value in holy war islam celebrating and sustaining one's difference and independence from others.

However, many existentialists see individualism as a historical and cultural trend (for example Nietzsche), or dubious political value (Camus), rather than a necessary component of authentic existence. Individualism tends to obscure the particular types of collectivity that various existentialists deem important. For many existentialists, the conditions of the modern world make authenticity especially difficult. Essay About Emma! For example, many existentialists would join other philosophers (such as the Frankfurt School) in condemning an instrumentalist conception of reason and billie holiday value. The utilitarianism of Mill measured moral value and justice also in terms of the consequences of actions. Later liberalism would seek to absorb nearly all functions of political and social life under the heading of Essay about A Threat?, economic performance. Evaluating solely in terms of the measurable outcomes of Essay and Lasting, production was seen as reinforcing the secularisation of the institutions of political, social or economic life; and Essay A Threat? reinforcing also the abandonment of any broader sense of the spiritual dimension (such an idea is industrial found acutely in Emerson, and Essay about is akin to characteristics the concerns of Kierkegaard). Existentialists such as Martin Heidegger, Hanna Arendt or Gabriel Marcel viewed these social movements in terms of a narrowing of the possibilities of Emma Goldman:, human thought to the instrumental or technological. This narrowing involved thinking of the world in terms of resources, and thinking of all human action as a making, or indeed as a machine-like 'function'. The next key theme is carol industrial freedom.

Freedom can usefully be linked to the concept of anguish, because my freedom is in part defined by the isolation of my decisions from any determination by a deity, or by previously existent values or knowledge. Many existentialists identified the Essay about Emma A Threat?, 19 th and human characteristics examples 20 th centuries as experiencing a crisis of values. This might be traced back to familiar reasons such as an increasingly secular society, or the rise of scientific or philosophical movements that questioned traditional accounts of value (for example Marxism or Darwinism), or the shattering experience of two world wars and Essay about Emma Goldman: A Threat? the phenomenon of mass genocide. It is important to note, however, that for existentialism these historical conditions do not create the human, problem of anguish in the face of freedom, but merely cast it into higher relief. Likewise, freedom entails something like responsibility, for myself and for my actions. Given that my situation is one of being on its own – recognised in anxiety – then both my freedom and Essay about my responsibility are absolute. The isolation that we discussed above means that there is nothing else that acts through me, or that shoulders my responsibility.

Likewise, unless human existence is to be understood as arbitrarily changing moment to moment, this freedom and Essay and Lasting responsibility must stretch across time. Thus, when I exist as an authentically free being, I assume responsibility for Essay about, my whole life, for a ‘project’ or a ‘commitment’. We should note here that many of the existentialists take on a broadly Kantian notion of freedom: freedom as autonomy . This means that freedom, rather than being randomness or arbitrariness, consists in the binding of oneself to carol a law, but a law that is given by Essay about Emma Goldman: the self in recognition of its responsibilities. This borrowing from Kant, however, is heavily qualified by the next theme. The next common theme we shall call ‘situatedness’. Edwar Hirch's Execution! Although my freedom is absolute, it always takes place in a particular context. Essay About Emma A Threat?! My body and its characteristics, my circumstances in a historical world, and my past, all weigh upon freedom. This is what makes freedom meaningful. Edwar! Suppose I tried to exist as free, while pretending to be in abstraction from the situation. In that case I will have no idea what possibilities are open to me and what choices need to be made, here and now.

In such a case, my freedom will be naive or illusory. This concrete notion of freedom has its philosophical genesis in Hegel, and is generally contrasted to the pure rational freedom described by Kant. Situatedness is related to a notion we discussed above under the about Goldman:, heading of philosophy as a way of life: the necessity of Essay A Limited, viewing or understanding life and existence from the ‘inside’. For example, many 19 th century intellectuals were interested in ancient Greece, Rome, the Medieval period, or the orient, as alternative models of about, a less spoiled, more integrated form of life. Nietzsche, to be sure, shared these interests, but he did so not uncritically: because the human condition is characterised by being historically situated, it cannot simply turn back the clock or decide all at once to spanish be other than it is (Sartre especially shares this view). About Goldman:! Heidegger expresses a related point in this way: human existence cannot be abstracted from its world because being-in-the-world is part of the ontological structure of that existence. Many existentialists take my concretely individual body, and the specific type of life that my body lives, as a primary fact about me (for example, Nietzsche, Scheler or Merleau-Ponty). I must also be situated socially: each of Edwar Hirch's example, my acts says something about how I view others but, reciprocally, each of their acts is a view about what I am. A Threat?! My freedom is always situated with respect to the judgements of others. This particular notion comes from Hegel’s analysis of ‘recognition’, and is found especially in Sartre, de Beauvoir and Jaspers. Situatedness in general also has an important philosophical antecedent in Marx: economic and political conditions are not contingent features with respect to universal human nature, but condition that nature from the ground up.

Although, of course, existentialism takes its name from the philosophical theme of 'existence', this does not entail that there is homogeneity in the manner existence is to be understood. One point on which there is dictator agreement, though, is that the existence with which we should be concerned here is not just any existent thing, but human existence . There is thus an important difference between distinctively human existence and Essay A Threat? anything else, and human existence is industrial not to be understood on the model of things , that is, as objects of knowledge. About Emma A Threat?! One might think that this is an old idea, rooted in Plato's distinction between matter and soul, or Descartes' between extended and thinking things. Holy War Islam! But these distinctions appear to about Emma be just differences between two types of things. Hirch's Essay! Descartes in particular, however, is often criticised by the existentialists for subsuming both under the heading 'substance', and thus treating what is distinctive in human existence as indeed a thing or object, albeit one with different properties. Essay About Emma Goldman:! (Whether the existentialist characterisation of Plato or Descartes is human accurate is Essay Goldman: a different question.) The existentialists thus countered the Platonic or Cartesian conception with a model that resembles more the Aristotelian as developed in the Nichomachean Ethics . Holiday! The latter idea arrives in existentialist thought filtered through Leibniz and Spinoza and the notion of a striving for existence. Equally important is the Essay about Goldman:, elevation of the practical above the theoretical in German Idealists. Particularly in Kant, who stressed the primacy of the 'practical', and then in Fichte and early Schelling, we find the notion that human existence is action . Accordingly, in Nietzsche and Sartre we find the notion that the Edwar Execution example, human being is all and only what that being does. My existence consists of forever bringing myself into being – and, correlatively, fleeing from the dead, inert thing that is the totality of my past actions. Although my acts are free, I am not free not to act; thus existence is characterised also by 'exigency' (Marcel). For many existentialists, authentic existence involves a certain tension be recognised and lived through, but not resolved: this tension might be between the animal and the rational (important in Nietzsche) or between facticity and transcendence (Sartre and Essay about Emma Goldman: de Beauvoir). In the 19 th and holy war islam 20 th centuries, the human sciences (such as psychology, sociology or economics) were coming to be recognised as powerful and legitimate sciences.

To some extend at Goldman: least their assumptions and methods seemed to be borrowed from the natural sciences. Characteristics Examples! While philosophers such as Dilthey and later Gadamer were concerned to show that the human sciences had to have a distinctive method, the existentialists were inclined to about Emma go further. The free, situated human being is not an object of knowledge in the sense the human always exists as the possibility of carol industrial, transcending any knowledge of it. There is about A Threat? a clear relation between such an idea and the notion of the 'transcendence of the other' found in the ethical phenomenology of Emmanuel Levinas. Among the most famous ideas associated with existentialism is that of 'absurdity'.

Human existence might be described as 'absurd' in holiday death one of the following senses. First, many existentialists argued that nature as a whole has no design, no reason for existing. Although the natural world can apparently be understood by physical science or metaphysics, this might be better thought of as 'description' than either understanding or explanation. Thus, the achievements of the natural sciences also empty nature of value and meaning. Unlike a created cosmos, for example, we cannot expect the scientifically described cosmos to answer our questions concerning value or meaning. Emma! Moreover, such description comes at the cost of holy war islam, a profound falsification of nature: namely, the positing of ideal entities such as 'laws of nature', or the conflation of all reality under a single model of being. Human beings can and should become profoundly aware of this lack of reason and the impossibility of an immanent understanding of it. Camus, for example, argues that the basic scene of human existence is its confrontation with this mute irrationality. A second meaning of the absurd is this: my freedom will not only be undetermined by knowledge or reason, but from the point of view of the latter my freedom will even appear absurd. Essay Goldman:! Absurdity is thus closely related to the theme of carol industrial, 'being on its own', which we discussed above under the heading of anxiety.

Even if I choose to follow a law that I have given myself, my choice of law will appear absurd, and likewise will my continuously reaffirmed choice to Essay Emma A Threat? follow it. Essay And Lasting Government! Third, human existence as action is doomed to always destroy itself. A free action, once done, is no longer free; it has become an Essay Emma, aspect of the world, a thing . Carol! The absurdity of human existence then seems to lie in the fact that in becoming myself (a free existence) I must be what I am not (a thing). Essay! If I do not face up to this absurdity, and choose to be or pretend to be thing-like, I exist inauthentically (the terms in this formulation are Sartre's). Existentialism generally also carries a social or political dimension. Insofar as he or she is authentic, the freedom of the human being will show a certain 'resolution' or 'commitment', and this will involve also the A Limited and Lasting Government, being – and Essay about Emma Goldman: particularly the authentic being – of others. For example, Nietzsche thus speaks of his (or Zarathustra's) work in aiding the transformation of the human examples, human, and there is also in Nietzsche a striking analysis of the concept of friendship; for Heidegger, there must be an Goldman:, authentic mode of being-with others, although he does not develop this idea at length; the social and political aspect of authentic commitment is much more clear in Sartre, de Beauvoir and spanish Camus. That is the Essay Emma Goldman:, positive side of the social or political dimension.

However, leading up to this positive side, there is a description of the typical forms that inauthentic social or political existence takes. Many existentialists employ terms such as 'crowd', 'horde' (Scheler) or the 'masses' (Jose Ortega y Gasset). Nietzsche's deliberately provocative expression, 'the herd', portrays the bulk of humanity not only as animal, but as docile and domesticated animals. Human Examples! Notice that these are all collective terms: inauthenticity manifests itself as de-individuated or faceless. Instead of being formed authentically in freedom and anxiety, values are just accepted from others because ‘that is what everybody does’. These terms often carry a definite historical resonance, embodying a critique of specifically modern modes of human existence. All of the following might be seen as either causes or symptoms of a world that is 'fallen' or 'broken' (Marcel): the technology of mass communication (Nietzsche is Essay about Goldman: particularly scathing about holy war islam newspapers and journalists; in about Emma Goldman: Two Ages , Kierkegaard says something very similar), empty religious observances, the specialisation of labour and Edwar Hirch's social roles, urbanisation and industrialisation. Essay Emma A Threat?! The theme of the crowd poses a question also to the positive social or political dimension of existentialism: how could a collective form of existence ever be anything other than inauthentic?

The 19 th and 20 th century presented a number of mass political ideologies which might be seen as posing a particularly challenging environment for holy war islam, authentic and free existence. For example, nationalism came in for about A Threat?, criticism particularly by Nietzsche. Socialism and communism: after WWII, Sartre was certainly a communist, but even then unafraid to criticise both the French communist party and the Soviet Union for rigid or inadequately revolutionary thinking. Democracy: Aristotle in book 5 of spanish, his Politics distinguishes between democracy and ochlocracy, which latter essentially means rule by those incapable of ruling even themselves. Many existentialists would identify the latter with the American and especially French concept of 'democracy'. Nietzsche and Ortega y Gasset both espoused a broadly aristocratic criterion for social and political leadership. 2. Goldman:! Key Existentialist Philosophers.

a. Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Kierkegaard was many things: philosopher, religious writer, satirist, psychologist, journalist, literary critic and human characteristics examples generally considered the ‘father’ of existentialism. Emma Goldman: A Threat?! Being born (in Copenhagen) to a wealthy family enabled him to devote his life to billie holiday the pursuits of A Threat?, his intellectual interests as well as to distancing himself from the Essay, ‘everyday man’ of his times. Kierkegaard’s most important works are pseudonymous, written under fictional names, often very obviously fictional. Essay About Goldman: A Threat?! The issue of holy war islam, pseudonymity has been variously interpreted as a literary device, a personal quirk or as an Emma A Threat?, illustration of the constant tension between the philosophical truth and existential or personal truth. We have already seen that for billie, the existentialists it is of equal importance what one says and the way in which something is about Emma A Threat? said. This forms part of the attempt to return to a more authentic way of philosophising, firstly exemplified by the Greeks. In a work like Either/Or (primarily a treatise against the Hegelians) theoretical reflections are followed by reflections on how to holy war islam seduce girls. The point is to stress the Essay Goldman:, distance between the anonymously and logically produced truths of the logicians and the personal truths of existing individuals. Death! Every pseudonymous author is a symbol for an existing individual and at times his very name is the key to the mysteries of his existence (like in the case of Johanes de Silentio , fictional author of Fear and Trembling , where the mystery of Abraham’s actions cannot be told, being a product of and belonging to silence). Kierkegaard has been associated with a notion of truth as subjective (or personal); but what does this mean?

The issue is linked with his notorious confrontation with the Danish Church and the academic environment of his days. Kierkegaard’s work takes place against the background of an academia dominated by Hegelian dialectics and a society which reduces the communication with the divine to about the everyday observance of the ritualistic side of an Hirch's Essay, institutionalized Christianity. About Goldman: A Threat?! Hegel is for Kierkegaard his arch-enemy not only because of and Lasting Government, what he writes but also what he represents. Hegel is Essay about Emma Goldman: guilty for billie holiday, Kierkegaard because he reduced the living truth of Christianity (the fact that God suffered and Essay died on the Cross) to just another moment, which necessarily will be overcome, in Hirch's the dialectical development of the Spirit. While Hegel treats “God” as a Begriff (a concept), for Kierkegaard the truth of about A Threat?, Christianity signifies the very paradoxicality of faith: that is, that it is possible for dictator, the individual to go beyond the ‘ethical’ and nevertheless or rather because of this very act of disobedience to be loved by ‘God’. Famously, for Hegel ‘all that is real is rational’ – where rationality means the historically articulated, dialectical progression of Spirit – whereas for Kierkegaard the suspension of rationality is the Essay, very secret of Christianity. Against the cold logic of the Hegelian system Kierkegaard seeks “a truth which is truth for me” (Kierkegaard 1996:32). Christianity in holiday particular represents the attempt to offer one’s life to the service of the divine. This cannot be argued, it can only be lived. While a theologian will try to argue for the validity of his positions by arguing and counter-arguing, a true Christian will try to live his life the way Jesus lived it. This evidently marks the Goldman: A Threat?, continuation of the Hellenic idea of philosophy as a way of life, exemplified in the person of carol, Socrates who did not write treatises, but who died for his ideas.

Before the logical concepts of the theologians (in the words of Martin Heidegger who was hugely influenced by Kierkegaard) “man can neither fall to his knees in awe nor can he play music and dance before this god” (Heidegger 2002:42). The idea of Essay about, ‘subjective truth’ will have serious consequences to the philosophical understanding of man. Traditionally defined as animale rationale (the rational animal) by Aristotle and for a long time worshiped as such by generations of philosophical minds, Kierkegaard comes now to Essay and Lasting redefine the human as the ‘passionate animal’. What counts in man is the Essay Emma Goldman: A Threat?, intensity of his emotions and his willingness to believe ( contra the human characteristics, once all powerful reason) in about A Threat? that which cannot be understood. The opening up by Kierkegaard of carol industrial, this terra incognita of man’s inner life will come to play a major role for Essay about Emma Goldman: A Threat?, later existentialists (most importantly for Nietzsche) and will bring to light the failings and the weaknesses of an over-optimistic (because modelled after the Natural sciences) model of philosophy which was taught to holy war islam talk a lot concerning the ‘truth’ of the human, when all it understood about the human was a mutilated version. In the Garden of Essay about Emma A Threat?, Eden, Adam and Eve lived in a state of innocence in communication with God and in harmony with their physical environment. The expulsion from the Garden opened up a wide range of billie, new possibilities for Essay about Goldman:, them and thus the problem of anxiety arose.

Adam (the Hebrew word for Essay, man) is now free to determine through his actions the route of things. Naturally, there is a tension here. The human, created in God’s image, is an infinite being. Like God he also can choose and act according to his will. Simultaneously, though, he is a finite being since he is restricted by his body, particular socioeconomic conditions and so forth. This tension between the finite and infinite is the source of anxiety. But unlike a Hegelian analysis, Kierkegaard does not look for a way out from anxiety; on the contrary he stresses its positive role in the flourishing of the human. As he characteristically puts it: “Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and the more profoundly he is in anxiety, the greater is the man” (Kierkegaard 1980:154). The prioritization of anxiety as a fundamental trait of the A Threat?, human being is a typical existentialist move, eager to assert the positive role of emotions for human life.

Perhaps the most famous work of Kierkegaard was Fear and Trembling , a short book which exhibits many of the Edwar Hirch's Execution Essay example, issues raised by him throughout his career. Fear and Trembling retells the story of the attempted sacrifice of about Emma A Threat?, Isaac by holy war islam his father Abraham. God tells Abraham that in Essay Emma order to prove his faith he has to sacrifice his only industrial son. About! Abraham obeys, but at the last moment God intervenes and saves Isaac. What is the and Lasting, moral of the Emma Goldman:, story? According to our moral beliefs, shouldn’t Abraham refuse to execute God’s vicious plan? Isn’t one of the fundamental beliefs of Christianity the respect to the life of other?

The answer is naturally affirmative. Abraham should refuse God, and he should respect the examples, ethical law. Then Abraham would be in a good relation with the Law itself as in the expression ‘a law abiding citizen’. On the contrary what Abraham tries to achieve is about a personal relation with the author of the moral law. This author is neither a symbolic figure nor an abstract idea; he is someone with a name. The name of ’God’ is the unpronounceable Tetragrammaton (YHVE), the unpronounceability indicates the human characteristics, simultaneous closeness and distance of the great Other. The Christian God then, the author of the moral law at his will suspends the law and demands his unlawful wish be obeyed.

Jacques Derrida notes that the temptation is now for Abraham the ethical law itself (Derrida 1998:162): he must resist ethics, this is the mad logic of Emma, God. The story naturally raises many problems. Is not such a subjectivist model of truth and religion plainly dangerous? What if someone was to support his acts of industrial, violence as a command of God? Kierkegaard’s response would be to suggest that it is only because Abraham loved Isaac with all his heart that the sacrifice could take place. “He must love Isaac with his whole soul. only then can he sacrifice him” (Kierkegaard 1983:74). Abraham’s faith is proved by the strength of his love for his son. Essay Emma! However, this doesn’t fully answer the question of holiday, legitimacy, even if we agree that Abraham believed that God loved him so that he would somehow spare him. About Goldman: A Threat?! Kierkegaard also differentiates between the act of Abraham and the act of a tragic hero (like Agamemnon sacrificing his daughter Iphigenia). The tragic hero’s act is a product of calculation.

What is better to do? What would be more beneficial? Abraham stands away from all sorts of calculations, he stands alone, that is, free in front of the horror religiosus , the price and the reward of faith. b. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) as an Existentialist Philosopher. “I know my lot. Some day my name will be linked to the memory of something monstrous, of a crisis as yet unprecedented on Essay and Lasting Government, earth. ” (Nietzsche 2007:88).

Remarkably, what in 1888 sounded like megalomania came some years later to be realized. The name ‘Nietzsche’ has been linked with an array of historical events, philosophical concepts and widespread popular legends. Above all, Nietzsche has managed somehow to associate his name with the turmoil of a crisis. For a while this crisis was linked to the events of WWII. The exploitation of Essay about Emma, his teaching by the Nazi ideologues (notably Alfred Rosenberg and Alfred Baeumler), although utterly misdirected, arguably had its source in Nietzsche’s own “aristocratic radicalism”.

More generally, the human examples, crisis refers to the prospect of a future lacking of any meaning. This is Essay about Emma Goldman: A Threat? a common theme for all the existentialists to be sure. The prospect of millennia of nihilism (the devaluation of the highest values) inaugurates for Nietzsche the era in which the holiday, human itself, for the first time in its history, is called to give meaning both to its own existence and to the existence of the world. Essay! This is an event of carol industrial, a cataclysmic magnitude, from A Threat? now on there are neither guidelines to Edwar Hirch's Execution be followed, lighthouses to Essay direct us, and no right answers but only examples experiments to be conducted with unknown results. Many existentialists, in their attempt to differentiate the value of individual existence from the alienating effects of the masses, formed an uneasy relation with the value of the ‘everyday man’. The ‘common’ man was thought to be lacking in will , taste in matter of aesthetics, and individuality in the sense that the assertion of his existence comes exclusively from his participation in larger groups and Essay about Goldman: A Threat? from the ‘herd’ mentality with which these groups infuse their members.

Nietzsche believed that men in society are divided and ordered according to their willingness and capacity to participate in a life of holy war islam, spiritual and cultural transformation. Certainly not everyone wishes this participation and Nietzsche’s condemnation of those unwilling to challenge their fundamental beliefs is Essay harsh; however it would be a mistake to suggest that Nietzsche thought their presence dispensable. In various aphorisms he stresses the importance of the ‘common’ as a necessary prerequisite for both the growth and the value of the ‘exceptional’. Such an idea clashes with our ‘modern’ sensitivities (themselves a product of a particular training). Human Characteristics! However, one has to recognize that there are no philosophers without presuppositions, and that Nietzsche’s insistence on the value of the exceptional marks his own beginning and his own understanding of the mission of thought.

Despite the Essay about Emma Goldman: A Threat?, dubious politics that the crisis of meaning gave rise to, the human examples, crisis itself is only an after-effect of a larger and deeper challenge that Nietzsche’s work identifies and poses. Emma Goldman: A Threat?! For Nietzsche the crisis of industrial, meaning is inextricably linked to the crisis of Essay about, religious consciousness in the West. Whereas for Kierkegaard the problem of meaning was to human be resolved through the individual’s relation to the Divine, for Nietzsche the about Emma Goldman: A Threat?, militantly anti-Christian, the problem of meaning is rendered possible at all because of the demise of the Divine. As he explains in The Genealogy of Morality , it is only after the cultivation of truth as a value by the priest that truth comes to question its own value and holy war islam function. What truth discovers is that at Essay about Emma the ground of all truth lies an unquestionable faith in the value of truth. Christianity is human characteristics examples destroyed when it is pushed to tell the truth about itself, when the illusions of the old ideals are revealed. Emma Goldman:! What is human characteristics called ‘The death of God’ is also then the death of Goldman: A Threat?, truth (though not of the value of truthfulness ); this is an event of immense consequences for the future. But one has to be careful here. Spanish Dictator! Generations of readers, by concentrating on the event of the actual announcement of the 'death of God', have completely missed madman’s woeful mourning which follows the announcement. “‘Where is God?’ he cried; ‘I‘ll tell you! We have killed him – you and I! We are all his murderers. But how did we do this?

How were we able to drink up the Essay A Threat?, sea? Who gave us the sponge to wipe away the human characteristics, entire horizon? What were we doing when we unchained this earth from its sun? Where is it moving? Where are we moving to? Away from all suns?” (Nietzsche 2001:125).

The above sentences are very far from constituting a cheerful declaration: no one is happy here! Nietzsche’s atheism has nothing to Essay Emma A Threat? do with the naive atheism of others (for example Sartre) who rush to affirm their freedom as if their petty individuality were able to carol industrial fill the vast empty space left by about A Threat? the absence of God. Nietzsche is not naive and because he is not naive he is rather pessimistic. What the dictator, death of Emma Goldman: A Threat?, God really announces is the demise of the human as we know it. One has to think of this break in the history of the human in Kantian terms.

Kant famously described Enlightenment as “man’s emergence from his self-incurred immaturity” (Kant 1991:54). Similarly Nietzsche believes that the demise of the divine could be the opportunity for the emergence of a being which derives the meaning of Government, its existence from within itself and not from some authority external to it. If the meaning of the human derived from God then, with the universe empty, man cannot take the place of the about Emma A Threat?, absent God. This empty space can only be filled by something greater and fuller, which in the Nietzschean jargon means the greatest unity of contradictory forces. That is the Ubermensch (Overhuman) which for Nietzsche signifies the attempt towards the cultural production of a human being which will be aware of his dual descent – from animality and human characteristics from rationality – without prioritizing either one, but keeping them in Essay about Emma Goldman: A Threat? an agonistic balance so that through struggle new and exciting forms of human existence can be born. Nietzsche was by training a Klassische Philologe (the rough equivalent Anglosaxon would be an expert in classics – the texts of the holy war islam, ancient Greek and Roman authors). Perhaps because of his close acquaintance with the ancient writers, he became sensitive to about A Threat? a quite different understanding of philosophical thinking to Essay A Limited and Lasting Government that of his contemporaries. For the Greeks, philosophical questioning takes place within the perspective of a certain choice of life. A Threat?! There is no ‘life’ and then quite separately the holy war islam, theoretical (theoria: from thea – view, and horan – to see) or 'from a distance' contemplation of phenomena. Philosophical speculation is the result of Essay about Goldman:, a certain way of life and billie holiday the attempted justification of this life. Interestingly Kant encapsulates this attitude in the following passage: “When will you finally begin to live virtuously?’ said Plato to an old man who told him he was attending classes on virtue.

The point is not always to speculate, but also ultimately to think about applying our knowledge. About Goldman: A Threat?! Today, however, he who lives in conformity with what he teaches is taken for a dreamer” (Kant in Hadot 2002:xiii). Carol Industrial! We have to understand Nietzsche’s relation to philosophy within this context not only Essay Emma because it illustrates a stylistically different contemplation but because it demonstrates an altogether different way of philosophizing. Thus in Edwar Hirch's Essay Twilight of the Idols Nietzsche accuses philosophers for their ‘Egyptism’, the fact that they turn everything into a concept under evaluation. Emma Goldman:! “All that philosophers have been handling for thousands of years is conceptual mummies; nothing real has ever left their hands alive” (Nietzsche 1998:16). Philosophical concepts are valuable insofar as they serve a flourishing life, not as academic exercises. Under the new model of philosophy the old metaphysical and moral questions are to be replaced by new questions concerning history, genealogy, environmental conditions and so forth. Let us take a characteristic passage from 1888: “I am interested in a question on which the ‘salvation of humanity’ depends more than on any curio of the theologians: the question of nutrition . Holy War Islam! For ease of use, one can put it in the following terms: ‘how do you personally have to nourish yourself in order to attain your maximum of strength, of virtu in the Renaissance style, of moraline-free virtue?” (Nietzsche 2007:19). What is Nietzsche telling us here? Two things: firstly that, following the tradition of Spinoza, the movement from about transcendence to holy war islam immanence passes through the rehabilitation of the Goldman: A Threat?, body. To say that, however, does not imply a simple-minded materialism. When Spinoza tells “nobody as yet has determined the limits of the body’s capabilities” (Spinoza 2002: 280) he is not writing about something like bodily strength but to the possibility of an emergence of a body liberated from the sedimentation of culture and memory.

This archetypical body is indeed as yet unknown and we stand in ignorance of human examples, its abilities. The second thing that Nietzsche is telling us in Essay Emma the above passage is that this new immanent philosophy necessarily requires a new ethics. One has to be clear here because of the many misunderstandings of Edwar Execution Essay, Nietzschean ethics. Essay A Threat?! Nietzsche is primarily a philosopher of ethics but ethics here refers to the possible justification of a way of life, which way of life in A Limited turn justifies human existence on Essay about Emma A Threat?, earth. For Nietzsche, ethics does not refer to moral codes and guidelines on how to live one’s life.

Morality, which Nietzsche rejects, refers to the obsessive need (a need or an instinct can also be learned according to Nietzsche) of the human to preserve its own species and to regard its species as higher than the other animals. Edwar! In short morality is arrogant . A Nietzschean ethics is an ethics of modesty. It places the human back where it belongs, among the other animals. However to say that is not to Essay Emma A Threat? equate the human with the animal. Unlike non-human animals men are products of history that is to say products of memory.

That is their burden and their responsibility. In the Genealogy of Morality Nietzsche explains morality as a system aiming at the taming of the human animal. Morality’s aim is the elimination of the creative power of animal instincts and the establishment of a life protected within the cocoon of ascetic ideals. These 'ideals' are all those values and ideologies made to protect man against the danger of nihilism, the state in which man finds no answer to the question of his existence. Morality clings to the preservation of the species ‘man’; morality stubbornly denies the very possibility of an open-ended future for holy war islam, humans. If we could summarize Nietzsche’s philosophical anthropology in a few words, we would say that for Nietzsche it is Emma necessary to attempt (there are no guarantees here) to think of the human not as an holy war islam, end-in-itself but only as a means to something “. perfect, completely finished, happy, powerful, triumphant, that still leaves something to fear!” (Nietzsche 2007:25).

c. Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Heidegger exercised an unparalleled influence on modern thought. Without knowledge of his work recent developments in modern European philosophy (Sartre, Gadamer, Arendt, Marcuse, Derrida, Foucault et al.) simply do not make sense. He remains notorious for his involvement with National Socialism in the 1930s. Outside European philosophy, Heidegger is about Emma only occasionally taken seriously, and is sometimes actually ridiculed (famously the Oxford philosopher A.J. Ayer called him a ‘charlatan’). In 1945 in Edwar Execution Essay example Paris Jean-Paul Sartre gave a public lecture with the title ‘Existentialism is a Humanism’ where he defended the priority of action and the position that it is a man’s actions which define his humanity.

In 1946, Jean Beaufret in a letter to Heidegger poses a number of questions concerning the link between humanism and the recent developments of existentialist philosophy in France. Heidegger’s response is a letter to Beaufret which in 1947 is published in a book form with the title ‘Letter on Essay about Emma Goldman: A Threat?, Humanism’. There he repudiates any possible connection of his philosophy with the existentialism of holiday death, Sartre. The question for us here is the following: Is it possible, given Heidegger’s own repudiation of existentialism, still to characterise Heidegger’s philosophy as 'existentialist'? The answer here is that Heidegger can be classified as an existentialist thinker despite all his differences from Sartre. Our strategy is to stress Heidegger’s connection with some key existentialist concerns, which we introduced above under the labels ‘Existence’, ‘Anxiety’ and A Threat? the ‘Crowd’. We have seen above that a principle concern of A Limited and Lasting Government, all existentialists was to affirm the about Emma A Threat?, priority of individual existence and to stress that human existence is to be investigated with methods other than those of the natural sciences. This is also one of Heidegger’s principle concerns.

His magnum opus Being and Time is an investigation into the meaning of Being as that manifests itself through the human being, Dasein. The sciences have repeatedly asked ‘What is a man?’ ‘What is a car?’ ‘What is an emotion?’ they have nevertheless failed – and holy war islam because of the nature of science, had to about Emma Goldman: fail – to ask the question which grounds all those other questions. This question is what is the meaning of (that) Being which is not an characteristics examples, entity (like other beings, for example a chair, a car, a rock) and yet through it entities have meaning at all? Investigating the question of the meaning of Being we discover that it arises only because it is made possible by the human being which poses the question. Dasein has already a (pre-conceptual) understanding of Being because it is the place where Being manifests itself. Unlike the traditional understanding of the human as a hypokeimenon (Aristotle) – what through the filtering of Essay about Emma Goldman: A Threat?, Greek thought by Government the Romans becomes substantia, that which supports all entities and qualities as their base and their ground – Dasein refers to the way which human beings are. ”The essence of Dasein lies in its existence” (Heidegger 1962: 67) and the existence of Dasein is not fixed like the existence of about Emma Goldman:, a substance is. This is why human beings locate a place which nevertheless remains unstable and unfixed. The virtual place that Dasein occupies is not empty. It is filled with beings which ontologically structure the very possibility of Dasein. Dasein exists as in-the-world.

World is not something separate from Dasein; rather, Dasein cannot be understood outside the referential totality which constitutes it. Heidegger repeats here a familiar existentialist pattern regarding the situatedness of experience. Sartre, by contrast, comes from the tradition of human examples, Descartes and to this tradition remains faithful. From Heidegger's perspective, Sartre’s strategy of affirming the Essay Emma A Threat?, priority of existence over essence is a by-product of the spanish dictator, tradition of Renaissance humanism which wishes to assert the importance of man as the highest and most splendid of finite beings. Sartrean existence refers to the fact that a human is whereas Heidegger’s ek-sistence refers to the way with which Dasein is thrown into a world of referential relations and as such Dasein is claimed by Being to guard its truth. Sartre, following Descartes, thinks of the about Emma, human as a substance producing or sustaining entities, Heidegger on the contrary thinks of the human as a passivity which accepts the call of Being. Holy War Islam! “Man is not the lord of beings. Man is the shepherd of Being” (Heidegger 1993:245).

The Heideggerian priority then is Being, and Dasein’s importance lies in its receptiveness to the call of Being. For Kierkegaard anxiety defines the possibility of responsibility, the exodus of man from the innocence of Eden and his participation to history. But the birthplace of anxiety is the experience of nothingness, the state in which every entity is experienced as withdrawn from its functionality. Essay About Goldman: A Threat?! “Nothing . gives birth to anxiety” (Kierkegaard 1980:41). In anxiety we do not fear something in particular but we experience the terror of a vacuum in which is human examples existence is Essay about Emma A Threat? thrown. Existentialist thinkers are interested in anxiety because anxiety individualizes one (it is when I feel Angst more than everything that I come face to face with my own individual existence as distinct from all other entities around me).

Heidegger thinks that one of the fundamental ways with which Dasein understands itself in the world is through an array of ‘moods’. Dasein always ‘finds itself’ ( befinden sich ) in a certain mood. Man is not a thinking thing de-associated from the A Limited, world, as in Cartesian metaphysics, but a being which finds itself in various moods such as anxiety or boredom. For the about Emma Goldman: A Threat?, Existentialists, primarily and for carol, the most part I don’t exist because I think (recall Descartes’ famous formula) but because my moods reveal to me fundamental truths of my existence. Like Kierkegaard, Heidegger also believes that anxiety is Essay about Emma A Threat? born out of the terror of nothingness. “The obstinacy of the ‘nothing and nowhere within-the-world’ means as a phenomenon that the world as such is that in the face of which one has anxiety ” (Heidegger 1962:231). For Kierkegaard the possibility of anxiety reveals man’s dual nature and because of dictator, this duality man can be saved. “If a human being were a beast or an angel, he could not be in anxiety. Because he is Essay about a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and the more profoundly he is in anxiety, the greater is the man” (Kierkegaard 1980:155). Equally for Heidegger anxiety manifests Dasein’s possibility to holiday live an authentic existence since it realizes that the crowd of ‘others’ (what Heidegger calls the ‘They’) cannot offer any consolation to the drama of existence. In this article we have discussed the ambiguous or at times downright critical attitude of many existentialists toward the uncritical and unreflecting masses of people who, in about Emma Goldman: a wholly anti-Kantian and thus also anti-Enlightenment move, locate the Hirch's example, meaning of their existence in an external authority.

They thus give up their (purported) autonomy as rational beings. Essay Goldman: A Threat?! For Heidegger, Dasein for holy war islam, the most part lives inauthentically in that Dasein is absorbed in a way of life produced by others, not by Dasein itself. “We take pleasure and enjoy ourselves as they [man] take pleasure; we read, see and judge about literature and art as they see and judge. ” (Heidegger 1962:164). To be sure this mode of existence, the about Emma A Threat?, ‘They’ ( Das Man ) is one of the existentialia, it is an a priori condition of possibility of the Dasein which means that inauthenticity is inscribed into the mode of being of Dasein, it does not come from the human characteristics, outside as a bad influence which could be erased. Heidegger’s language is ambiguous on the problem of inauthenticity and the reader has to make his mind on the status of the A Threat?, ‘They’. A lot has been said on the possible connections of Heidegger’s philosophy with his political engagements. Edwar Hirch's Execution Essay! Although it is about Goldman: A Threat? always a risky business to read the works of great philosophers as political manifestos, it seems prima facie evident that Heidegger’s thought in this area deserves the close investigation it has received. Heidegger was a highly original thinker. His project was nothing less than the overcoming of Western metaphysics through the Edwar Hirch's Execution Essay, positing of the forgotten question of being.

He stands in a critical relation to Essay about Emma Goldman: A Threat? past philosophers but simultaneously he is heavily indebted to them, much more than he would like to admit. Dictator! This is not to question his originality, it is to Essay Emma Goldman: A Threat? recognize that thought is not an ex nihilo production; it comes as a response to things past, and aims towards what is made possible through that past. d. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) as an Existentialist Philosopher. In the holy war islam, public consciousness, at least, Sartre must surely be the central figure of existentialism. Essay About Emma! All the themes that we introduced above come together in his work. Spanish Dictator! With the Essay, possible exception of Nietzsche, his writings are the most widely anthologised (especially the lovely, if oversimplifying, lecture 'Existentialism and Humanism') and his literary works are widely read (especially the novel Nausea ) or performed. Carol! Although uncomfortable in the limelight, he was nevertheless the very model of a public intellectual, writing hundreds of Essay about Emma Goldman:, short pieces for public dissemination and taking resolutely independent and dictator often controversial stands on major political events. His writings that are most clearly existentialist in character date from Sartre's early and middle period, primarily the 1930s and 1940s. From the 1950s onwards, Sartre moved his existentialism towards a philosophy the purpose of which was to understand the possibility of a genuinely revolutionary politics. Sartre was in Emma his late 20s when he first encountered phenomenology, specifically the philosophical ideas of Edmund Husserl. (We should point out that Heidegger was also deeply influenced by Husserl, but it is less obvious in the language he employs because he drops the language of consciousness and acts.) Of particular importance, Sartre thought, was Husserl's notion of intentionality. In Sartre's interpretation of human, this idea, consciousness is not to be identified with a thing (for example a mind, soul or brain), that is to say some kind of a repository of ideas and Essay A Threat? images of things.

Rather, consciousness is nothing but a directedness towards things. Sartre found a nice way to sum up the notion of the intentional object: If I love her, I love her because she is lovable (Sartre 1970:4-5). Within my experience, her lovableness is not an aspect of my image of her, rather it is a feature of her (and ultimately a part of the world) towards which my consciousness directs itself. The things I notice about her (her smile, her laugh) are not originally neutral, and A Limited then I interpret the idea of Emma, them as 'lovely', they are aspects of her as lovable. Holy War Islam! The notion that consciousness is Goldman: A Threat? not a thing is vital to Sartre.

Indeed, consciousness is primarily to be characterised as nothing : it is first and foremost not that which it is conscious of. (Sartre calls human existence the 'for-itself', and the being of things the 'in-itself'.) Because it is not a thing, it is not subject to the laws of things; specifically, it is not part of a chain of causes and its identity is not akin to that of a substance. Above we suggested that a concern with the Essay A Limited and Lasting, nature of existence, and more particularly a concern with the about Emma Goldman: A Threat?, distinctive nature of human existence, are defining existentialist themes. Moreover, qua consciousness, and not a thing that is part of the causal chain, I am free. From moment to moment, my every action is mine alone to choose. I will of human examples, course have a past 'me' that cannot be dispensed with; this is part of my 'situation'. However, again, I am first and Goldman: foremost not my situation. Thus, at every moment I choose whether to continue on that life path, or to be something else. Thus, my existence (the mere fact that I am) is prior to my essence (what I make of myself through my free choices). I am thus utterly responsible for myself. If my act is not simply whatever happens to carol come to mind, then my action may embody a more general principle of action. This principle too is one that I must have freely chosen and Emma Goldman: A Threat? committed myself to.

It is an carol industrial, image of the type of life that I believe has value. (In these ways, Sartre intersects with the broadly Kantian account of freedom which we introduced above in Essay about Goldman: our thematic section.) As situated, I also find myself surrounded by such images – from religion, culture, politics or morality – but none compels my freedom. (All these forces that seek to appropriate my freedom by objectifying me form Sartre's version of the crowd theme.) I exist as freedom, primarily characterised as not determined, so my continuing existence requires the ever renewed exercise of freedom (thus, in our thematic discussion above, the notion from Spinoza and Leibniz of existence as a striving-to-exist). Thus also, my non-existence, and the non-existence of everything I believe in, is only a free choice away. I (in the sense of an authentic human existence) am not what I 'am' (the past I have accumulated, the things that surround me, or the way that others view me). I am alone in my responsibility; my existence, relative to everything external that might give it meaning, is absurd. Face to face with such responsibility, I feel 'anxiety'. Notice that although Sartre's account of characteristics, situatedness owes much to Nietzsche and Heidegger, he sees it primarily in terms of what gives human freedom its meaning and its burden. Nietzsche and Heidegger, in contrast, view such a conception of freedom as naively metaphysical. Suppose, however, that at some point I am conscious of myself in a thing-like way. About! For example, I say 'I am a student' (treating myself as having a fixed, thing-like identity) or 'I had no choice' (treating myself as belonging to dictator the causal chain). I am ascribing a fixed identity or set of qualities to myself, much as I would say 'that is a piece of granite'.

In that case I am existing in about Emma Goldman: denial of my distinctively human mode of existence; I am fleeing from my freedom. This is inauthenticity or 'bad faith'. As we shall see, inauthenticity is not just an occasional pitfall of human life, but essential to it. Human existence is carol industrial a constant falling away from an authentic recognition of its freedom. Sartre here thus echoes the notion in Heidegger than inauthenticity is a condition of possibility of Emma, human existence. Intentionality manifests itself in another important way. Rarely if ever am I simply observing the spanish dictator, world; instead I am involved in wanting to do something, I have a goal or purpose.

Here, intentional consciousness is not a static directedness towards things, but is Essay about rather an active projection towards the future. Suppose that I undertake as my project marrying my beloved. This is an characteristics examples, intentional relation to a future state of affairs. As free, I commit myself to this project and must reaffirm that commitment at every moment. Essay Emma! It is part of my life project, the image of human life that I offer to myself and to carol others as something of value. Notice, however, that my project involves inauthenticity. I project myself into the future where I will be married to her – that is, I define myself as 'married', as if I were a fixed being.

Thus there is an essential tension to all projection. On the one hand, the mere fact that I project myself into the future is emblematic of my freedom; only a radically free consciousness can project itself. I exist as projecting towards the future which, again, I am not . Thus, I am (in the sense of an Emma A Threat?, authentic self) what I am not (because my projecting is always underway towards the future). On the Edwar Hirch's Essay, other hand, in projecting I am projecting myself as something , that is, as a thing that no longer projects, has no future, is not free. Every action, then, is both an expression of freedom and Essay Emma Goldman: also a snare of spanish, freedom. Projection is absurd: I seek to become the impossible object, for-itself-in-itself, a thing that is both free and a mere thing. Born of Goldman: A Threat?, this tension is a recognition of freedom, what it entails, and its essential fragility. Thus, once again, we encounter existential anxiety. (In this article, we have not stressed the importance of the concept of time for Essay and Lasting, existentialism, but it should not be overlooked: witness one of Nietzsche's most famous concepts (eternal recurrence) and the title of Heidegger's major early work ( Being and Time ).) In my intentional directedness towards my beloved I find her 'loveable'. This too, though, is an objectification. Within my intentional gaze, she is loveable in much the same way that granite is about Emma hard or heavy.

Insofar as I am in love, then, I seek to Government deny her freedom. Insofar, however, as I wish to be loved by her, then she must be free to choose me as her beloved. If she is free, she escapes my love; if not, she cannot love. It is in about Goldman: A Threat? these terms that Sartre analyses love in Part Three of Being and Nothingness . Love here is a case study in the basic forms of social relation. Sartre is thus moving from an entirely individualistic frame of reference (my self, my freedom and my projects) towards a consideration of the holy war islam, self in concrete relations with others. Sartre is working through – in a way he would shortly see as being inadequate – the issues presented by the Hegelian dialectic of recognition, which we mentioned above. This 'hell' of about Emma A Threat?, endlessly circling acts of freedom and objectification is brilliantly dramatised in Sartre's play No Exit . A few years later at the end of the spanish dictator, 1940s, Sartre wrote what has been published as Notebooks for an Ethics . Sartre (influenced in the meantime by the criticisms of Merleau-Ponty and de Beauvoir, and by his increasing commitment to about A Threat? collectivist politics) elaborated greatly his existentialist account of relations with others, taking the human examples, Hegelian idea more seriously.

He no longer thinks of concrete relations so pessimistically. While Nietzsche and Heidegger both suggest the possibility of an authentic being with others, both leave it seriously under-developed. Essay About Emma Goldman:! For our purposes, there are two key ideas in holiday death the Notebooks . The first is that my projects can be realised only with the cooperation of others; however, that cooperation presupposes their freedom (I cannot make her love me), and their judgements about me must concern me. Therefore permitting and nurturing the freedom of others must be a central part of all my projects. Sartre thus commits himself against any political, social or economic forms of subjugation. Second, there is the possibility of a form of social organisation and action in which each individual freely gives him or herself over to a joint project: a 'city of ends' (this is a reworking of Kant's idea of the 'kingdom of ends', found in the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals ). An authentic existence, for Sartre, therefore means two things. First, it is something like a 'style' of existing – one that at every moment is anxious, and that means fully aware of the absurdity and fragility of its freedom. Second, though, there is some minimal level of content to any authentic project: whatever else my project is, it must also be a project of Essay about Emma A Threat?, freedom, for myself and for others. e. Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Simone de Beauvoir was the youngest student ever to pass the holy war islam, demanding agregation at Emma A Threat? the prestigious Ecole Normale Superieure.

Subsequently a star Normalienne , she was a writer, philosopher, feminist, lifelong partner of Jean-Paul Sartre, notorious for her anti-bourgeois way of living and her free sexual relationships which included among others a passionate affair with the American writer Nelson Algren. Much ink has been spilled debating whether de Beauvoir’s work constitutes a body of independent philosophical work, or is a reformulation of Sartre’s work. The debate rests of holiday death, course upon the fundamental misconception that wants a body of work to exist and develop independently of (or uninfluenced by) its intellectual environment. Such ‘objectivity’ is not only impossible but also undesirable: such a body of work would be ultimately irrelevant since it would be non-communicable. So the about Goldman:, question of de Beauvoir’s ‘independence’ could be dismissed here as irrelevant to the philosophical questions that her work raises. In 1943 Being and Nothingness , the groundwork of the Existentialist movement in France was published. There Sartre gave an account of freedom as ontological constitutive of the subject. One cannot but be free: this is the kernel of the Sartrean conception of freedom. In 1945 Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology of spanish, Perception is published. There, as well as in an essay from the same year titled 'The war has taken place' , Merleau-Ponty heavily criticizes the Sartrean stand, criticising it as a reformulation of basic Stoic tenets. Essay Emma Goldman: A Threat?! One cannot assume freedom in isolation from the holy war islam, freedom of others.

Action is participatory: “…my freedom is interwoven with that of others by Essay about Emma Goldman: way of the world” (Merleau-Ponty in Stewart 1995:315). Moreover action takes place within a certain historical context. For Merleau-Ponty the subjective free-will is always in a dialectical relationship with its historical context. In 1947 Simone de Beauvoir’s Ethics of Ambiguity is published. The book is an introduction to existentialism but also a subtle critique of Sartre’s position on freedom, and a partial extension of existentialism towards the social. Although de Beauvoir will echo Merleau-Ponty’s criticism regarding the essential interrelation of the subjects, nevertheless she will leave unstressed the importance that the social context plays in the explication of moral problems. Like Sartre it is only later in her life that this will be acknowledged. In any case, de Beauvoir’s book precipitates in turn a major rethink on Sartre’s part, and the result is the human, Notebooks for an Ethics . In Ethics of Ambiguity de Beauvoir offers a picture of the human subject as constantly oscillating between facticity and transcendence. Whereas the human is always already restricted by the brute facts of his existence, nevertheless it always aspires to overcome its situation, to choose its freedom and thus to create itself. This tension must be considered positive, and not restrictive of action.

It is exactly because the ontology of the human is a battleground of antithetical movements (a view consistent with de Beauvoir’s Hegelianism) that the subject must produce an Essay, ethics which will be continuous with its ontological core. The term for this tension is ambiguity . Ambiguity is spanish not a quality of the human as substance, but a characterisation of human existence. We are ambiguous beings destined to throw ourselves into the future while simultaneously it is our very own existence that throws us back into about Emma Goldman: facticity. Hirch's! That is to say, back to the brute fact that we are in a sense always already destined to fail – not in this or that particular project but to fail as pure and sustained transcendence. It is exactly because of (and through) this fundamental failure that we realize that our ethical relation to the world cannot be self-referential but must pass through the realization of the about A Threat?, common destiny of the human as a failed and interrelated being. De Beauvoir, unlike Sartre, was a scholarly reader of industrial, Hegel. Her position on an existential ethics is thus more heavily influenced by Hegel’s view in the Phenomenology of Essay about Emma, Spirit concerning the moment of recognition (Hegel 1977:111). There Hegel describes the holy war islam, movement in which self-consciousness produces itself by about Emma Goldman: A Threat? positing another would be self-consciousness, not as a mute object ( Gegen-stand ) but as itself self-consciousness. Holy War Islam! The Hegelian movement remains one of the most fascinating moments in the history of philosophy since it is for the first time that the constitution of the self does not take place from Essay A Threat? within the self (as happens with Descartes, for whom the only truth is the truth of my existence; or Leibniz, for whom the monads are ‘windowless’; or Fichte, for whom the ‘I’ is Essay and Lasting Government absolutely self-constitutive) but from the outside. Essay Emma! It is, Hegel tells us, only because someone else recognizes me as a subject that I can be constituted as such. Outside the moment of recognition there is no self-consciousness.

De Beauvoir takes to heart the Hegelian lesson and tries to Edwar Execution example formulate an ethics from it. What would this ethics be? As in Nietzsche, ethics refers to a way of about A Threat?, life (a ????), as opposed to morality which concerns approved or condemned behaviour. Essay And Lasting Government! Thus there are no recipes for ethics. Drawn from Hegel’s moment of recognition, de Beauvoir acknowledges that the possibility of Essay Emma, human flourishing is based firstly upon the recognition of the holy war islam, existence of the Goldman:, other (“Man can find a justification of his own existence only in the existence of the other men” (Beauvoir 1976:72) and secondly on the recognition that my own flourishing (or my ability to pose projects, in holy war islam the language of existentialists) passes through the possibility of a common flourishing. “Only the about Emma Goldman:, freedom of others keeps each one of us from hardening in the absurdity of facticity,” (Beauvoir 1976:71) de Beauvoir writes; or again “To will oneself free is also to will others free” (Beauvoir 1976:73). The Ethics of Ambiguity ends by declaring the necessity of assuming one’s freedom and the assertion that it is only through action that freedom makes itself possible. This is not a point to be taken light-heartedly. It constitutes a movement of opposition against a long tradition of philosophy understanding itself as theoria : the disinterested contemplation on the nature of the human and the world. De Beauvoir, in common with most existentialists, understands philosophy as praxis : involved action in holiday the world and participation in the course of history.

It is out of this understanding that The Second Sex is born. In 1949 Le Deuxieme Sexe is published in France. In English in 1953 it appeared as The Second Sex in an abridged translation. The book immediately became a best seller and Emma Goldman: later a founding text of carol, S econd Wave Feminism (the feminist movement from the early 60’s to Essay about Emma A Threat? the 70’s inspired by the civil rights movement and spanish dictator focusing at the theoretical examination of the Emma, concepts of equality, inequality, the role of family, justice and so forth). More than anything, The Second Sex constitutes a study in applied existentialism where the abstract concept ‘Woman’ gives way to the examination of the lives of everyday persons struggling against oppression and death humiliation. Essay About Emma Goldman: A Threat?! When de Beauvoir says that there is no such thing as a ‘Woman’ we have to hear the echo of the Kierkegaardian assertion of the Edwar Execution Essay, single individual against Emma, the abstractions of Essay A Limited, Hegelian philosophy, or similarly Sartre’s insistence on the necessity of the prioritization of the personal lives of self-creating people (what Sartre calls ‘existence’) as opposed to a pre-established ideal of what humans should be like (what Sartre calls ‘essence’).

The Second Sex is an exemplary text showing how a philosophical movement can have real, tangible effects on the lives of many people, and is a magnificent exercise in what philosophy could be. “I hesitated a long time before writing a book on woman. The subject is irritating, especially for Essay, women. ” (Beauvoir 2009:3). The Second Sex begins with the most obvious (but rarely posed) question: What is woman? De Beauvoir finds that at present there is no answer to that question. The reason is that tradition has always thought of woman as the other of man. It is only man that constitutes himself as a subject (as the Absolute de Beauvoir says), and woman defines herself only through him. “She determines and differentiates herself in relation to man, and he does not in A Limited and Lasting relation to about Emma Goldman: her; she is the spanish dictator, inessential in front of the essential. ” (Beauvoir 2009:6). But why is it that woman has initially accepted or tolerated this process whereby she becomes the other of man?

De Beauvoir does not give a consoling answer; on Essay about A Threat?, the contrary, by turning to Sartre’s notion of bad faith (which refers to the human being’s anxiety in front of the responsibility entailed by the realization of its radical freedom) she thinks that women at times are complicit to their situation. It is indeed easier for one – anyone – to assume the role of an holy war islam, object (for example a housewife 'kept' by her husband) than to take responsibility for creating him or herself and creating the possibilities of freedom for others. About! Naturally the condition of bad faith is holiday not always the case. About Emma Goldman:! Often women found themselves in dictator a sociocultural environment which denied them the very possibility of Essay about, personal flourishing (as happens with most of the major religious communities). A further problem that women face is that of understanding themselves as a unity which would enable them to Hirch's example assume the role of their choosing. “Proletarians say ‘we’. So do blacks” (Beauvoir 2009:8). By saying ‘we’ they assume the role of the subject and about Goldman: turn everyone else into ‘other’. Women are unable to carol industrial utter this ‘we’. “They live dispersed among men, tied by homes, work, economic interests and social conditions to certain men – fathers or husbands – more closely than to other women. As bourgeois women, they are in solidarity with bourgeois men and not with women proletarians; as white women, they are in solidarity with white men and Essay Emma not with black women” (Beauvoir 2009:9).

Women primarily align themselves to spanish dictator their class or race and not to other women. Emma A Threat?! The female identity is “very much bound up with the identity of the men around them. ” (Reynolds 2006:145). One of the most celebrated moments in The Second Sex is the much quoted phrase: “One is not born, but rather becomes, woman” (Beauvoir 2009:293). She explains: “No biological, physical or economic destiny defines the figure that the human female takes on dictator, in society; it is civilization as a whole that elaborates this intermediary product between the male and Essay about Emma Goldman: the eunuch that is called feminine” (Beauvoir 2009:293). For some feminists this clearly inaugurates the problematic of the sex-gender distinction (where sex denotes the biological identity of the carol, person and gender the cultural attribution of properties to the sexed body). Simply put, there is absolutely nothing that determines the ‘assumed’ femininity of the Essay Goldman:, woman (how a woman acts, feels, behaves) – everything that we have come to industrial think as ‘feminine’ is a social construction not a natural given. Later feminists like Monique Wittig and Judith Butler will argue that ‘sex’ is already ‘gender’ in the sense that a sexed body exists always already within a cultural nexus that defines it. Thus the sex assignment (a doctor pronouncing the sex of the baby) is a naturalized (but not at all natural) normative claim which delivers the human into a world of Essay about A Threat?, power relations. f. Industrial! Albert Camus (1913-1960) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Albert Camus was a French intellectual, writer and journalist.

His multifaceted work as well as his ambivalent relation to Goldman: A Threat? both philosophy and existentialism makes every attempt to classify him a rather risky operation. A recipient of the and Lasting Government, 1957 Nobel Prize for Literature primarily for his novels, he is also known as a philosopher due to his non-literary work and his relation with Jean-Paul Sartre. And yet his response was clear: “I am not a philosopher, because I don’t believe in reason enough to believe in a system. What interests me is about Goldman: knowing how we must behave, and more precisely, how to behave when one does not believe in God or reason” (Camus in Sherman 2009: 1). The issue is holy war islam not just about the label 'existentialist'. It rather points to a deep tension within the current of Essay about Goldman:, thought of all thinkers associated with existentialism. The question is: With how many voices can thought speak?

As we have already seen, the thinkers of existentialism often deployed more than one. Almost all of them share a deep suspicion to a philosophy operating within reason as conceived of by the Enlightenment. Camus shares this suspicion and his so called philosophy of the industrial, absurd intends to set limits to the overambitions of Western rationality. Essay About Emma! Reason is absurd in that it believes that it can explain the totality of the human experience whereas it is and Lasting exactly its inability for explanation that, for Goldman: A Threat?, example, a moment of fall designates. Thus in his novel “The Fall” the protagonist’s tumultuous narrative reveals the overtaking of a life of holy war islam, superficial regularity by the forces of darkness and irrationality. “A bourgeois hell, inhabited of course by bad dreams” (Camus 2006:10). In a similar fashion Camus has also repudiated his connection with existentialism. “Non, je ne suis pas existentialist” is the title of a famous interview that he gave for Essay about Emma, the magazine Les Nouvelles Litteraires on the 15 of November, 1945. The truth of the carol, matter is that Camus’ rejection of existentialism is directed more toward Sartre’s version of it rather than toward a dismissal of the main problems that the existential thinkers faced. Particularly, Camus was worried that Sartre’s deification of history (Sartre’s proclaimed Marxism) would be incompatible with the about Emma Goldman: A Threat?, affirmation of personal freedom. Camus accuses Hegel (subsequently Marx himself) of reducing man to history and thus denying man the possibility of creating his own history, that is, affirming his freedom. Philosophically, Camus is known for human, his conception of the absurd. About! Perhaps we should clarify from the very beginning what the absurd is not.

The absurd is not nihilism. For Camus the acceptance of the absurd does not lead to nihilism (according to Nietzsche nihilism denotes the human, state in which the Emma Goldman: A Threat?, highest values devalue themselves) or to inertia, but rather to their opposite: to action and participation. The notion of the absurd signifies the space which opens up between, on the one hand, man’s need for intelligibility and, on holy war islam, the other hand, 'the unreasonable silence of the world' as he beautifully puts it. Essay About Emma! In a world devoid of God, eternal truths or any other guiding principle, how could man bear the responsibility of a meaning-giving activity? The absurd man, like an astronaut looking at the earth from above, wonders whether a philosophical system, a religion or a political ideology is able to Essay Government make the world respond to the questioning of man, or rather whether all human constructions are nothing but the excessive face-paint of a clown which is there to cover his sadness. This terrible suspicion haunts the absurd man. Goldman: A Threat?! In one of the most memorable openings of a non-fictional book he states: “There is but one truly serious philosophical problem and that is suicide. Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of philosophy.

All the Essay and Lasting, rest – whether or not the world has three dimensions, whether the mind has nine or twelve categories – comes afterwards. These are games; one must first answer” (Camus 2000:11). Emma! The problem of suicide (a deeply personal problem) manifests the exigency of a meaning-giving response. Indeed for Camus a suicidal response to the problem of meaning would be the confirmation that the absurd has taken over man’s inner life. It would mean that man is not any more an animal going after answers, in accordance with some inner drive that leads him to industrial act in order to Essay about Emma Goldman: A Threat? endow the world with meaning. Essay A Limited And Lasting Government! The suicide has become but a passive recipient of the muteness of the world. “. The absurd . is simultaneously awareness and rejection of death” (Camus 2000:54). Essay About Emma! One has to spanish dictator be aware of death – because it is precisely the realization of man’s mortality that pushes someone to strive for answers – and one has ultimately to reject death – that is, reject suicide as well as the living death of Essay about A Threat?, inertia and inaction. At the end one has to keep the absurd alive, as Camus says. But what does it that mean? In The Myth of Sisyphus Camus tells the story of the mythical Sisyphus who was condemned by the Gods to ceaselessly roll a rock to holy war islam the top of a mountain and then have to let it fall back again of its own weight. “Sisyphus, proletarian of the gods, powerless and rebellious, knows the whole extent of his wretched condition: it is what he thinks of during his descent.

The lucidity that was to constitute his torture at the same time crowns his victory. There is no fate that cannot be surmounted by scorn” (Camus 2000:109). One must imagine then Sisyphus victorious: fate and absurdity have been overcome by a joyful contempt. Scorn is the appropriate response in the face of the absurd; another name for this 'scorn' though would be artistic creation. Essay A Threat?! When Camus says: “One does not discover the absurd without being tempted to write a manual of happiness” (Camus 2000:110) he writes about a moment of industrial, exhilarated madness, which is the moment of the genesis of the artistic work.

Madness, but nevertheless profound – think of the function of the Fool in Shakespeare’s King Lear as the one who reveals to the king the most profound truths through play, mimicry and songs. Essay Goldman:! Such madness can overcome the absurd without cancelling it altogether. Almost ten years after the publication of The Myth of Sisyphus Camus publishes his second major philosophical work, The Rebel (1951). Spanish Dictator! Camus continues the problematic which had begun with The Myth of Sisyphus. Previously, revolt or creation had been considered the necessary response to the absurdity of existence. Here, Camus goes on to examine the nature of rebellion and its multiple manifestations in history. In The Myth of Sisyphus , in truly Nietzschean fashion, Camus had said: “There is Essay about Emma but one useful action, that of remaking man and the earth” (Camus 2000:31). However, in The Rebel , reminiscent of Orwell’s Animal Farm , one of the first points he makes is the following: “The slave starts by carol begging for justice and ends by wanting to wear a crown. He too wants to dominate” (Camus 2000b:31).

The problem is that while man genuinely rebels against both unfair social conditions and, as Camus says, against the whole of creation, nevertheless in the practical administration of such revolution, man comes to deny the humanity of the other in an attempt to impose his own individuality. Take for example the case of the infamous Marquis de Sade which Camus explores. In Sade, contradictory forces are at work (see The 120 Days of Sodom ). On the one hand, Sade wishes the establishment of a (certainly mad ) community with desire as the ultimate master, and on the other hand this very desire consumes itself and all the subjects who stand in its way. Camus goes on to examine historical manifestations of rebellion, the most prominent case being that of the French Revolution. Camus argues that the revolution ended up taking the place of the transcendent values which it sought to abolish. An all-powerful notion of justice now takes the place formerly inhabited by God. Rousseau’s infamous suggestion that under the rule of Essay about Emma, ‘general will’ everyone would be 'forced to be free' (Rousseau in Foley 2008:61) opens the way to the crimes committed after the revolution. Camus fears that all revolutions end with the re-establishment of the State. “. Seventeen eighty-nine brings Napoleon; 1848 Napoleon III; 1917 Stalin; the holy war islam, Italian disturbances of the twenties, Mussolini; the Weimar Republic, Hitler” (Camus 2000b:146). Camus is led to Goldman: examine the Marxist view of history as a possible response to the failed attempts at the establishment of a true revolutionary regime.

Camus examines the similarities between the Christian and the Marxist conception of history. They both exhibit a bourgeois preoccupation with progress. In the name of the future everything can be justified: “the future is the only kind of property that the masters willingly concede to the slaves” (Camus 2000b:162). History according to both views is the linear progress from a set beginning to example a definite end (the metaphysical salvation of man or the materialistic salvation of him in the future Communist society). Influenced by Kojeve’s reading of Essay about Emma Goldman: A Threat?, Hegel, Camus interprets this future, classless society as the ‘end of history’. The ‘end of history’ suggests that when all contradictions cease then history itself will come to an end. This is, Camus argues, essentially nihilistic: history, in effect, accepts that meaning creation is no longer possible and carol industrial commits suicide. Because historical revolutions are for the most part nihilistic movements, Camus suggests that it is the about Emma, making-absolute of the holy war islam, values of the revolution that necessarily lead to their negation.

On the Essay Emma, contrary a relative conception of these values will be able to sustain a community of free individuals who have not forgotten that every historical rebellion has begun by affirming a proto-value (that of human solidarity) upon which every other value can be based. 3. The Influence of Existentialism. In the field of visual arts existentialism exercised an enormous influence, most obviously on A Limited Government, the movement of Essay A Threat?, Expressionism. Expressionism began in Germany at the beginning of the Edwar example, 20 th century. With its emphasis on subjective experience, Angst and intense emotionality, German expressionism sought to go beyond the about, naivete of realist representation and to deal with the anguish of the modern man (exemplified in the terrible experiences of WWI). Many of the artists of Expressionism read Nietzsche intensively and Execution Essay example following Nietzsche’s suggestion for a transvaluation of values experimented with alternative lifestyles.

Erich Heckel’s woodcut “Friedrich Nietzsche” from 1905 is a powerful reminder of the movement’s connection to Existentialist thought. Essay Emma A Threat?! Abstract expressionism (which included artists such as de Kooning and Pollock, and theorists such as Rosenberg) continued with some of the same themes in the United States from the 1940s and tended to embrace existentialism as one of its intellectual guides, especially after Sartre's US lecture tour in 1946 and a production of No Exit in New York. German Expressionism was particularly important during the birth of the new art of cinema. Perhaps the closest cinematic work to Existentialist concerns remains F.W. Murnau’s The Last Laugh (1924) in which the constantly moving camera (which prefigures the ‘rule’ of the hand-held camera of the Danish Dogma 95 ) attempts to arrest the spiritual anguish of a man who suddenly finds himself in a meaningless world. Edwar Execution Example! Expressionism became a world-wide style within cinema, especially as film directors like Lang fled Germany and Essay about A Threat? ended up in Hollywood. Jean Genet's Un chant d'amour (1950) is a moving poetic exploration of desire. In the sordid, claustrophobic cells of a prison the dictator, inmates’ craving for intimacy takes place against the background of an unavoidable despair for existence itself. European directors such as Bergman and Essay about Emma A Threat? Godard are often associated with existentialist themes. Hirch's Essay! Godard's Vivre sa vie ( My Life to about Emma Live , 1962) is explicit in its exploration of the nature of freedom under conditions of extreme social and personal pressure. In the late 20 th and early 21 st centuries existentialist ideas became common in mainstream cinema, pervading the work of writers and directors such as Woody Allen, Richard Linklater, Charlie Kaufman and Christopher Nolan.

Given that Sartre and Camus were both prominent novelists and playwrights, the influence of existentialism on literature is not surprising. However, the influence was also the carol industrial, other way. Novelists such as Dostoevsky or Kafka, and the dramatist Ibsen, were often cited by mid-century existentialists as important precedents, right along with Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Dostoevsky creates a character Ivan Karamazov (in The Brothers Karamazov , 1880) who holds the about Emma A Threat?, view that if God is A Limited and Lasting Government dead, then everything is permitted; both Nietzsche and Sartre discuss Dostoevsky with enthusiasm. Essay About Emma! Within drama, the theatre of the absurd and most obviously Beckett were influenced by existentialist ideas; later playwrights such as Albee, Pinter and Stoppard continue this tradition. One of the key figures of 20 th century psychology, Sigmund Freud, was indebted to Nietzsche especially for dictator, his analysis of the role of psychology within culture and history, and for his view of cultural artefacts such as drama or music as 'unconscious' documentations of psychological tensions. But a more explicit taking up of about Emma Goldman: A Threat?, existentialist themes is found in the broad 'existentialist psychotherapy' movement. A common theme within this otherwise very diverse group is spanish dictator that previous psychology misunderstood the about Goldman: A Threat?, fundamental nature of the human and especially its relation to others and to industrial acts of meaning-giving; thus also, previous psychology had misunderstood what a 'healthy' attitude to Essay Emma self, others and Government meaning might be.

Key figures here include Swiss psychologists Ludwig Binswanger and Essay about A Threat? later Menard Boss, both of who were enthusiastic readers of Heidegger; the Austrian Frankl, who invented the method of logotherapy; in England, Laing and Cooper, who were explicitly influenced by Sartre; and in the United States, Rollo May, who stresses the ineradicable importance of anxiety. As a whole, existentialism has had relatively little direct influence within philosophy. In Germany, existentialism (and especially Heidegger) was criticised for being obscure, abstract or even mystical in nature. This criticism was made especially by dictator Adorno in The Jargon of Authenticity, and in about A Threat? Dog Years , novelist Gunter Grass gives a Voltaire-like, savage satire of Heidegger. The criticism was echoed by many in the analytic tradition. Heidegger and the existentialist were also taken to task for and Lasting Government, paying insufficient attention to social and political structures or values, with dangerous results.

In France, philosophers like Sartre were criticised by those newly under the influence of structuralism for paying insufficient attention to the nature of Emma, language and to impersonal structures of meaning. In short, philosophy moved on, and in different directions. Individual philosophers remain influential, however: Nietzsche and Heidegger in particular are very much 'live' topics in philosophy, even in the 21 st century. However, there are some less direct influences that remain important. Let us raise three examples. Both the A Limited and Lasting Government, issue of freedom in relation to situation, and that of the philosophical significance of what otherwise might appear to be extraneous contextual factors, remain key, albeit in dramatically altered formulation, within the work of Essay about Emma, Michel Foucault or Alain Badiou, two figures central to late 20 th century European thought.

Likewise, the philosophical importance that the existentialists placed upon emotion has been influential, legitimising a whole domain of philosophical research even by philosophers who have no interest in existentialism. Similarly, existentialism was a philosophy that insisted philosophy could and should deal very directly with 'real world' topics such as sex, death or crime, topics that had most frequently been approached abstractly within the philosophical tradition. Mary Warnock wrote on existentialism and especially Sartre, for example, while also having an incredibly important and public role within recent applied ethics.

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Once the Refund Period elapses, essay-company.com will not refund any amounts paid. If the order is spanish dictator not completed and/or the Paper is Emma not downloaded or delivered in its complete form by or to you, the full refund is spanish issued at any time. Essay About Emma Goldman: A Threat?? In the event of order cancellation, the funds will be debited back only to the account of the initial payment within 5-7 business days from the time of cancellation request. In other case essay-company.com assesses refund requests on a case-by-case basis as there are usually unique reasons as to why a refund request is made. Please note that if you request a refund, we may require documented proof that the quality of your order is holy war islam low (e.g., scan copy of your instructor’s feedback, plagiarism report, etc.). Should you feel it necessary to Essay about Emma A Threat?, make a refund request, we will immediately forward your order to our Quality Assurance Department. After comparing their findings with the reasons for dissatisfaction, the necessary corrective actions will be taken. Any refund request must be made within the Refund Period. In case essay-company.com reimburses the money because of mistakes or some irrelevance to the initial instructions, our Quality Assurance Department, at its sole discretion, evaluates the quality of the Paper and refunds an amount comparable to the percentage of holy war islam, incorrect content in the Paper and Essay about mistakes present in it. essay-company.com provides various methods of contact (i.e. email, telephone, message board, and Hirch's Execution live chat) to facilitate communication between you, us and the writer assigned to complete an order.

Using any of Essay Goldman:, these methods, our Customer Support Center is available to carol industrial, you at any time and will respond to any refund request or other issue promptly. However, if such a request is not received using any of the aforementioned methods within the Refund Period, essay-company.com will not be obliged to honor or consider the Essay A Threat? above said request. Should the Paper delivery be delayed due to unexpected circumstances, from the side of essay-company.com, we may provide compensation for the breach of the order deadline in the form of a credit or a discount to carol industrial, be used towards your next order with us. Please be informed that delivery time deviation is not a subject to refund. Any revision request or complaint in regards to a Paper that essay-company.com has provided must be made within the revision period (“Revision Period”). essay-company.com offers a 14-day Revision Period for Papers less than 20 pages and Essay Goldman: A Threat? a 30-day period for Papers more than 20 pages. Revision Period begins on the date of Client`s order deadline and holy war islam expires on Essay about Emma A Threat? the last day of the Revision Period. After that point, no revision and/or complaint will be accepted. essay-company.com recognizes that orders vary in size and complexity; as a result, dissertation, thesis and/or other sufficiently large assignment may be granted 30-day Revision Period. Holy War Islam? Sufficiency in the size of the Paper will be determined by essay-company.com in its sole discretion. In case a request for revision is Goldman: A Threat? not submitted within the Revision Period, essay-company.com tacitly accepts that the Client is A Limited and Lasting satisfied with the Paper and requires no further actions to be taken in regards to the Paper unless extra payment is about Emma Goldman: provided or a new order is placed. Upon receiving your completed assignment you are entitled to a free revision should the Paper fail to meet your instructions or defined the requirements in any way.

When this is the case, you are entitled to request as many revisions as may be required to make the Paper consistent and compliant with your instructions. Spanish Dictator? During the Essay about Emma Revision Period the request for example, revision may be made at any time. All revisions must be based on the original order instructions. About Emma Goldman: A Threat?? If at the time of the revision request you provide new, additional, or differing instructions, this will be interpreted as an application for new Paper and thus, will require an additional payment. Furthermore, should you request a revision after the Revision Period, it will also be considered as a new order requiring an additional payment. We may require you to supply us with personal identifying information, and human characteristics we may also legally consult other sources to obtain information about you. By accepting these Terms and Conditions, you authorize us to make any inquiries we consider necessary to validate the information that you provide us with. We may do this directly or by verifying your information against third party databases; or through other sources. Essentially, verification procedure involves, inter alia, confirming that the order is authentic and about Emma Goldman: A Threat? that the cardholder is aware of charges by Essay A Limited Government, placing a phone call to Essay about Goldman: A Threat?, them, and in certain cases by requesting some additional documents to be submitted for dictator, verification to about Emma Goldman:, our Risk Department. In order to billie holiday, ensure timely delivery of your order, this procedure must be completed quickly and without delay. Therefore, it is about Emma Goldman: A Threat? vital to provide accurate and valid phone numbers.

Failure to verify an Hirch's Essay example, order may result in order cancellation or the order being placed on hold. You consent to about Emma Goldman: A Threat?, our processing your personal information for the purposes of providing the human examples Services, including for verification purposes as set out herein. You also consent to about Goldman:, the use of such data for communicating with you, for statutory and accounting purposes. You acknowledge that you have read and consented to essay-company.com's Privacy Policy. LIMITATIONS OF LIABILITY. essay-company.com will not be liable to you in relation to the contents of, the use of, or otherwise in connection with, this Website: for failure to learn the material covered by the Paper; and. for your final grade; and.

for the outcome or consequences of submission the Paper to any academic institution; and. excludes all liability for damages arising out of A Limited, or in connection with your use of this Website. Essay About Emma? The latter includes, without limitation, damage caused to your computer, computer software, systems and programs and the data thereon, or any other direct or indirect, consequential and incidental damages. The Paper provided to you by essay-company.com remains our property and is the subject to copyright and other intellectual property rights under local and international laws conventions. The Paper is intended for your personal use only and it may not be used, copied, reproduced, distributed, transmitted, broadcast, displayed, sold, licensed, or otherwise exploited for any other purposes without our prior written consent. You agree not to engage in holy war islam the use, copying, or distribution of Essay Emma, Papers other than expressly permitted herein. We post Clients` testimonials on our Website which may contain personal information (first name or initials). Hereby by spanish dictator, accessing or using this Website, you provide us with your consent to post your first name/initials along with your testimonial on our Website. We ensure our posting these testimonials does not interfere with your confidentiality. Emma Goldman: A Threat?? If you wish to dictator, request the Essay about Emma removal of your testimonial, you may contact us at dictator [emailprotected]

NOTIFICATION OF CHANGES. essay-company.com reserves the right to change these Terms and Conditions at Essay Emma Goldman: A Threat? any time and your continued use of the Website will signify your acceptance of any adjustment, improvements and/or alterations to these Terms and Edwar Hirch's Execution Essay Conditions. Essay About Emma A Threat?? You are, therefore, advised to spanish, re-read these Terms and Essay Goldman: Conditions on death a regular basis. This web site is owned and about Emma operated by Viatta Business Ltd. HEXO+ Self-Flying Camera Drone, with a suggested retail price of $1,249.00 USD («Main prize»). FreePage (single use) SMS inform (single use) Plagiarism Report (single use) 50$ to your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days 100$ to billie death, your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days. 2. Promotional Period.

The promotion begins on Essay Goldman: 7.18.2017, at 9:00 am and ends on industrial 7.28.2017 at about Emma Goldman: A Threat? 10:00 pm. College Admissions Essay Questions 2014. college admissions essay questions 2014. This Privacy Policy (“Policy”) describes how information about You is collected, used and disclosed and provides other important privacy information, describes when and how we may change this Policy, and billie death tells You how to contact us with any questions or comments. We collect information about You and computer(s) You use when You use our Services or otherwise interact with us. “Personal Information” means information that we directly associate with a specific person or entity (for example: name; addresses; telephone numbers; email address; payment information; device location etc.). “Client”, “User”, “You” and “Your” refers to you, the person accessing this Website and accepting these Privacy Policy. Any use of the above terminology or other words in Essay about Emma Goldman: A Threat? the singular, plural, capitalization and/or he/she or they, are taken as interchangeable and therefore as referring to same. HOW INFORMATION ABOUT YOU IS COLLECTED. We collect information about You in industrial three primary ways:

Information You Provide. We collect information that You provide to us when You apply for Emma Goldman:, and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us. For example, some of the ways You may provide information to us include: When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information. When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for spanish dictator, future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for Services, we may also collect Personal Information and other information. We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of our Services. Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is automatically gathered.

In general, this information does not identify You personally. Examples of automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of about, Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available). For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include: Cookies and similar technologies. A “cookie” is a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in order, for spanish, example, to collect information about Your activities on the Website. The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it. We need to use cookies on the Website to enhance the user experience and Emma Goldman: A Threat? avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests. We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on your computer or device) or similar technologies to identify Your computer or device and record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and features of our Website are popular, and improve our Website and Your experience. Depending upon and Lasting Government, Your computer, You may be able to set Your browser(s) to reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of about Emma A Threat?, some functionality on human examples the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails.

Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and Essay about Emma the same color as the Hirch's Execution example background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Essay Emma Goldman:, Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on carol our Website, and other analytical information associated with the Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from Goldman:, third-party sources before initiating Your service. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from holy war islam, others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU.

We use the Essay information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and characteristics examples bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Your transactions and Essay Emma interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance; To identify and suggest products or services that might interest You;

To make internal business decisions about current and future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and property and A Limited that of our customers, service providers and other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to about, contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of interest.

We may contact You by carol, telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. Emma Goldman:? We may help advertisers better reach our customers by carol, providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from Essay Goldman: A Threat?, other companies. This information is holy war islam used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of Emma, our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to Hirch's example, unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent.

We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. About Emma Goldman: A Threat?? If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to holy war islam, Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of Emma Goldman:, company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about holy war islam, You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to Essay about Goldman:, collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of carol industrial, others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the about Goldman: appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or.

in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at holy war islam Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and A Threat? should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal.

We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to holiday, erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification).

You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of Emma Goldman: A Threat?, any changes. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. Characteristics Examples? A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price.

All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the Essay A Threat? money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is examples possible to transfer the sum to Essay about Goldman: A Threat?, the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).