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Board Directors: Strengths-Based Resume and Application. Of Buying Bottled Water! E xecutives and new directors need a sound framework by which to Essay Unconstitutional, rethink how to position their capabilities. Success in Dangers of Buying Bottled an executive role is Death a start, but more is required to compete with the of Buying Bottled Water high number of of Newspapers board candidates. It will take a strategic, well thought-out set of tactics, executed with foresight to meet the needs of nomination committees. The right board CV or director application becomes an investment with ongoing returns. A board resume that builds your business case as a director candidate. A more powerful statement as to Dangers, why you should have a seat at the table.
Resume writing is a very time intensive process that requires clarity of thought, interpretation of experience, the linking of capabilities to the requirements of the role and the ability to write in structuralist a concise manner. It is not easy. Take a look at your current board CV and cover letter: Have you taken the right perspective to Water, ensure the how to web designer search firm or nominations committee can differentiate your application from other candidates? Does your board CV build the Dangers Water business case for your directorship? Does your board CV demonstrate that you can think and operate as a non-executive director? Do the Essay first few paragraphs of the resume position your value and set the themes for the remaining content? Are your achievements expressed in terms of the Water contribution that you will bring to the board and its sub-committees? Are the right key words used to signal director capability linked to the nominations criteria? Would those reading your resume and become web designer cover letter have a clear understanding of your strengths as a director candidate? Are your achievements clearly supported by meaningful evidence relevant to the board or the sector?
Is your fit with the of Buying Essay skills-matrix and potential committee role apparent? Does your board CV show you understand director duties and responsibilities? Is your resume reinforcing your brand – clear language and thought, logical structure, well organised page format and anthropology a professional presentation? Next steps and investment choices: You can select one of these options or design a service to suit your particular needs, including attending a Competing For Directorships mentoring circle or a Board Ready coaching session. Option 1. You complete your responses to a set of questions to identify your board relevant capabilities and experiences. Together with your current profile or resume, this is then reworked into a board CV. This process has the side-benefit of being highly valuable in helping you be clear on which of Dangers Bottled your capabilities matter and your point of difference for your target boards.
The investment starts from Essay Patrior Act is, $995. You can elect to of Buying Essay, add a telephone mentoring session, based on your needs, for an additional $350. Web Designer! The mentoring session includes a complementary copy of my e-booklet ’ 32 Mentoring Tips When Thinking Of Board Roles. ’ Option 2. Of Buying Water! In addition to developing your board CV, a 90 minute coaching session (face-to-face meeting or phone call) takes place to guide you through the framework and thinking needed to present your board-level capabilities, how to prepare for future interviews and design an action plan to get your board career path started. If you are transitioning to a board role, then board-ready coaching can ease the transition. You receive a set of handouts from ’ Executives Aiming For The Boardroom ’ which contains well developed content and practical exercises for the board-ready director.
The investment starts from $1450. Option 3. You are now applying for a specific director vacancy and structuralist anthropology would like to ensure you approach the nomination process in the best way. Together we review your cover letter and ensure the resume is Water Essay a strong match with the selection criteria. You can elect to add a coaching discussion to prepare for the interview . The investment starts from structuralist anthropology, $550. Option 4. You have an existing board resume that you would like updated and reformatted into a two-page Board CV format using only the information contained in your current CV. If needed, notations are made where you should improve the content. The investment is $650.
Option 5. You have a well-developed board CV and would now like an independent review, objective opinion and constructive suggestions. You email your CV and we then set a time for a 45-minute phone call to discuss how you can fine-tune and Dangers of Buying Water Essay improve the document. The investment is $345. Option 7. Design a one-on-one Coaching Program agenda where well-developed coaching frameworks on board-readiness and director capability are used to guide the transition to non-executive board roles, be more astute with search tactics, improve your board resume, guide your approach to interview, assess your style in the boardroom and essay on poem reduce the gaps in Water board-readiness. Structuralist! Read Ten Stress Tests For Your Board CV that appeared in the Australian Institute Of Company Directors#8217; member publication The Boardroom Report. You can view Dianne#8217;s profile here. #8220;No way in the world, I would have written a CV this way which is the reason why you do what you do. Dangers Bottled! Old adage #8216;one does not know what they don#8217;t know#8217;#8221; (President and Group COO, Executive Director, Joint-Venture Chair and NED) #8220;I#8217;m absolutely delighted with the The Relationship Between and Ismene: Antigone Essay output and so worth the Dangers Bottled Water investment and glad I asked you to do it #8230; A couple of people who offered to help said I was in good hands when I mentioned you were doing my CV!#8221; (Senior Strategy Executive, top 5 ASX Listed Company) #8220;Just thought I would pass on a little bit of positive feedback I received on my board CV.
The board that I am about to essay on poem, join is conducting an Bottled Water, evaluation of its board and I have been included as the structuralist anthropology evaluation team want to understand where the new board members will fit in. I was complemented on of Buying, my excellent #8216;capabilities based#8217; CV. Thought you should share the congratulations. Analysis Of The Death! Thanks again.#8221; (Non-Executive Director) “I am delighted to let you know that I have been offered a position on the board. They told me they were impressed with my written application when I arrived for Water my interview. Thanks so much for helping me with the Between and Ismene: written application and the interview tips!#8221; (Non-Executive Director, Consultant and Executive Manager) #8220;I am thrilled with the work you did on my board CV.#8221; (Partner, Major Consulting Firm) #8220;I have really enjoyed working with you. Your work is excellent and your approach very professional.#8221; (CEO and Director) #8220;I#8217;m absolutely delighted with the output and so worth the investment and glad I asked you to do it #8230; A couple of people who offered help said I was in good hands when I mentioned you were doing my CV!#8221; (Senior Strategy Executive, top 5 ASX Listed Company) #8220;I found Dianne to be utterly professional. Of Buying Bottled! She demonstrated a keen knowledge of the elements essential to become, be present in a board-ready CV and was able to Dangers Essay, guide me in the appropriate method of drafting that content. Dianne was enthusiastic and supportive and made a number of how to web designer excellent recommendations that were not only practical but also sensible given my particular circumstances.
I was delighted to have Dianne as my mentor and would be happy to endorse her to anyone seeking similar guidance and of Buying Bottled Water advice.” (Aspiring Non-Executive Director) “While I was preparing myself for Board work I came across Dianne Jacobs who helped me build my Board CV and coached me around what Boards are looking for and how to prepare myself for it. I found the Analysis of The Death of Newspapers process really challenged me to think about myself, and of Buying Bottled Water Essay what I might bring in a very different (and helpful) way. That reshaping has helped me now build my Board portfolio to 3 over a year.” (Partner Consulting Practice, Major Accounting Firm) “Dianne was a great coach and I learnt a lot from anthropology, her structured approach to the mentoring objectives. When starting out on Dangers Bottled Water Essay, this journey, being able to speak with someone who is knowledgeable of the expectations of essay on poem boards is such an Water Essay, advantage. Antigone Antigone By Sophocles! Working through an application was an extremely useful approach.“ (Aspiring Non-Executive Director) #8220;Thanks for a very interesting session. It was exactly what I need at this point and of Buying Bottled you provided some great structure for me to re-think how I present myself as well as concrete suggestions for next steps.#8221; (Board Ready Mentoring Circle Participant) #8220;What a tremendously informative and insightful workshop you delivered to leading women executive members of Amcham Shanghai today well done!#8221; (Committee Co-Chair Women#8217;s Executive Network for American Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai and how to web designer Partner of Dangers of Buying Water Global Law Firm) #8220;Dianne was a fantastic facilitator making you feel at ease to participate and ask questions. Her method of teasing out Essay the Foreclosure Crisis your thinking as to what is required in your board resume was fantastic and has given me a lot to Water Essay, think about.#8221; (Participant of an in-house mentoring circle run for an ASX top-5 corporate) #8220;Dianne was very engaging and pragmatic.
She was thought provoking in a safe environment.#8221; (Participant of an in-house mentoring circle run for an ASX top-5 corporate) Explore > Latest Thinking. What Every Executive Grapples With. How Board-Readiness Develops Adaptive Leaders. Six Career Pitfalls Ahead: Don#8217;t Get Caught! Promotion Readiness: Strategic Career Planning. Essay Patrior! Solutions > Aim For The Next Level. Water Essay! Hacks > For Your 2017 Action Plan.
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Essay on Environmental Impact of Bottled Water - Blog | Ultius
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nonscannable resume This application is Bottled a continuation-in-part of the earlier filed U.S. Pat. On The! App. Ser. No. 09/468,759, filed Dec. 21, 1999 now U.S. Pat. No. 6,415,405, which was a continuation-in-part of the earlier filed U.S.
Ser. No. 09/179,330, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,118,304, filed Oct. 27, 1998, both of Dangers of Buying Water Essay which are incorporated by reference for all purposes into this specification. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. 1. Field of the Invention. The present invention relates to the field of testing dynamic logic and related logic families such as N-NARY logic.
More specifically, the essay on poem present invention relates to Water Essay, scan testing of dynamic logic and N-NARY logic using on-chip circuitry. 2. Description of the Related Art. The increasing complexity of integrated circuits, often containing millions of transistors, has created a need for sophisticated test methodologies to insure functionality at multiple levels. Semiconductors must undergo some degree of functional testing before they are shipped to computer and other device manufacturers, and they must be periodically tested during further manufacturing and during their operating life to verify continuing operability. One of the problems encountered in testing is the difficulty in Essay on The Patrior Unconstitutional accessing and isolating circuits that are deeply embedded in Dangers of Buying Water Essay the chip. The industry has addressed this problem to some extent by implementing scan access testing techniques. Scan access refers broadly to the use of on The Patrior Act is specialized serial shift registers (“scan registers”) to deliver stimulus vectors from of Buying Essay, a stimulus pattern generator to circuit nodes of interest, and to retrieve response data from circuit nodes of interest for analysis. Scan registers function as normal synchronous registers and latch data propagating through the computational logic. However, scan registers can also be interconnected in such a way as to allow propagation of data directly from The Relationship Antigone Antigone, register to register upon assertion of control signals or clocks, thereby bypassing any computation logic between the registers. This provides a means whereby stimulus data may be transported directly to internal circuit nodes without propagating through computational logic, and Dangers of Buying Water Essay whereby response data may be retrieved directly from internal circuit nodes without propagating through computational logic, thus allowing designers to The Relationship Antigone by Sophocles, isolate sections of of Buying Essay logic for testing.
The benefit of scan access increases as the proportion of how to become circuit nodes otherwise inaccessible from primary inputs and Dangers of Buying Essay outputs increases. “Full scan” refers to an implementation of structuralist scan access wherein every register on Dangers Bottled, a chip is of The of Newspapers accessible through scan. “Partial scan” refers to an implementation of scan access wherein some subset of the registers on a chip is accessible through scan. Conventional scan access, i.e., propagating data through a long chain of interconnected scan registers, is inherently serial in nature. Dangers Of Buying Bottled Essay! The number of clock cycles needed to load or unload the scan chain is essay on poem equal to the number of registers in the chain. Gaining access to internal nodes is Water Essay therefore accomplished only at the cost of very long test times. Alternate scan architectures such as random access scan have been used to remedy the test time problem caused by the serial nature of scan access. Random access scan employs individually addressable registers rather than registers connected in a fixed order. This adds greater flexibility to the order in which registers may be accessed, but reduces overall test time only when writing or reading some subset of the registers. How To! Random access scan does not decrease the total number of clock cycles needed to write or read all registers. From a test perspective, the most efficient method to implement full random access scan is to incorporate test circuitry (in addition to that needed to interconnect the scan registers) on-chip.
Placing circuitry on chip eliminates the need to develop specialized test hardware, and potentially enables desirable test options such as testing of the chip under special clock conditions, or in of Buying Bottled Essay situ following the integration into a system-level product. However, adding test circuitry increases the area, and hence the cost of the semiconductor die. When test circuitry is incorporated into a semiconductor, the benefit gained by increased test coverage must be traded off against the increased die area and associated cost. Moreover, the test circuitry must not interfere with the normal operation of the Essay Patrior Act is chip. Because of Dangers Bottled Water these constraints, the ratio of circuitry under test to the Foreclosure, test circuitry in current semiconductors is relatively high. Dangers Bottled! Consequently, typical on-chip random access scan implementations control and observe only the primary inputs and outputs of relatively large blocks of how to logic. Other desirable circuit attributes, such as internal data bus values, are not generally accessible. Moreover, while random-access scan using on-chip circuitry does significantly improve manufacturing testability, designers have been thus far unable to Dangers of Buying Bottled Water Essay, capitalize on how to become, its potential to of Buying, facilitate chip debug during the design process.
In general, most test points on a chip can only be scanned when the chip is in a “scan mode,” meaning that the clocks are stopped or slowed significantly, the machine is web designer given a set of input test vectors which propagate through the logic, and outputs are then scanned and of Buying analyzed to determine whether the logic is operating properly. Thus, when a chip is in on Solving the Foreclosure Crisis scan mode the information in a scan register is somewhat artificial, in of Buying Bottled that it did not arrive under normal operating conditions, and it is the result of a test vector rather than a real application running on the processor. Using current techniques, processors cannot be scanned satisfactorily while running at how to become web designer, operating speeds. Of Buying Bottled Water Essay! A processor's clocks cannot be stopped abruptly to read a test point without causing a voltage overload in the supply network due to the very high di/dt. This limitation means that designers generally have no visibility into what is happening internally in real time, which significantly hampers troubleshooting and structuralist debugging performance-related problems. To address this issue, designers may incorporate shadow registers at key points, which can be read in real time to provide a window into pre-identified areas. However, this solution is less than ideal, particularly for highly complex designs, in that it requires up-front identification of points of interest. Moreover, designers must be highly selective when including shadow registers, due to chip real estate and I/O limitations.
The present invention is an Dangers Bottled Water improved scan approach that utilizes a RAM-like scan bus architecture to provide visibility into even deeply embedded logic within a chip. While the present invention can be applied to implement scan in any dynamic logic design, the advantages of the present invention are best realized in a design wherein the logic is synchronized using multiple clock domains with overlapping phases, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,118,304, entitled “Method and Apparatus for Logic Synchronization” (hereinafter, “the Logic Synchronization Patent”). In designs that employ this logic synchronization method, the present invention allows the processor to anthropology, be stopped, information to be accessed or provided, processor state to Dangers Water, be modified, and operation to be resumed, all without corrupting the machine's architectural state.
In addition, the present invention is capable of “freezing” certain gates for scanning when the processor is running at operating or near-operating speed, without the use of shadow registers. This disclosure describes the present invention in become web designer the context of Dangers of Buying Essay a new dynamic logic family called N-NARY logic, which itself is more fully described in a U.S. Pat. No. 6,066,965, titled “Method and Apparatus for a N-NARY logic Circuit Using 1-of-4 Signals” (hereinafter, “the N-NARY Patent”). How To! The N-NARY patent is Dangers of Buying incorporated by structuralist, reference for all purposes. Those skilled in the art will understand, after reading this specification or practicing the Bottled Water Essay present invention, that the present invention can be implemented in other applications that employ other logic design methodologies. Finally, this application is also related to the following copending U.S. Patent Applications and U.S. Patents: U.S. Pat.
No. 6,118,716, filed Sep. 9, 1998; U.S. Pat. App. Ser. No. 09/206,900, filed Dec. 7, 1998; U.S. Pat. App. Ser. Become Web Designer! No.09/206,905, filed Dec. 7, 1998; U.S. Pat. App. Ser. No. 09/191,813, filed Nov. 13, 1998; U.S. Pat. App. Ser. No. 09/468,760, filed Dec. 21, 1999; and U.S. Pat. Of Buying Water! App. Ser. No. 09/468,972, filed Dec. 21, 1999.
These six documents are hereby incorporated by structuralist anthropology, reference for all purposes into this specification. The present invention comprises a method and apparatus for random-access scan of a network of of Buying dynamic logic or N-NARY logic, wherein the network includes sequentially clocked precharge logic gates and one or more scan gates. Each clocked precharge logic gate and each scan gate further comprise a logic tree having one or more evaluate nodes, a precharge circuit, an evaluate circuit, and one or more output buffers. Each scan gate further comprises a scan circuit that accepts scan control signals and essay on poem couples to one or more scan registers. A scan control circuit generates scan control signals which operate to capture the state of the output buffers of the Bottled Water Essay scan gate and provide that state to one or more scan registers. Scan control signals also operate to essay on poem, force the output buffers of the Bottled Water scan gate to become web designer, a preselected level, which then propagates through the network to Dangers of Buying, create an output state on the next scan gate in the network, which can then be read and compared to an expected output state given the output state of the previous scan gate. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. To further aid in understanding the structuralist invention, the attached drawings help illustrate specific features of the invention and the following is a brief description of the attached drawings: FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit.
FIGS. 2A, 2 B, 2 C, and 2 D illustrate buffer devices used in N-NARY logic. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit. FIG. 4 illustrates a series of Essay logic circuits with a multiple phase logic synchronization system. FIG. 5 illustrates the multiple overlapping clock phases used in the present invention. FIG.
6 is an essay on poem embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 7 illustrates a scan circuit used in the present invention. FIG. 8 illustrates an embodiment of the scan architecture used in the present invention. FIG.
9 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates. FIG. Dangers Of Buying Bottled! 10 shows the relationship between the essay on poem logic synchronization clock control signals and Bottled Essay the scan control signals for at-speed state capture, according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 11 shows the essay on poem relationship between the logic synchronization clock control signals and the scan control signals for single-stepped or slow-clock scan mode, according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 12 shows another embodiment of the Essay scan architecture used in the present invention.
FIG. 13 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates, according to structuralist anthropology, the second embodiment of the Dangers of Buying present invention. FIG. Essay On Solving The Foreclosure! 14 shows the relationship between the master clock, the logic synchronization clock signals, and the scan control signals for Dangers Bottled Water Essay, scan according to the second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 15 shows another embodiment of the structuralist scan architecture used in the present invention. FIG. 16 shows the relationship between the master clock, the sequentially generated logic clock signals, and the scan control signals during the Bottled Water scan write process, according to the third embodiment of the present invention. FIG.
17 shows the relationship between the master clock, the sequentially generated logic clock signals, and Essay the scan control signals during the scan read process, according to the third embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 18 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates, according to the third embodiment of the present invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION. The present invention comprises a method and of Buying Bottled Water Essay apparatus to scan N-NARY or other dynamic logic circuits using a RAM-like bus architecture and careful control of the clock input to selected scan gates. Essay! This disclosure describes numerous specific details that include specific structures, circuits, and logic functions in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. One skilled in the art will appreciate that one may practice the present invention without these specific details.
N-NARY logic is Water Essay a novel logic family that uses a novel signal, a 1 of N signal, to convey information. An N-NARY logic circuit comprises a logic tree circuit that evaluates one or more input signals and produces an output signal. Crisis! A single 1 of N signal comprises a bundle of N wires routed together between different cells (or different logic circuits). Of Buying Bottled Water! A 1 of N signal uses a 1 of N encoding to Essay on The Patrior Act is, indicate multiple values of information conveyed by Dangers of Buying Bottled Essay, the bundle of web designer wires of the 1 of N signal where at most one and only one wire of the bundle of wires of the 1 of N signal is true during an evaluation cycle. Additionally, the 1 of N encoding provides a not valid value (a null value) where zero wires of the bundle of wires of the 1 of N signal is true during an evaluation cycle. FIG.
1 is a block diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit that illustrates a circuit of N-NARY logic using two sets of 1 of 4 signals for the input signals and a 1 of 4 signal for Dangers of Buying Essay, the output signal. This circuit describes a 2 bit logic gate (a dit) where A is a 2 bit input, B is a 2 bit input, and O is a 2 bit output. In other words, a dit device produces 2 output bits. A device 60 comprises a logic tree circuit 61 , a precharge circuit 31 , and an evaluate circuit 36 . Coupled to on The Act is, the logic tree circuit is the of Buying Bottled Water Essay 2 bit input signal A, which is a 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of essay on poem input values A 0 , A 1 , A 2 , and A 3 and Bottled their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. Additionally coupled to the logic tree circuit is the 2 bit input B, which is another 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of on Solving input values B 0 , B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 and their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. Coupled to the logic tree circuit is the Dangers Bottled Water 2 bit output O, which is a 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of output values O 0 , O 1 , O 2 , and O 3 and their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. The logic tree circuit 61 performs a logic function on a plurality of input signals that could comprise a variety of essay on poem functions, for example, the Boolean logic functions AND/NAND, OR/NOR, or XOR/Equivalence. A precharge circuit 31 couples to the logic tree circuit 61 and precharges the dynamic logic of the logic tree circuit.
Each evaluation path of the logic tree circuit has its own precharge P-FET. And, coupled to the precharge circuit 31 is the clock signal CK where a low clock signal on CK will cause the P-FETs to charge. An evaluate circuit 36 couples to the logic tree circuit and controls the evaluation of the logic tree circuit. And, coupled to Water, the evaluate circuit 36 is the clock signal CK where a high clock signal on CK will cause the N-FET in the evaluate circuit to web designer, evaluate. As shown in of Buying Bottled Water Essay FIG.
1, output buffers 34 couple to essay on poem, the wires of the Bottled Water plurality of output signals. FIGS. 2A, 2 B, 2 C, and 2 D provide four embodiments of buffer device 34 used in essay on poem N-NARY logic. FIG. 2A shows a CMOS inverter that inverts the signal on an output logic path. FIG. 2B shows an embodiment of output buffer 34 that is preferred for Bottled Essay, most N-NARY gates that includes the CMOS inverter that inverts the signal and a feed back keeper transistor that maintains the level of the dynamic node before the signal evaluates.
The PFET keeper transistor gives the logic gate a static capability. Additionally, this type of output buffer compensates for parasitic leakages and allows for low speed functionality. How To! The FIG. 2B output buffer 34 is called a half-keeper output buffer. FIG. 2C shows another embodiment of output buffer 34 that is Essay known as a “full keeper buffer.” As shown in FIG.
2C, a full keeper buffer includes the Analysis of The of Newspapers inverter, the of Buying Water Essay PFET keeper feedback transistor, and an additional NFET feedback transistor tied to ground. Those skilled in the art will recognize that FIG. 2D is simply another schematic representation of the FIG. 2C full keeper buffer, where the two transistors have been replaced with a CMOS inverter. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an essay on poem N-NARY logic circuit using a 1 of 4 encoding, where the logic tree 61 comprises the Dangers of Buying Water OR/NOR function. How To Become Web Designer! One skilled in the art will appreciate that one function is the Bottled Water inverse of the Patrior Act is Unconstitutional other function. To reduce adding additional capacitance to the device, N-NARY logic uses a single, shared logic tree with multiple evaluation paths for evaluating the function of the logic circuit and for generating the plurality output signals coupled to the logic circuit. The multiple evaluation paths further comprise the internal evaluate nodes E 0 , E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 . In this circuit, precharge circuit 31 comprises four P-FETs that quickly and fully precharge all of the dynamic logic in the logic tree circuit during the precharge phase of the clock cycle. Dangers Of Buying Essay! As shown in FIG. 3, each evaluation path of the logic tree circuit has its own precharge P-FET.
Clock signal CK is coupled to the precharge circuit 31 . When the clock signal is Essay Patrior Unconstitutional low, circuit 31 precharges the N-FETs in the logic tree circuit 61 . The evaluate circuit 36 comprises a single evaluation transistor, which aids in the speed of the clocking of the device and Dangers Essay helps avoid races between other devices. Crisis! Other circuits may use multiple evaluation devices. As shown in FIG. 3, clock signal CK couples to evaluate circuit 36 . When the Bottled Water clock signal is how to become web designer high, the evaluate circuit 36 evaluates the logic tree circuit 61 . FIG. 4 illustrates a network of logic circuits or gates with a multiple phase logic synchronization scheme that uses a six phase clocking system with the of Buying Essay clocks CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 . The network 160 comprises a datapath 166 , an input signal 162 , and an output signal 164 . Patrior Act Is Unconstitutional! The datapath 166 comprises one or more wires that propagate the Dangers Bottled signals through the network. For example, the datapath 166 may comprise one or more N-NARY signals. Additionally, the how to become input signal 162 and the output signal 164 may comprise signals that use N-NARY encoding.
The series of logic circuits 160 comprises the logic circuits 168 , 170 , 172 , 174 , 176 , 178 , 180 , 182 , 184 , 186 , 188 , and 190 coupled in series to the datapath 166 . In FIG. 4, the logic circuits 168 , 170 , 172 , 174 , 176 , 178 , 180 , 182 , 184 , 186 , 188 , and 190 may comprise N-NARY logic circuits. Additionally, each logic circuit may further comprise one or more additional logic circuits. FIG. 5 illustrates the multiple overlapping clock phase scheme that is the Dangers of Buying preferred timing and logic synchronization methodology for the present invention.
In FIG. 5, te is the evaluate phase of the clock cycle, and tp is the precharge phase of the clock cycle. Additionally, each individual clock has a 50% duty cycle. The phases of the different clocks are such that the phase of an essay on poem individual clock signal overlaps the phase of an earlier clock signal by an amount approximately equal to the amount it overlaps of the phase of the next clock signal. Bottled Essay! FIG. 5 illustrates an M-phase clocking system, where M=6, with clocks CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 . Reference 256 illustrates the propagation of the “wave” of the The Relationship Essay evaluate cycles of the of Buying different clocks. For further background and essay on poem detail on this logic synchronization methodology, the reader is referred to the Logic Synchronization Patent. As shown in Dangers of Buying Bottled FIG.
4, the logic circuits are coupled together such that, in general, the input of become web designer a logic circuit that receives a particular phase logic clock signal (e.g., a phase 3 logic clock signal) comprises the output of the previous logic circuit, which receives the immediately preceding logic clock signal (e.g., a phase 2 logic clock signal), and the output of the logic circuit that receives the particular clock signal comprises an input to the next logic circuit that receives the immediately following logic clock signal (in this example, a phase 4 logic clock signal). In a preferred embodiment, the master or global clock signal is Dangers Bottled supplied to the network from a central bus structure referred to in this specification as the “clock spine.” The M logic clock signals are generated at one or more clock generation sites coupled to the clock spine. In other embodiments, the clock spine may include other useful clock-related signals (such as, for example, the on Solving inverse of the global clock signal), or even one or more of the individual logic clock signals. In this specification, a network of logic gates such as that depicted in FIG. 4 wherein the logic propagation is synchronized using an evaluate “wave” produced by multiple overlapping clock signals, such as that shown in Dangers of Buying FIG. 5, is referred to as a “sequentially clocked precharge logic network,” the gates therein are referred to as “sequentially clocked precharge logic gates,” and the clock signals are “sequentially generated” with a “sequential delay” between the individual clock signals. Similarly, when referring to individual sequentially generated logic clock signals, the first clock signal that rises and falls after a specific logic clock signal is said to “immediately follow” that specific clock signal; the The Relationship Between Antigone by Sophocles signal that rises and falls just before a specific logic clock signal rises and falls is said to “immediately precede” the specific logic clock signal. Dangers Bottled Water Essay! In other words, in FIG.
5, CK 0 immediately precedes CK 1 because CK 0 is the signal that rises before CK 1 rises and falls before CK 1 falls. Likewise, CK 1 immediately follows CK 0 because CK 1 is the first clock signal that rises after CK 0 rises and Analysis Death falls after CK 1 falls. Finally, as explained in more detail in the Logic Synchronization Patent, some of the individual logic clock signals are triggered from the rising edge of a master clock signal (not shown in FIG. 5) and some of the individual clock signals are triggered from the falling edge of the master clock signal. Dangers Of Buying! Those skilled in the art will recognize that it is the designer's choice of which clock signals trigger from the master clock's rising and/or falling edge; it is the arrangement of Patrior Unconstitutional multiple overlapping clock signals that provides a “wave” of evaluate cycles that provides the novel logic synchronization and timing methodology shown and Dangers Bottled Water described in the Logic Synchronization Patent.
FIG. 5 also illustrates two additional clock signals, CK(E) and CK(P). The preferred embodiment of the how to become web designer present invention requires the precharge clock CK(P) to of Buying Water, be controlled separately from the on The Patrior evaluate clock CK(E). By convention, the phase 0 clock, CK 0 , is the reference clock for the two separate clocks CK(E) and CK(P). One skilled in the art will appreciate that it is possible to use other conventions for logic synchronization, for example, an M-phase clocking system where M=4, which would use clock signals CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , and CK 3 . Similarly, it is Water possible to use other phase clock signals (e.g., CK 1 or CK 4 ) for the CK(P) and CK(E) references. FIG. 6 is one embodiment of the present invention that comprises an N-NARY logic circuit 300 . N-NARY logic circuit 300 comprises a logic tree 302 that performs a logic function on the two N-NARY input signals A and B to generate an output N-NARY signal Z. The N-NARY input signal A comprises the input values A 0 , A 1 , A 2 , and A 3 and their associated wires; the on The N-NARY input signal B comprises the input values B 0 , B 1 , B 2 , and Dangers Water B 3 and their associated wires; and the N-NARY output signal Z comprises the output values Z 0 , Z 1 , Z 2 , and Z 3 and their associated wires. The logic circuit 300 additionally comprises the on The Patrior Act is Unconstitutional precharge circuit 31 that receives the Dangers of Buying Bottled Water Essay precharge clock CK(P) (one component of the phase 0 clock, as described above). And, the logic circuit 300 comprises the structuralist anthropology evaluate device 36 that receives the evaluate clock CK(E) (another component of the phase 0 clock) Output buffers 34 couple to the wires of the Dangers Bottled Water output signal Z. As shown in FIG. 6, N-NARY circuit 300 also includes scan circuits 306 coupled to each wire of output signal Z around the Antigone and Ismene: Antigone output buffers 34 . Dangers Of Buying Bottled Essay! Each scan circuit 306 comprises a scan write component 306 a and Essay on Solving a scan read component 306 b . Each scan circuit 306 couples via scan control lines to a scan control circuit (not shown in FIG.
6 ), and also to one or more scan registers via scan data lines (not shown in Dangers Bottled Water FIG. 6 ). As described more fully in the Stress Mode patent referenced above, N-NARY circuit 300 may also include stress state generation circuits that couple to state generation control circuits that provide the ability to stress test the N-NARY circuits. Those skilled in the art will recognize that stress testing is generally unrelated to scan. However, the stress state generation circuits may be conveniently combined with the scan circuits 306 to produce a dual-function test circuit coupled to each output line that performs both scan and stress mode testing, as described more completely in the Stress Mode patent. FIG. 7 shows one embodiment of a scan circuit 306 . The scan write component 306 a comprises write N-FET transistor 400 and inverter 404 . The scan read component 306 b comprises read N-FET transistor 402 . Scan circuit 306 couples to output line Z n around full keeper output buffer 34 as shown.
Write transistor 400 is controlled by scan control signals 406 and 408 . Essay On Poem! Read transistor 402 is controlled by scan control signal 410 . Information is transported into and out of the scan circuit 306 over Dangers of Buying Bottled Water Essay scan data lines 412 . FIG. 8 shows one embodiment of the of The Death complete architecture of the of Buying Water present invention, in the context of a 1-of-3 N-NARY circuit. In this specification, an N-NARY circuit that includes the necessary components for scan is referred to as a “scan gate.” In normal operation, all scan gates function as normal N-NARY gates, receiving input signals, performing their logic function, and providing output signals that become inputs for the next gate. Between And Ismene: By Sophocles Essay! By convention, all Phase 0 gates are selected to be scan gates, however, those skilled in Dangers of Buying Bottled Water Essay the art will appreciate that the scan architecture and Death of Newspapers techniques disclosed herein could be practiced using other phase gates as scan gates without departing from the present invention. As shown in Dangers Bottled FIG. 8, scan gate 500 includes logic tree 502 that performs a logic function on its two 1-of-3 input signals, A and B, to produce a 1-of-3 N-NARY output signal, Z. Precharge circuit 32 and evaluate circuit 36 couple to N-NARY logic tree 502 . A full keeper output buffer 34 and a scan circuit 306 couple to each output wire. Each scan circuit 306 includes write transistor 400 , read transistor 402 , and inverter 404 . Each scan circuit 306 connects to a separate scan data line 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c , each of which connects through a read/write driver 414 to the scan register 416 in on Solving the Foreclosure an arrangement similar to Dangers of Buying Bottled Water, commonly-known RAM architecture. As shown in FIG. 8, scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c also connect to structuralist anthropology, the output wires of of Buying Bottled Water Essay other scan gates in other rows on a device that employs the present invention scan architecture and methodology.
The present invention also includes scan control circuit 304 , which has output signals 406 , 407 , 410 , 418 , and 420 . Scan Enable (SEN) signal 420 is asserted when the system is in scan mode to control the timing of the scan gates, as explained in more detail below. Write signal 406 is asserted when the system is in scan mode and the wires of the Essay output signal Z are to be forced to Dangers of Buying Bottled Essay, the value in the scan register 416 . Read signal 410 is asserted when the system is in scan mode and the value on structuralist anthropology, each wire of the Dangers of Buying Water output signal Z is to be loaded into the scan register 416 , which can then be scanned out in serial fashion. Reset signal 407 is Essay the Foreclosure asserted during the reset sequence to reset the circuit for normal operation, as described in further detail below. Scan Precharge signal 418 is asserted to precharge the scan gates for writing during scan. In scan mode, when the Read signal 410 is high and Write signal 408 and Reset signal 407 are low, read transistors 402 conduct, write transistors 400 are open, and the current state of the output lines Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 is scanned and loaded into the scan register 416 via scan data lines 412 and read/write drivers 414 . Dangers Water! To write to a scan gate, Scan Precharge 418 is asserted to Essay on Solving the Foreclosure Crisis, drive the evaluate nodes high.
When the Read signal 410 is Dangers Water low, Reset 407 is low, and Analysis of The Write 408 is high, read/write drivers 414 pull scan data lines 412 high or low, depending upon the bit value in the scan register 416 . Dangers Of Buying Water! Within each scan circuit 306 write transistors 400 conduct, and read transistors 410 are open. Essay On Poem! The voltage on the scan data lines 412 is inverted by inverters 404 , and the value of the Dangers of Buying Essay evaluate node E 0 is Essay on Solving forced to the inverted value on Essay, the scan data line 412 a , the value of E 1 is forced to structuralist anthropology, the inverted value on 412 b , and the value of E 2 is Essay forced to the inverted value on 412 c . These inverted values are then inverted once again in anthropology output buffers 34 , and the values of Bottled Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 are forced to the values in Essay the Foreclosure the scan register. Writing to a scan gate will occasionally require forcing an evaluate node that is high to the low state. Bottled! This is one reason why a full keeper output buffer, with its extra NFET feedback transistor, is used on all scan gates. Also, since both the precharge and evaluate clocks are turned off just before a scan read (the status and relationship between the various clock signals during scan is discussed in detail below), a full keeper holds the evaluate nodes at how to web designer, the state they were in when the clocks were turned off so that they can be read. Note that the write transistor 400 in of Buying Bottled Water Essay the scan circuit 306 coupled to Essay the Foreclosure, output wire Z 2 is driven by Water Essay, the Write-or-Reset (WOR) signal 408 , while all other write transistors 400 in the other scan circuits 306 are driven by the Write signal 406 . As shown in FIG. 8, the WOR signal 408 is anthropology generated by OR'ing the Write signal 406 with the Dangers Water Essay Reset signal 407 . In scan mode, when the write signal 406 is asserted and the reset signal 407 is not asserted, the anthropology scan circuit 306 that accepts the WOR signal 408 behaves like the other scan circuits 306 , as described above. However, in reset mode, when the reset signal 407 is of Buying Essay asserted and neither the write signal 406 nor the read signal 410 is of The Death asserted, only the write transistor 400 in the scan circuit 306 that accepts the WOR signal 408 will conduct. The resulting output condition is defined by convention to be a reset condition, as described in further detail below. The present invention requires that one and Dangers Bottled Water only one output wire of the Analysis Death N-NARY output signal of a scan gate must couple to a scan circuit 306 that includes a write transistor 400 that is driven by the WOR signal 408 rather than the Write signal 406 . To reset the system and resume normal operation after exiting scan, the output lines of each scan gate are forced to a predetermined reset condition.
For example, in Dangers of Buying the embodiment shown in FIG. 8, the system is reset by forcing Z 0 and Z 1 , low and Z 2 high. Essay! This is accomplished by of Buying Bottled Essay, first precharging the evaluate nodes E 0 , E 1 , and E 2 , and how to become then asserting the WOR signal 408 , which pulls E 2 low. The output buffers 34 then invert the Dangers Bottled Water state of the evaluate nodes, and the resulting condition is Z 0 and the Foreclosure Z 1 low and Z 2 high. When every scan gate is in Dangers Water Essay this output state, the system is reset. FIG. Structuralist! 9 shows a network 560 of of Buying Bottled N-NARY gates, much like FIG.
4, except that in FIG. 9, the Phase 0 gates (those whose precharge and evaluate circuits were driven by CK 0 , designated 168 and 180 in FIG. 4) are now designated as scan gates 568 and 580 . In other words, gates 568 and 580 are scan gates in network 560 and thus include the Act is Unconstitutional extra scan-related components and circuitry on their output lines as shown in FIG. Of Buying Bottled Water! 8 . Furthermore, as discussed above, in scan gates the precharge and The Relationship Between Antigone and Ismene: Antigone by Sophocles evaluate clocks must be separately controlled. Therefore, the clock signal CK 0 to gates 168 and 180 in FIG. 4 has been replaced with two signals, CK(P) and CK(E) in FIG. 9 . In normal operation, CK(P) and CK(E) are identical to CK 0 , the scan related circuitry is quiescent, and the network 560 behaves the same as network 160 in Dangers of Buying Essay FIG.
4 . FIG. 10 illustrates the relationships between the various clock signals when a network of logic that is clocked using a six-phase logic synchronization methodology is placed into Death, scan mode to scan the output state of the scan gates. FIG. 10 and the following text demonstrate how the output state of each scan gate can be captured when the network is running at operating speed. As noted above, the ability to capture the output state of gates that are running at operating speed is an important performance improvement over existing scan methods and architectures. FIG. 10 shows the Dangers global clock signal, CLK, at the top, followed by the six sequentially generated overlapping clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 that synchronize the how to propagation of signals through the Water Essay networked logic gates. How To Become! In this embodiment, CK 4 , CK 5 , and CK 0 are triggered from the falling edge of CLK, and CK 1 , CK 2 , and of Buying CK 3 are triggered from the rising edge of CLK. Essay On Poem! As discussed above, CK(P) and CK(E), the two signals at the bottom of of Buying Bottled Water FIG.
10, start out Antigone Essay, identical to CK 0 . FIG. 10 shows four full Phase 0 clock cycles, designated as 602 , 604 , 606 , and 608 . As explained in further detail below, the “capture” cycle in Essay the sequence depicted in FIG. 10 is cycle 606 . SEN is a global Scan Enable signal that is distributed through a series of essay on poem latches or static registers that fan out over Dangers the design. Structuralist Anthropology! The final level of SEN arrives at of Buying Bottled Water, the input to essay on poem, the clock generation logic of all the scan gates in the design. SEN is asserted 610 at this input when the Phase 1 clock goes low 609 , shortly after the master clock CLK falls 612 but before CK 0 goes high at 614 . The next Phase 0 high time, ( 616 in FIG. 10) starts the phase whose state will be captured in the scan gates ( 606 in FIG. 10 ). At each local Phase 0 clock generation site on the clock spine, SEN is further latched to Dangers Water, produce SENP and SENE. SENP is latched from SEN by CK 1 going high at 618 . This causes SENP to go high shortly after CLK goes high and The Relationship Between and Ismene: by Sophocles before CK 0 can fall. SENP is of Buying Water Essay OR'ed with CK 0 to produce CK(P). Therefore, when SENP goes high, CK(P) is essay on poem already high because CK 0 is high.
However, when CK 0 falls at 620 , CK(P) remains high, because SENP is of Buying Water high. SENE is latched from SENP by Essay, CK 1 going low at 622 . This causes SENE to go high shortly after CLK falls but before the next CK 0 rising edge can occur. The inverse of SENE is Dangers ANDed with CK 0 to produce CK(E). Thus, CK(E) is high when CK 0 is high and SENE is low. When SENE is latched high at 624 , CK(E) is prevented from how to become web designer, rising again by the inverse of Dangers of Buying Bottled Water SENE. Therefore, at Essay on The Patrior Act is Unconstitutional, the beginning of the capture phase 606 , each Phase 0 scan gate is “frozen.” SEN, SENE, and SENP are all asserted. The scan gates precharged and evaluated in the prior phase, but are prevented from precharging and evaluating again because CK(P) is latched high and CK(E) is latched low. The value on each output line of each scan gate is Dangers Essay thus available for essay on poem, scan. As long as global SEN remains asserted, CLK can continue to toggle (producing phases 1 - 5 as usual) but all phase 0 scan gates will continue to hold the state that they were in at Dangers Bottled Essay, the end of phase 604 . To scan the scan gates, CLK must be stopped when it is low. Stopping CLK at 626 , shortly before it rises, puts the on Solving Crisis Phase 1 , 2 , and 3 gates in precharge and provides a quiet electrical environment for scan reading and writing. Although not shown in FIG.
10, if the network is running at speed, those skilled in the art will recognize that the clock should ordinarily not be stopped abruptly, but rather, the clock rate should be ramped down over Bottled a number of phases to essay on poem, avoid overload problems caused by Dangers Essay, a large negative di/dt. Reference 626 in FIG. 10 is intended to illustrate a point when CLK, CK 1 , CK 2 , and CK 3 are all low, corresponding to the precharge state for Phase 1 , 2 , and 3 gates. Those skilled in the art will recognize that stopping the clock abruptly at 626 , one clock cycle after freezing the output state of the structuralist anthropology scan gates, would likely cause di/dt problems. When CLK is stopped, the scan registers can be read and Dangers of Buying the state of the scan gate outputs can be determined. Additionally, if desired, the state of the scan gate outputs can be modified by writing to the scan gates from the scan registers. The present invention provides the ability to write to the scan gates during the scan period without incorporating additional transistors (beyond the additional scan circuitry shown in FIG.
8) into Essay on The Unconstitutional, the scan gates' structure. To write to a selected row of Dangers of Buying Water Essay scan gates, the scan gates are first precharged and of The Death of Newspapers then conditionally discharged via the scan write transistors 400 . This is accomplished by providing a scan precharge signal SPRE ( 418 in FIG. 8) that overrides SENP, and provides a low-going pulse on CK(P) for the row of scan gates to be written to. (Recall that SENP is ordinarily high during scan periods, keeping CK(P) high and preventing the scan gates from precharging normally.) If continued operation is desirable, the Dangers of Buying Water CLK can be restarted. To continue at essay on poem, operating speeds, CLK must be ramped up over a number of cycles, this time to Dangers Bottled, avoid source the creation of undesired speed paths due to large di/dt. When CLK is Analysis of The started again, the Phase 1 - 5 clocks will resume toggling, and the state of the Phase 0 scan gates (whether they have been modified by writing to them during scan or not) will propagate through the Dangers of Buying Bottled Water Phase 1 - 5 gates. The Phase 0 gates will remain frozen (in their modified state, if they were modified during scan or in their original state, if they were not) as long as SEN is asserted, because CK(P) will be held high and CK(E) will be held low, preventing the scan gates from and Ismene: Antigone Essay, precharging or evaluating. To exit scan mode, SEN is deasserted. This causes SENP to fall when CK 1 rises due to the rise of CLK. Because CK(P) is Dangers of Buying Bottled Water created by OR'ing CK 0 and essay on poem SENP, when SENP falls, CK(P) will fall, causing the scan gates to precharge.
Similarly, after SEN is Essay deasserted, SENE will fall after the Between and Ismene: Essay next CK 1 falling edge, shortly after the Bottled Water master clock CLK falls. When SENE falls, its inverse rises, and the AND gate that produces CK(E) will allow CK(E) to rise when CK 0 next rises. The Relationship Antigone And Ismene: Antigone By Sophocles Essay! At this point, CK(P) and CK(E) are re-synchronized with CK 0 , and the Phase 0 scan gates return to Dangers Bottled Essay, normal operation, precharging and evaluating every clock cycle. FIG. Structuralist Anthropology! 11 illustrates the relationships between the various clock signals when “stepping through” operations, as might occur when the scan gates are read or written to at each step. This single-step mode of operation is Bottled Water Essay most useful for examining or troubleshooting specific areas in the logic, and for loading and become web designer executing test vectors. In this mode, the master clock CLK toggles very slowly and irregularly. For convenience only, FIG. 11 shows CLK and its various derivative clocks as symmetrical, but in reality, the shaded region (where CLK is low during scan) will be a much longer period of time than other parts of the waveform. In addition, since CLK in Dangers of Buying Bottled Water Essay this mode is very slow compared to normal operation, the delay between CLK's rising edge and the rising edges of CK 1 -CK 3 and failing edges of CK 4 -CK 0 (all generated from CLK's rising edge) is not as pronounced in FIG.
11 as in FIG. 10, where the Patrior Act is clock signals are intended to represent full speed operation. The same is true regarding the derivative clocks CK(P) and CK(E) and the other CLK-related signals SENE and Dangers of Buying SENP. In single step operation, SEN is toggled every clock cycle. SEN goes high at the input to the scan gates' clock generation logic when the become Phase 1 clock goes low at of Buying Essay, 709 , shortly after the master clock CLK falls 712 but before CK 0 goes high at 714 . As in full speed operation, SENP is Antigone Antigone by Sophocles Essay latched from SEN by CK 1 going high at 718 . This causes SENP to go high shortly after CLK goes high and before CK 0 can fall. Again as in full speed operation, when SENP goes high, CK(P) is already high because CK 0 is Dangers of Buying Bottled Water high.
However, when CK 0 falls at 720 , CK(P) remains high, because SENP (which, as the reader will recall from the previous discussion, is OR'ed with CK 0 to produce CK(P)) is high. SENE is structuralist latched from of Buying Bottled, SENP by CK 1 going low at Crisis, 722 . This causes SENE to go high shortly after CLK falls but before the next CK 0 rising edge can occur. Because the inverse of of Buying Bottled Water Essay SENE is ANDed with CK 0 to how to become, produce CK(E), CK(E) is high when CK 0 is high and SENE is low. When SENE is latched high at Dangers of Buying Bottled Essay, 724 , CK(E) is prevented from rising again by the inverse of SENE. Reading and optional writing of the state of the scan gates can now occur (the shaded regions 730 on FIG. Become Web Designer! 11 ). As discussed above, the duration of the scan periods 730 will be much longer than implied by the clock signals depicted in FIG. 11 . Dangers Bottled Water! In single step operation, during the scan periods 730 , the clock is either stopped completely or is how to become running very slowly to provide sufficient time to read the scan registers or load test vectors. As shown in FIG. 11, SEN is deasserted at 732 , just after the Phase 1 clock goes low at 722 , but prior to the first shaded scan period 730 . Dangers Of Buying Bottled! SENE and web designer SENP stay high during the scan period (recall that SENP is latched by a Phase 1 high clock, and Dangers of Buying Bottled SENE is latched from SENP. When CLK is stopped during the scan period 730 , CK 1 stays low.
Therefore, during each scan period 730 , SEN has been deasserted, but has not yet toggled SENE, SENP, CK(P) or CK(E). After reading (or writing) during the scan period 730 , CLK can be restarted or stepped to the next cycle. Essay On Poem! At this point, CLK goes high, causing CK 0 , CK 1 , and Dangers Bottled Water Essay SENP SENE, CK(P) and on Solving CK(E) to Dangers, toggle as shown in FIG. Crisis! 11 and as described above in connection with full-speed operation. After the of Buying Bottled Water Essay next falling CLK and CK 1 , SEN is again asserted, and the process repeats again as shown in FIG. 11 . Therefore, in single step or slow clock operation, scan gates can be read or written to every second clock cycle. This allows logic to propagate from a Phase 0 gate through the rest of the Essay Patrior gates before the next scan cycle. This scan timing arrangement is Dangers Essay ideal for executing test vectors and then recording results. This is accomplished by reading a scan gate's output state during a scan period 730 and then writing an input vector to the gate. The clock is then restarted, and the vector propagates state through the Phase 1 - 5 gates to Essay on The Act is, the next Phase 0 scan gate. The clock is then stopped for the next scan period, and the output state of Dangers Essay that gate read and compared to the expected result.
FIG. 12 shows an alternative embodiment of scan gate 500 , designated 800 . FIG. 12 is similar to FIG. 8, except that scan circuit 306 has been replaced by an alternative scan circuit 806 , and scan control signals ZWOR 824 and ZWRITE 826 have been added while the scan precharge signal SPRE 418 has been eliminated. Structuralist! CK(P) and CK(E) are now generated inside the scan gate 800 , and WRITE 406 and WOR 408 are now buffered. As shown in FIG. 12, scan circuit 806 includes three NFET transistors 810 , 816 , and 818 , and two PFET transistors 812 and 814 . When the read signal 410 is Dangers Bottled Essay high, read transistor 810 conducts and the state of the output signals Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 is provided to the scan register 416 through scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c. When WRITE 406 is high, ZWRITE 826 is low, and both write transistors 814 and 816 conduct.
If any of the Death output wires Z 0 , Z 1 , or Z 2 is to be forced low, then the of Buying Water value on structuralist, the corresponding scan data line 412 a , 412 b , or 412 c will be low, transistor 812 will be turned on, and transistor 818 will be off. Transistor 812 will discharge through transistor 814 to the evaluate node and the output buffer 34 will invert the Dangers of Buying Bottled high value such that the value on the output line is low. Conversely, if the output wire is to be forced high, then the value on the corresponding scan data line will be high and transistor 818 will conduct while transistor 812 will be open. The evaluate node will be connected to ground through transistors 816 and 818 , and the output buffer 34 will invert the Antigone Antigone low to a high outgoing signal on the output wire. Those skilled in of Buying Bottled Water Essay the art will recognize that the scan write architecture shown in FIG. 12, in particular the tri-state inverter, eliminates the essay on poem need to precharge the gate to drive high evaluate nodes to Dangers, a low state. Consequently, SPRE 418 is no longer needed. As was the structuralist anthropology case previously in scan gate 500 , one and only one output line of an N-NARY scan gate 800 is connected to a scan circuit 806 wherein the gate of the Dangers Bottled Water write transistors couples to the write-or-reset signal WOR 408 . In the embodiment shown in FIG.
12, WOR 408 has an inverse, ZWOR 824 . These signals operate with the write transistors 814 and 818 to write to the gate, and to reset the how to web designer system, as described previously. While FIG. 12 shows clock signals CK(P) as an input to Dangers of Buying, the precharge circuit 32 , and CK(E) as an structuralist input to the evaluate circuit 36 , just as those inputs were shown in FIG. 8, these clock signals to the precharge circuit 32 and Dangers Bottled Essay evaluate circuit 36 are now generated inside of scan gate 800 , rather than at the gate's clock generation site on Analysis Death, the clock spine. Therefore, scan gate 800 has only a single clock input, CKS, that is the same as CK 3 , which is basically an inverted version of CK 0 , as shown in FIGS.
10 and 11. CKS enters scan gate 800 and is inverted to precharge the logic tree 502 . CKS is also NOR'ed together with SEN 420 to produce CK(E). Therefore, when CKS is high, (corresponding to the same time that CK 0 is low) CK(P) is low and the logic tree 502 precharges. CK(E) is also low. When CKS goes low, both CK(P) and CK(E) are high, and the logic tree 502 evaluates. In scan mode, when SEN 420 is enabled or high, CKS and Dangers CK(P) will continue to cycle between high and low, but CK(E) will always stay low, and the logic tree 502 will never evaluate. When SEN 420 is deasserted, CK(E) will resume cycling according to CKS. Therefore, this clock scheme functions just like the clocking arrangement described in structuralist conjunction with the scan architecture shown in FIG. 8 and the clock signals shown in FIGS. 10 and 11, except that in this clocking arrangement, neither SENE nor SENP are needed or generated. FIG.
13 shows two scan gates embedded in of Buying Bottled Water a network of dynamic logic. FIG. 13 is Essay Unconstitutional similar to FIG. 9, except that in FIG. 13, network 860 includes scan gates 868 and 880 , which are implemented in Dangers Bottled the alternative embodiment 800 shown in essay on poem FIG. 12 . Accordingly, the clock inputs to the scan gates (CK(P) and CK(E) in FIG. Of Buying Bottled Essay! 9) have been replaced by how to become, CKS. Those skilled in Dangers Bottled Water the art will recognize that the architecture and clocking arrangement shown in FIG. 12 has some advantages over that shown in FIG.
8 . First, the scan gate clock generation is simpler. This provides layout and floorplanning advantages. Moreover, decoupling the scan logic from the Phase 0 clock generation sites facilitates the use of 64-bit virtual scan rows, which may comprise less than one or more than several physical rows, depending upon the scannable bit population of each physical row. On Solving! Also, the Dangers of Buying Bottled Water distribution of SEN over the design no longer needs to be synchronous and high-speed. However, the Essay Patrior Act is architecture and Dangers of Buying Bottled Essay clocking arrangement shown in FIG. 12 only allows for the at-speed capture of the state of the scan gates if the Death of Newspapers design can tolerate the power supply overshoot caused by a high negative di/dt.
In this embodiment, CK(P) will continue to toggle as long as CKS toggles. Bottled! Therefore, to capture a certain output state, CKS must be stopped abruptly to prevent CK(P) from precharging the logic tree and destroying the how to become web designer output state of the scan gate. The FIG. Dangers Essay! 12 architecture and clocking arrangement does support slow clock or stepped operation, as described in conjunction with FIG. Between Antigone And Ismene:! 11, although the behavior of CK(E) is slightly different, as shown in FIG. 14 . FIG. 14 depicts the operation of the clocks relative to each other during stepped operation scan using the of Buying Bottled Water scan architecture shown in essay on poem FIG. 12 . Like the prior description of stepped operation provided in Dangers Bottled Water Essay conjunction with FIG.
11, the duration of the scan periods 730 will be much longer than implied by the clock signals depicted in FIG. Essay On Solving The Foreclosure! 14 . In single step operation, during the scan periods 730 , the clock is either stopped completely or is of Buying running very slowly to provide sufficient time to read the anthropology scan registers or load test vectors. Bottled Water! Likewise, as described previously, the scan periods 730 occur every second clock cycle, when the Analysis of The Death of Newspapers master clock and Dangers of Buying Water the Phase 1 , 2 , and 3 are low, thus providing a quiet electrical environment for reading and and Ismene: by Sophocles Essay writing to the scan gates. CLK and the Phase 1 - 5 clocks are identical to the CLK and Phase 1 - 5 clocks shown and described in FIG. 11 . However, the “Phase 0 ” reference clock shown in FIG. 11 has been replaced, in FIG. 13, with the Dangers Bottled Water CKS signal that is the clock signal input to the scan gate 800 . FIG.
14 shows the behavior of CK(P) and CK(E) when SEN is asserted and deasserted for scan. As shown in Analysis FIG. 14, CK(P) is an inverted version of CKS, and Dangers continues to toggle as CKS toggles. Of The Death! CK(E) toggles every other clock phase between scan periods after SEN is deasserted and CKS falls. FIG. 15 shows another embodiment of Dangers of Buying Water Essay scan gate, designated 900 , along with the same scan control circuit 304 , scan register 416 , and read/write drivers 414 shown and described previously. FIG. 15 also shows the master clock generation circuit 906 that generates the master clock signal, CLK, which is provided to the clock spine 902 . Essay On Poem! As shown in FIG.
15, scan control circuit 304 provides SEN 420 to the master clock generation circuit 906 and WOR 408 to the clock spine 902 . Local clock generation circuit 904 receives CLK from the clock spine 902 and generates the sequentially generated logic clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 . In this embodiment, the local clock generation circuit 904 also receives WOR 408 from the clock spine, which controls the operation of Dangers some of the sequentially generated logic clock signals during the write process, as explained in further detail below. The scan gate 900 shown in FIG. 15 is identical to scan gate 800 shown in FIG. 12, except that in this embodiment, the clock input to scan gate 900 is on Solving the Foreclosure one of the sequentially generated logic clock signals generated by the clock generation circuit 904 that is used to Bottled Water, time and synchronize all the logic circuitry in the design, rather than a special clock signal generated solely for scan. In the example scan gate 900 , the logic clock signal input is CK 0 . However, those skilled in on The Act is the art will recognize that designers could designate gates other than phase 0 gates as scan gates without departing from the present invention. For example, a designer could designate some or all of the phase 3 gates—gates that receive the CK 3 logic clock signal—as scan gates, rather than the phase 0 gates as described herein. A primary difference between scan gate 900 and the previously-described embodiments is that scan gate 900 precharges and evaluates using a standard logic clock signal, thus eliminating the Dangers Bottled Water need to generate a clock signal uniquely for essay on poem, scan. Bottled Essay! Scan gate 900 includes the same scan circuits 806 as described in the previous embodiment, and therefore, like scan gate 800 , scan gate 900 does not need to Essay on Solving Crisis, be precharged before writing to Dangers Bottled Essay, it in on The Patrior Act is scan mode. Of Buying Bottled Water Essay! In addition, as described in Analysis of The more detail below, the logic synchronization clock scheme can be implemented so as to further eliminate any need to precharge scan gate 900 for Bottled Water Essay, scan writing. As shown in essay on poem FIG.
15, scan gate 900 has only a standard single clock input, CK 0 , which is generated by the local clock generation circuit 904 . Local clock generation circuit 904 receives the master clock signal, CLK, from the Dangers Bottled clock spine 902 and sequentially generates all the logic clock signals CK 0 -CK 5 having sequentially delayed evaluate and precharge phases. In a standard operating mode, CK 0 enters the scan gate 900 from the clock generation circuit 904 and precharges the logic tree 502 when it is low and evaluates the logic tree 502 when it toggles high. The local clock generation circuit 904 generates the sequentially generated logic clock signals by buffering and delaying CLK. CK 0 , CK 1 , and CK 2 transition with CLK's edge, sequentially delayed in Analysis the order listed. CK 3 , CK 4 , and Dangers of Buying Bottled Essay CK 5 transition opposite CLK's edges, again sequentially delayed in the order listed. The arrangement and behavior of the sequentially generated logic clock signals during regular operation and during scan modes is shown and Analysis of The Death of Newspapers described below, in connection with FIGS. 16 and 17.
To enter scan mode, SEN 420 is of Buying Water Essay asserted and stops CLK high. After sequential delays, CK 0 , CK 1 , and CK 2 will be stopped high, while CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 will be stopped low. To write to the scan gates, all logic clock signal inputs to gates “downstream” of the scan gates that are high when CLK is stopped must be forced low, to force these downstream gates into a precharge mode. In a sequentially clocked precharge logic network that uses a multiple overlapping clock phase scheme such as that described herein and in the Logic Synchronization patent, forcing the downstream gates into precharge effectively clears preexisting state information from the input lines of these gates, thus ensuring that the downstream gates are ready to receive, as inputs, the test vector being written to the output lines of the phase 0 scan gates and the results of that test vector as it propagates through the gates along the datapath. Failing to The Relationship by Sophocles Essay, clear out state information on the inputs to downstream gates could result in errors or invalid inputs to the downstream gates. Since CK 5 will be low when the clocks are stopped, the gates immediately upstream of the scan gates are in precharge, causing the Bottled Water input lines to the scan gates to be clear even though the scan gates are in the evaluate state. As described above, a common approach to structuralist anthropology, circuit testing using scan is to Dangers of Buying Bottled Water, stop the clock, write a test vector to one or more scan gates, start the clock and let the Essay Act is test vector propagate through the logic to the next downstream scan gate, stop the clock again, read the Bottled output state of the downstream scan gate, and compare it with the expected output state, given the value of the input test vector and the functionality of the Essay on Solving gates between the two scan gates. However, if the Dangers of Buying Bottled Water inputs to any of the gates between the Essay on Solving the Foreclosure two scan gates are not cleared properly and contain stale state information, the output at the downstream scan gate on of Buying Bottled, the next read may not conform to expected results, implying a circuit error where none may exist.
To write to the scan gates, WRITE 406 is how to asserted, causing WOR 408 to go high, and ZWRITE 826 and ZWOR 824 to go low. Dangers Water Essay! Inside the The Relationship Between and Ismene: Essay local clock generation circuit 904 , WOR 408 forces CK 1 and CK 2 low to clear out stale information in downstream gates along the datapath. Dangers Of Buying Water Essay! While CLK is stopped, CK 1 and CK 2 need not be controlled with standard clock signal precision; all that is required is that they be low during the write process and then returned to high after the write, to structuralist, correctly pass data after CLK is restarted. Write transistors 812 , 814 , 816 and 818 then function as described above, in connection with scan gate 800 and FIG. 12, and the write proceeds. If any of the output wires Z 0 , Z 1 , or Z 2 is to be forced low, then the value on the corresponding scan data line 412 a , 412 b , or 412 c will be low, transistor 812 will be turned on, and transistor 818 will be off. Transistor 812 will discharge through transistor 814 to the evaluate node and the output buffer 34 will invert the high value such that the value on the output line is low. Conversely, if the output wire is to be forced high, then the value on the corresponding scan data line will be high and transistor 818 will conduct while transistor 812 will be open. The evaluate node will be connected to ground through transistors 816 and 818 , and the output buffer 34 will invert the low to a high outgoing signal on the output wire.
If the phase 0 scan gate is to be read instead of written to, there is no need to force CK 1 and CK 2 low. If CK 1 and CK 2 are toggled from WOR 408 as described above, then they will stay high after CLK stops high, because WOR 408 is never asserted during a scan read. To perform a read, SEN 420 is asserted and stops CLK high, which stops CK 0 high. READ 410 is asserted, read transistor 810 conducts and Dangers Water Essay the state of the output signals Z 0 , Z 1 , and Patrior Unconstitutional Z 2 is provided to the scan register 416 through scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c. FIG.
16 illustrates the relationships between the sequentially generated logic clock signals during a scan write using this embodiment of Dangers of Buying Essay scan gate 900 and a six-phase logic synchronization methodology where the phase 0 gates are the scan gates. FIG. 16 shows the global clock signal, CLK, followed by the six sequentially generated overlapping clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 that synchronize the propagation of structuralist anthropology signals through the networked logic gates via the clock spine. In this embodiment, CK 0 , CK 1 , and CK 2 fall after CLK falls, and CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 rise after CLK falls. Also, in FIG. Dangers Of Buying Water! 16, the network of synchronously clocked precharge logic gates is Essay on Solving Crisis assumed to be originally in Dangers of Buying normal, at speed operation. As previously described, SEN is the global Scan Enable signal that is Analysis Death of Newspapers distributed through a series of latches or static registers that fan out over the design. Dangers Of Buying Bottled! To write to on The Act is, the scan gates, SEN is asserted 958 . This causes CLK to stop after its next rising edge, shown on Dangers Bottled Water, FIG. 16 at of The, 959 , which also stops all the sequentially generated logic clocks. The WRITE signal is then asserted at Water Essay, 962 , which asserts the WOR signal at 964 , which in turn forces CK 1 and CK 2 low at 966 and 968 , respectively. At this point, the write proceeds as described above, after which WRITE is Essay Unconstitutional deasserted at 970 , deasserting WOR at 972 and toggling CK 1 and of Buying Bottled Water CK 2 high at 974 and 976 , respectively.
SEN is deasserted at on The Act is, 980 to restart CLK. When CLK falls at Bottled, 982 , the sequentially generated local clocks then resume toggling in accordance with the failing edge of CLK, and normal operation ensues. The relationship of the Essay on Solving the Foreclosure clock signals during the read process is shown in FIG. 17 . The system is originally in normal operation, and then SEN is Dangers Water asserted at 961 . Thereafter, CLK stops after its next rising edge, shown on The Relationship and Ismene: by Sophocles, FIG. 17 at 963 . As described above, stopping CLK stops all the sequentially generated clocks. READ is asserted at 965 , the read proceeds as described above, and READ is Bottled Water Essay then deasserted at 967 . SEN is the Foreclosure deasserted at 971 to restart CLK, and again, the Dangers of Buying Bottled Water Essay sequentially generated logic clock signals resume toggling in normal operation upon the falling edge of CLK at 973 . FIG. 18 shows two scan gates embedded in Between Antigone by Sophocles a network of Dangers Bottled dynamic logic. FIG.
18 is similar to FIGS. 9 and 13, except that in FIG. 18, network 990 includes two scan gates 992 and on The Act is 994 , which are implemented in the alternative embodiment 900 shown in FIG. 15 . Accordingly, the clock inputs to the scan gates (CK(P) and CK(E) in FIG. 9, and Dangers Essay CKs in FIG. 13) have been replaced by CK 0 . Those skilled in the art will recognize that, as with the how to alternative embodiments described above, stopping the clocks abruptly can cause di/dt problems if the design is running at speed. The architecture and clocking arrangement shown in Dangers Water FIGS.
15 and 16 - 17 therefore only allows for the at-speed capture of the state of the scan gates if the design can tolerate the power supply overshoot caused by a high negative di/dt. In this embodiment, CK 0 will continue to toggle as long as CLK toggles. Therefore, to capture a certain output state, CLK must be stopped abruptly when CK 0 is high to prevent the scan gate's logic tree from precharging, which destroys the output state of the scan gate. If this embodiment is used in on Solving the Foreclosure a sequentially clocked precharge logic network that cannot tolerate abruptly stopping the of Buying Water clocks when the logic is running at speed, the clocks can be slowed or stepped, and then stopped as described above when the user is ready to capture the output state of the scan gates or write to the scan gates, without creating a problem. To summarize, the present invention comprises a method and apparatus for scan of dynamic or N-NARY clocked precharge logic circuits that include a logic tree with one or more evaluate nodes, a precharge circuit, an Essay Crisis evaluate circuit, one or more output buffers, and one or more scan circuits, where the Dangers Bottled Water Essay logic circuit receives one or more input signals and a clock signal having an evaluate phase and a precharge phase, and produces one or more output signals. The present invention includes a scan control circuit that generates scan control signals including a scan enable signal, one or more scan registers, and one or more read/write drivers coupled to the scan control circuit, the scan register, and the output buffers such that when the scan circuit receives scan control signals, the state of the output signal is provided to the scan register, or alternatively, the state of the output signal can be forced to a state specified by information in Between and Ismene: by Sophocles the scan register. The present invention further comprises a network of Bottled Water Essay multiple sequentially clocked precharge logic gates, wherein the input signals of a gate that receives a particular sequentially generated logic clock signal couple to Analysis of The Death of Newspapers, a first sequentially clocked precharge logic gate that receives the immediately preceding sequentially generated logic clock signal, and the output signals of the gate that receives the particular sequentially generated logic clock signal couple to a second sequentially clocked precharge logic gate that receives the immediately following sequentially generated logic clock signal.
In this case, the sequentially generated logic clock signals are each one of at least 3 logic clock signals sequentially generated by a clock generation circuit coupled to a clock spine. Dangers Water! The sequentially generated logic clock signals are generated with a sequential delay, such that the evaluate phase of a particular logic clock signal overlaps the evaluate phase of the immediately preceding logic clock signal by approximately the same amount of time that the evaluate phase of the particular logic clock signal phase overlaps the evaluate phase of the immediately following logic clock signal. The present invention further comprises reading the on The Act is Unconstitutional output state generated by the logic circuit by generating a scan enable signal and a read signal, stopping the logic circuit's clock signal during the Dangers of Buying Bottled Water evaluate phase, providing the read signal to the scan circuits and the read/write drivers coupled to Essay the Foreclosure, the scan circuits and to Dangers of Buying, a scan register. Finally, the present invention includes forcing the output state of of The Death of Newspapers a scannable logic circuit that receives a first sequentially generated logic clock signal to a user-selected state, by loading the scan register with the user-selected output state, generating a scan enable signal and of Buying Bottled Essay one or more write signals, stopping the sequentially generated logic clock signals when the first sequentially generated logic clock signal is in the evaluate phase, forcing all sequentially generated logic clock signals received by gates downstream of the scannable logic circuit to the precharge phase if they were in the evaluate phase when the clocks were stopped, providing the The Relationship and Ismene: Antigone write signals to the scan circuits and to one or more of the read/write drivers, returning the sequentially generated logic clock signals to the evaluate phase if they were forced to the precharge phase, and restarting all clocks. Other embodiments of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art after considering this specification or practicing the disclosed invention.
The specification and of Buying Essay examples above are exemplary only, with the true scope of the invention being indicated by structuralist anthropology, the following claims.
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3 Resume Formats: How to of Buying Water Essay Choose the Best One [Examples] Especially if it’s your first one? Your hands are hovering over the keyboard. You look at the blank Word document with the cursor pulsing in your face Now, what? What do you write? Where do you put the become web designer, information? Wouldn’t it be great if there were road maps for Dangers of Buying Water, resumes?
Choosing the format of a resume is key to starting the resume writing process. But it’s not as easy as it sounds. On The Unconstitutional? So, how do you choose a resume format put you ahead of the other job seekers? This article will tell you which resume format is right for Dangers of Buying Bottled Essay, you, and essay on poem how to use the format of a resume to Dangers Essay your advantage so that you stand out in a sea of structuralist anthropology, other resumes. Want to save time and of Buying have your resume ready in essay on poem 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and easy. Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume. See templates and create your resume here.
How Do I Choose a Good Resume Format? Choosing the format of of Buying Bottled Water Essay, a resume is like shopping for an outfit for prom. Both the outfit and the format need to essay on poem accomplish two things: Show off your best assets. Be unique and within a certain dress code at the same time. Just like everything else with resume writing, there are no black and Dangers of Buying Essay white rules when it comes to choosing the format of a resume. To make things easy, there are three main types of recognized and accepted resume formats. Essay? Each takes a different approach to the organization of the information on your resume.
And each resume format has strengths and weaknesses. The three types of Dangers of Buying, resume formats are: How do you know which one is best for you? The reverse-chronological resume format is for Analysis Death of Newspapers, everyone. Your mom, your little sister, and your uncle can all use a reverse-chronological resume format. Bottled? The combination resume format is for people who want to show off their skills a little bit before jumping into their experience because they are either a career changer or a high-level professional. The functional resume format , aka the skills-based resume format, is controversial and on Solving the Foreclosure should be avoided by Dangers of Buying Bottled Water Essay everyone. More on that later. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of structuralist anthropology, 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. Dangers Bottled? “Resume 101 Checklist.” Speaking of skills, find out Between and Ismene: Antigone by Sophocles Essay what skills are the most desirable and how to put them on a resume. The guide has a great infographic too: What Skills to Put on a Resume? [Examples+ 6 Tips] The Usual Choice - The Reverse-chronological Resume. The reverse-chronological resume format is the most common format and can be used by virtually anyone applying for of Buying Bottled Essay, a job.
It is the Essay on The, bread and butter of resume formats. Benefits of the Reverse-chronological Format. 1. It’s standard. Recruiters are used to Dangers of Buying Bottled Essay scanning this easy-to-read resume format. They will automatically know where your information is, and that you’ve sent a complete resume. 2. Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) can read it too . It is easy for the robots to find the different sections of your resume when you use the reverse-chronological format. 3. The reverse-chronological resume format puts an emphasis on work history and experience . If you are an average job seeker, your work history is where most of your relevant skills will be located. Weaknesses of the Reverse-chronological Resume Format. 1. It’s standard.
Choosing this standard resume format is safe, but it will look like all of the other resumes in the pile. Become Web Designer? So you will need to make an extra effort to catch a recruiter’s eye and showcase your skills and achievements. Of Buying Water Essay? 2. The reverse-chronological format puts an emphasis on Essay, work history and experience. If you have large gaps in of Buying Bottled Water Essay your work history or no experience then it may not be the best format for showing off your skills. The reverse-chronological resume format places an emphasis on your job history by putting it at the top of the resume under the contact information. You start by listing your most recent work and follow with past jobs in a reverse chronological order - thus the name of the on Solving the Foreclosure Crisis, format.
Think of it like eating dessert before you get your main course followed by an appetizer. And it’s great because starting with dessert at the top of your resume is a good way to Dangers of Buying Bottled Water catch the essay on poem, attention of the recruiter. Here is what a reverse-chronological resume format sample looks like. We created it in our resume builder (you can make your resume here): As you can see in of Buying Essay the resume format sample, the experience section comes first followed by the education section and Between Antigone and Ismene: Antigone by Sophocles other additional sections.
Are you struggling with how to write a resume? Read our complete guide: So how do you dress up this standard resume format so that it works best for Dangers of Buying Water Essay, you and Antigone by Sophocles attracts attention? How To Improve Your Resume By Adding These 3 Sections. Dangers Bottled? Here are three ways that you can dress up a boring, old reverse-chronological resume format: Add a resume summary or resume objective. Add achievements to your experience section. Add a Hobbies and Interests Section. I recommend starting with a carefully constructed resume objective or a resume summary. Choose the resume objective if you are an entry-level applicant, changing your career, or have very little experience. All other professionals should opt for Essay Patrior, the resume summary. Resume objectives and summaries are confusing, and they are hard to write. So, we’ve written complete guides about writing resume summaries and Bottled objectives so that you don’t have to struggle anymore.
We’ve also made examples for almost any profession so you can see a sample from your own field of expertise. The Only Way to Use Resume Objectives [20+ Examples] (read now) 7 Resume Summary Tips That Will Get You the Job [INFOGRAPHIC] (read now) Adding your achievements within the essay on poem, experience section as bullet points is Bottled Essay, a way to get your top accomplishments at the top of your resume. Pro Tip: Use the PAR (Problem Action Result) approach to writing about your achievements: In situation P (Problem) I did A (Action) which led to R (Result) . So to pick a completely random and on Solving the Foreclosure made up example: My previous employer wanted to increase revenue (P) so I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook (A) which led to a 15% increase in sales and a 10% increase in of Buying Essay revenue (R) . Finally, adding a hobbies and on Solving Crisis interests section will give recruiters a fuller image of you as a person. While it may seem unprofessional to include such an informal section in the format of a resume, a lot of businesses are beginning to look for candidates who will fit in with their office culture. Your personal interests can make you more attractive and memorable to Dangers of Buying Essay a recruiter, and anthropology signal that you would be a good fit for the company. If you want to find out more about the benefits of a hobbies and interests section and how to add one to your resume, you can read the article below.
The Only Way To Put Hobbies Interests on a Resume [5 Tips] (read now) How to Use a Combination Resume Format to Boost Skills. A combination resume format is the only real alternative to the reverse-chronological resume format. As the name implies, the combination resume format combines aspects of the other two resume formats, focusing on skills without throwing out the experience section. Of Buying Essay? The experience section is still important and near the top of your resume just like in how to become web designer a reverse-chronological resume format. You start a combination resume format with a resume summary (aka Qualifications Summary). Your resume summary can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list of bullet points, and is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. Your experience section comes next. Here is where the reverse-chronological and combination resume formats differ. With the Dangers of Buying, combination resume format , you can emphasize your skills by grouping the bullet points under specific, skill-based subheadings. As you list your roles and responsibilities under each job, you can organize the bullet points like this: Cinderella Bootcamp (2009-01 - present)
Her Royal Highness, Princess Event Organizer. Spearhead team building activities for groups of up to 10 housekeeping princesses. Head up and manage a team of 15 mice responsible for kitchen and essay on poem housekeeping duties. Project management involving the Dangers, motivation of a team of 20+ bluebirds responsible for camp laundry, with a 10% increase in productivity after two months. Conduct webinars on how to, how to wash dishes in glass heels. Orchestrate the Dangers Essay, creation of internal communications between different departments. Responsible for organizing, writing, and communicating the daily schedules and essay on poem activities of both staff and bootcamp participants. Pro Tip: Grouping your bullet points under such subheadings is also good for providing ATS with keywords . The emphasis that the combination resume format places on skills is what makes it a good choice for talented professionals, who have a lot of skills and experience, and career changers. Career changers are able to focus on skills that will translate from their old role or profession to their new one. After the skills-based experience section, the combination format continues in the same way as the reverse-chronological format: education and additional sections. Why the Functional Resume Format is of Buying Essay, Dysfunctional.
A functional resume format takes the pressure off of your job history and refocuses on your skills and how to become web designer abilities. Sounds great right? In fact, the Dangers of Buying Bottled, format of a functional resume just throws job history out become of the window. On a functional resume, an experience section is Bottled Essay, reduced to a list of on The Act is Unconstitutional, old, dusty employers at the bottom of the resume. You can eliminate dates and Water your roles and Essay Crisis responsibilities. The bulk of the resume becomes a place for showcasing your skills in any order you see fit. If you aren’t careful, it can look like a jumble of random skills listed under vague headlines like “customer service skills” or “leadership skills.” You do not have to link these skills with job experience or explain how you got them. So your leadership skills could come from being the oldest sibling in your family. And your awesome customer service skills could go all the way back to that time when you were five years old with a lemonade stand in your front yard. The fact that there is no specific information or proof that you learned your skills in any sort of job setting is the real weakness of the Dangers, functional resume format.
The lack of proof alone makes you look suspicious and could result in Act is Unconstitutional a recruiter simply throwing out your resume. Of Buying Water? There are experts that will tell you that it is a good format for students , people who have gaps in their work history, or people who are changing their careers. But it just makes you look sneaky - like you’re hiding something. It is also not good for ATS because the robots can't scan your resume for dates or specific sections. Web Designer? I would recommend not using the functional resume format if you can avoid it.
Here's How to Choose a File Format - PDF Resume Vs. Word Resume. Should you save you create a PDF resume or a Word resume? The benefit of creating a PDF resume is that your resume formatting will not get messed up when it is opened by a recruiter. It also gives you more creative freedom as you'd use platforms such as Photoshop or InDesign to Dangers Essay create a PDF resume. At the same time, your resume may need to pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. And some ATS software may have trouble reading a PDF resume. ATS does not like graphs or tables and requires plain text. In that case, a Word resume is how to become web designer, probably a better choice. In any situation, having both formats on hand is best practice.
Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to Dangers Bottled Water do before you send your resume. The Relationship And Ismene: Essay? “Resume 101 Checklist.” While there are not many resume formats to choose from, the Dangers, choice is important. The format of essay on poem, a resume really comes down to whether or not you want to focus on your skills or your career progression. Bottled Water Essay? Either way, you have to essay on poem find ways to overcome the cookie cutter nature of resume formats without coloring too far out Dangers of Buying of the the Foreclosure, lines. Bottled Water Essay? You also have to make sure that a recruiter doesn’t take one look at Between Antigone and Ismene: Antigone by Sophocles the format of your resume and decide that you are trying to hide something. The best way to enhance a standard resume format is to improve each section and to place your most important skills and Dangers Water achievements near the top third of Essay on Solving the Foreclosure Crisis, your resume. If you can open with a great resume summary, followed by strong skills, experience, and achievements sections, then you can make any old resume format work for you.
Do you have any questions about of Buying Water choosing the how to become web designer, right resume format for your position? Is there anything else that should be included in the article? Leave a comment. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.
She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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The Chinese government has encouraged foreign investment -- in some sectors of the economy and subject to constraints -- since the 1980s, offering several special economic zones in which foreign investors receive preferable tax, tariff, and The Relationship Between Antigone and Ismene: by Sophocles Essay investment treatment. With China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in November 2001, the Chinese government made a number of Bottled specific commitments to trade and essay on poem investment liberalization which, if fully implemented, will substantially open the Chinese economy to of Buying Water, foreign firms. In the Patrior Act is energy sector, this will mean the lifting or sharp reduction of tarriffs associated with imports of some classes of capital goods, and the eventual opening to foreign competition of some areas such as retail sales of petroleum products. It still remains to be seen how these commitments will be implemented. Despite moves toward privatization, much of China's economy remains controlled by large State Owned Enterprises (SOE's), many of which are inefficient and unprofitable. Restructuring of the SOE sector, including the privatization of some enterprises, is a major priority of the government, as is restructuring of the banking sector. Many Chinese banks have had to write off large amounts of delinquent debts from state-owned enterprises. Quarterly earnings at many SOEs are reported to have fallen sharply in the first quarter of 2002, after rising in 2001. It is unclear how much of of Buying Bottled Water Essay this is The Relationship Between Antigone by Sophocles Essay due to changes in accounting practices, as opposed to other factors such as weak demand for exports. Layoffs have been part of the restructuring of the SOEs, as many were severely overstaffed.
This has created unemployment, and also has been a burden on of Buying Bottled Water, the government budget, as the government begins to provide social benefits which were previously the how to become web designer responsibility of the SOEs. Large protests against of Buying Bottled Water Essay, SOE layoffs have taken place in early 2002, including in structuralist cities closely associated with the oil and coal industries. China's real GDP grew by 7.3% in 2001, according to official Chinese figures, down from 8.0% growth in 2000. Real GDP growth for 2002 is of Buying Essay forecast at 7.0%. Of The Death Of Newspapers? The Chinese government's current Five Year Plan (2001-2005) sets a target of Bottled 7.0% real annual GDP growth. Anthropology? Some outside analysts have questioned the reliability of the official data, however. Inflows of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into Dangers Water Essay China in 2001 totalled $46.8 billion, a new record, and structuralist data from the first two months of 2002 shows continuing strength. Japan, Taiwan, and the United States are China's most important sources of FDI. In general, China's trade surplus has been falling in recent years, and imports have been rising.
The 2001 trade surplus was $22.6 billion, down from a peak of Dangers $43.6 billion in 2001. How To? Imports have been increasing, largely capital goods being acquired to refurbish outdated industrial facilities, but also consumer goods. China has several territorial disputes with other regional states which are relevant to the energy sector, particularly the dispute over the potentially hydrocarbon-rich Spratly Islands, which are claimed by China, Vietnam, the Phillipines, Brunei, Taiwan, and Malaysia. Another dispute is over the East China Sea, claimed by Japan. China currently is the world's third largest oil consumer, behind the United States and Japan. Consumption of petroleum products totalled 4.78 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2000, up from Bottled Essay 4.36 million bbl/d in 1999. China is expected to surpass Japan as the second largest world oil consumer within the next decade and reach a consumption level of 10.5 million bbl/d by 2020, making it a major factor in the world oil market. China's petroleum industry has undergone major changes in The Relationship Between Antigone and Ismene: recent years. In 1998, the Chinese government reorganized most state owned oil and gas assets into two vertically integrated firms -- the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and the China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec). Before the restructuring, CNPC had been engaged mainly in oil and gas exploration and production, while Sinopec had been engaged in refining and distribution. In 1998, the Chinese government ordered an asset swap which transferred some exploration and production assets to Sinopec and Bottled Essay some refining and distribution assets to CNPC.
This created two regionally focused firms, CNPC in the north and west, and Sinopec in the south, though CNPC is still tilted toward crude oil production and Sinopec toward refining. Other major state sector firms in China include the Essay on Solving the Foreclosure Crisis China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), which handles offshore exploration and production and Dangers Essay accounts for more than 10% of China's domestic crude production, and China National Star Petroleum, a new company which was created in 1997. The intention of the restructuring was to make these state firms more like similar vertically integrated corporate entities elsewhere. In connection with this process, the firms have been spinning off or eliminating many unprofitable ancillary activities such as running housing units, hospitals, and Essay Act is other services near company facilities. Dangers Of Buying Bottled Essay? Massive layoffs also have been undertaken, as like many other Chinese SOEs, they were severely overstaffed. Labor unrest has been reported in early 2002 in several locations with CNPC facilties. The three largest Chinese oil and gas firms - Sinopec, CNPC, and CNOOC - all have successfully carried out initial public offerings (IPOs) of stock within the last two years, bringing in billions of Essay dollars in foreign capital. CNPC separated out Dangers Bottled Essay, most of its high quality assets into on Solving a subsidiary called PetroChina in early 2000, and carried out its IPO of a minority interest on both the Hong Kong and New York stock exchanges in April 2000. Water Essay? The IPO raised over essay on poem, $3 billion, with BP the largest purchaser at 20% of the shares offered. Sinopec carried out its IPO in New York and Hong Kong in October 2000, raising about $3.5 billion.
Like the PetroChina IPO, only a minority stake of 15% was offered. Dangers Essay? About $2 billion of this amount was purchased by structuralist anthropology, the three global super-majors - ExxonMobil, BP, and Dangers of Buying Bottled Shell. CNOOC held its IPO of a 27.5% stake in February 2001, after an essay on poem, earlier attempt in September 1999 was canceled. Shell bought a large block of shares valued at Dangers Bottled, around $200 million. Several aspects of these stock offerings were very atypical.
First, they all involved only of The Death of Newspapers minority stakes. Second, they have not given the foreign investors a major voice in corporate governace. The Chinese government still holds majority stakes in all three firms, and the foreign investors have not received seats on their boards of directors. Analysts have generally seen these investments as attempts by the supermajors to gain a foothold in Dangers Bottled China, which will necessarily involve partnerships with the on Solving Crisis Chinese majors. Even with the opening to foreign investment envisioned in China's commitments for membership in Dangers of Buying Bottled Water Essay the WTO, it is still likely that almost all major oil and gas projects in China will involve one of the Analysis Chinese majors. The Chinese government stipulated in July 2001 that only CNPC and Sinopec will be allowed to open new retail filling stations prior to fulfillment of China's market-opening commitment in of Buying Bottled 2004. This is seen as an attempt to strengthen their control of retail sales of petroleum products and ensure that foreign firms will have to partner with one or the other of the Chinese majors to enter the retail market, even after 2004. All three of the global supermajors, BP, ExxonMobil, and Shell, are planning to enter the Chinese retail market in how to become web designer partnership with CNPC, Sinopec, or both. As a net oil importer since 1993, China's petroleum industry is focused on Dangers of Buying Bottled Water, meeting domestic demand, but it does still export a modest amount of crude oil. The largest export customer by far is Japan, which imports Daqing crude oil to burn directly in electric power plants.
As of The Relationship Between Antigone Essay early 2002, China's exports of Daqing crude oil to Japan were around 50,000 bbl/d, down substantially from export levels during the 1990s. Most Chinese oil production capacity, close to 90%, is located onshore. Bottled Water Essay? One field alone, Daqing in northeastern China, accounts for structuralist about 1.0 million bbl/d of Dangers of Buying Bottled Water China's production, out of a total crude oil production of around 3.3 million bbl/d. Anthropology? Daqing is a mature field, however, having begun production in 1963. It is expected to show declining production in the future, but the discovery of Bottled Essay additional small oil-bearing structures at the field and the introduction of enhanced recovery technologies may slow the decline. Analysis Of The Of Newspapers? At China's second-largest producing field, Liaohe in northeastern China, CNPC has solicited proposals from potential foreign partners to Dangers Essay, help it enhance recovery rates and extend production, though no contracts have yet been signed. In December 2000, regulatory changes were announced which will remove some of the barriers to foreign firms forming partnerships with Chinese oil majors. Government priorities focus on stabilizing production in the eastern regions of the country at current levels, increasing production in new fields in the West, and developing the infrastructure required to deliver western oil and gas to consumers in anthropology the East.
Offshore development also is a high priority. Chinese officials have said that they expect production in Xinjiang to reach 1 million bbl/d by 2008, but that seems ambitious, given that transportation of that oil to Dangers Essay, consumers in the East remains a major obstacle. Recent offshore oil exploration interest has centered on the Bohai Sea area, east of Tianjin, believed to hold more than 1.5 billion barrels in reserves, and the Pearl River Mouth area. Phillips Petroleum announced in March 2000 that it had completed its appraisal drilling of the Peng Lai find in Block 11/05, and Essay on Solving would proceed with development. Dangers? Full scale production at the field is expected to reach more than 100,000 bbl/d by 2004. Shell and CNOOC signed a production sharing contract for exploration in the Bonan area of the Bohai Sea in January 2001. Seismic survey work is taking place, and drilling is of The Death of Newspapers scheduled to begin in 2003.
CNOOC also signed a production sharing contract with Canadian independent Husky Oil in July 2001 for Block 39-05 in Dangers Water the Pearl River Mouth, near the Wenchang 13-1/13-2 blocks, where Husky Oil and CNOOC already are producing about 50,000 bbl/d. Another major offshore oilfield has been developed in the Pearl River Mouth area by a consortium including Chevron, Texaco, Agip, and CNOOC. The field began production in February 1999. Meanwhile, improvement in Sino-Vietnamese relations has opened the way for oil and gas exploration in the Beibu Gulf (known in Vietnam as the Gulf of Tonkin). China and Vietnam signed an agreement in how to December 2000 which settled their outstanding disputes over sovereignty and economic rights in offshore areas near their border. Dangers Of Buying Bottled Water? The Spratly Islands in Essay on The Act is Unconstitutional the South China Sea also are suspected to hold oil and gas reserves, but the area, as mentioned above, is claimed by Bottled Essay, several neighboring states. With China's expectation of growing future dependence on Analysis of The Death of Newspapers, oil imports, China has been acquiring interests in exploration and production abroad. CNPC holds oil concessions in Kazakhstan, Venezuela, Sudan, Iraq, Iran, and Peru, and Azerbaijan. Sinopec also has begun seeking to of Buying Bottled, purchase overseas upstream assets.
The most significant deal thus far is CNPC's aquisition of a 60% stake in the Kazakh oil firm Aktobemunaigaz, which came with a pledge to invest significantly in the company's future development over the next twenty years. While there had been some discussion of Essay a possible oil pipeline from Kazakhstan to China, CNPC has said that it would only be considered if reserves were sufficient and it was economical, which looks doubtful. Of Buying Bottled Water Essay? The Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC), the Sudanese oil project in which CNPC owns a stake, began exports in structuralist August 1999. The CNPC concession in Iraq cannot be developed until United Nations economic sanctions are lifted, at least to the extent of allowing foreign investment in Iraqi oil infrastructure. CNOOC also has purchased an upsteam equity stake in the small Malacca Strait oilfield in Indonesia. Russia's Far East is seen as a potential source of Chinese crude oil imports. The Russian and Chinese governments have been holding regular discussions on the feasibility of Bottled Water Essay pipelines to make such exports possible. One proposed major project is a $1.7-billion pipeline from Irkutsk to Beijing being backed by Russia's Yukos Oil, which, if developed, could carry 400,000 bbl/d of oil, mainly from the Analysis Death of Newspapers Tomsk region. CNPC and Dangers of Buying Bottled Water Essay Yukos signed an how to become, agreement in July 2001 to carry out a feasibility study for the project, which is due to be completed in mid-2002.
An alternative plan, proposed by Russian pipeline operator Transneft, would take Russian crude from both West Siberia and East Siberia via a 1 million bbl/d pipeline to an export terminal at the Pacific coast port of Nakhodka. China would presumably be one of the major consumers of oil from of Buying Water such a project, but it would also give Russia increased access to the Foreclosure Crisis, the Japanese, South Korean, and other East Asian markets. Downstream infrastructure development in Dangers of Buying Water Essay China centers primarily on upgrading existing refineries rather than building new ones, due to current overcapacity. In the late 1990s, the Chinese government shut down 110 small refineries, which generally made inferior quality petroleum products. 62 other small refineries owned by provincial and essay on poem local governments also are likely to be merged into CNPC and of Buying Essay Sinopec in the near future. Essay On Poem? Another major issue in the Chinese downstream sector is the lack of adequate refining capacity suitable for heavier Middle Eastern crude oil, which will become a necessity as Chinese import demand rises in the mid-term future. Bottled Water Essay? Several existing refineries are being upgraded to handle heavier and more sour grades of crude oil. Chinese officials have spoken of their intention to build a national strategic petroleum reserve, but no formal policy announcement has taken place, and it is unclear whether China would build a government-held reserve of crude oil like the U.S.
Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) or make the Between Antigone maintenance of a minimum stock level a regulatory requirement of of Buying Bottled doing business as a refiner, which is the Essay Patrior Act is basis for strategic reserves in Japan and South Korea. Historically, natural gas has not been a major fuel in China, but given China's domestic reserves of natural gas, which stood at 48.3 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) at the beginning of 2002, and the environmental benefits of using gas, China has embarked on a major expansion of Dangers Water its gas infrastructure. Until the 1990s, natural gas was used largely as a feedstock for fertilizer plants, with little use for electricity generation. Gas currently accounts for only slightly more than 3% of total energy consumption in China, but consumption is expected to more than triple by 2010. This will involve increases in domestic production, and imports, by pipeline and in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG).
The country's largest reserves of natural gas are located in western and The Relationship Between Antigone by Sophocles Essay north-central China, necessitating a significant further investment in pipeline infrastructure to carry it to eastern cities. China is planning to build a pipeline, the West-to-East Pipeline, from gas deposits in the western Xinjiang province to Shanghai, picking up additional gas in the Ordos Basin along the way. Shell was chosen in February 2002 as the lead firm for Bottled Water Essay the project, and Gazprom and ExxonMobil will hold significant stakes. Sinopec also is likely to be added as an equity partner, but only for a 5% stake. Though construction had been scheduled to begin in 2001, it is the Foreclosure unclear how long it will take to finalize terms for the contract. Some of the potential foreign partners in the project are reported to have concerns about the $18 billion project's commercial viability, even though letters of of Buying Bottled Water Essay intent have been signed with several of the The Relationship Between by Sophocles project's intended customers. The concern stems from the possibility that the Tarim Basin gas deposits may provide enough gas for only 20 years of operation, while close to 40 years of operation could be needed to make it profitable, given the Dangers of Buying Water massive construction costs. While it is unlikely to Between Antigone Antigone Essay, happen in the near future, the West-to-East Pipeline eventually could serve as a trunkline which could be extended to receive gas from Central Asia. China announced a discovery of of Buying a major gas field at Sulige in the Ordos Basin in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, adjacent to the Changqing oilfield, in 2001. While the field is still under evaluation, recent unofficial reserve estimates cited in the trade press put reserves in the range of 16-21 Tcf, substantially more than was assumed when the discovery was first announced. Some natural gas from from the Ordos Basin is Essay on The Act is Unconstitutional likely to be put into the West-to-East Pipeline, which was to run through the of Buying Bottled Essay area in any case, and help make it economically viable.
A pipeline was completed in 1997 between the Ordos Basin and Beijing, and a second pipeline is essay on poem planned in the near future, as demand for natural gas in Beijing, Tianjin, and nearby Hebei province already is outstripping the capacity of the original pipeline. Another proposed pipeline project would link the Water Russian natural gas grid in Siberia to of The, China and Dangers possibly South Korea via a pipeline from the Kovykta gas fields near Irkutsk, which hold reserves of more than 50 Tcf. The cost of the project has been estimated at $12 billion, and a feasibility study is underway. The pipeline would have a planned capacity of 2.9 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d), of which China would likely consume about 1.9 Bcf/d and how to web designer South Korea 1 Bcf/d. The main South Korea gas company, Kogas, formally joined the feasibility study in November 2000. The main foreign backer of the project is BP, which owns a 30% stake in Rusia Petroleum , the license holder for the Kovykta gas field. The project faces some hurdles, however, as it would involve South Korea becoming dependent on gas supplies routed through China and North Korea. Bottled Water Essay? The project seems to how to web designer, have made little progress in the last year, due to tensions on the Korean peninsula and of Buying Water possibly Chinese expectations of additional domestic supplies for northeastern China based on how to become web designer, the large new natural gas find in the Ordos Basin. It is not clear that the project would be economical if it is not extended to South Korea. Aside from these huge projects, other pipelines are being developed to Bottled Water, link smaller natural gas deposits to Antigone and Ismene: Essay, other consumers. A pipeline was completed in early 2002 linking the Sebei natural gas field in the Qaidam Basin with consumers in the city of Lanzhou.
Another planned project would link gas deposits in Sichuan province in the southwest to Dangers of Buying Bottled Essay, consumers in Hubei and of The Hunan provinces in central China at an estimate cost of $600 million. One major hurdle for natural gas projects in China is the lack of of Buying Bottled Water a unified regulatory system. Currently, natural gas prices are governed by a patchwork of local regulations. The Chinese government is in the process of drafting a new legal framework for the natural gas sector, which has become an urgent priority to reassure Shell and structuralist other potential foreign investors in the West-to-East Pipeline that there will be a stable regulatory environment. Offshore gas projects also are becoming a significant part of China's gas supply. The Yacheng 13-1 field, developed in the mid-1990s, has been producing gas for Hong Kong and Hainan Island since 1996.
The Chunxiao gas field in the East China Sea, being developed by China National Star Petroleum, is also expected to become a significant producer within the next decade. Water Essay? The company puts the anthropology field's reserves at more than 1.6 Tcf. Another area where where exploratory drilling is planned is the Xihu Trough, in the East China Sea about 250 miles east of Shanghai. Imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) will be used primarily in China's southeastern coastal region. Guangdong province already has launched a project to build six, 320-megawatt (MW) gas-fired power plants, and to convert existing oil fired plants with a capacity of Water Essay 1.8 gigawatts (GW) to essay on poem, LNG. In March 2001, it was announced that BP had been selected to of Buying Bottled Water, build China's first LNG import terminal, to be located near the city of Guangdong. BP will take a 30% equity stake in the project, with CNOOC holding 31% and essay on poem the rest held by Dangers of Buying Bottled, local firms from Guangdong and Hong Kong. Proposals for supplies of LNG to the terminal were received in May 2002 from three potential suppliers, RasGas of Qatar, Shell's Northwest Shelf LNG project in Australia, and how to become BP's planned Tangguh LNG project in Indonesia. A second LNG import terminal is planned for Fujian province, to be completed in 2005 or 2006.
Coal makes up the bulk, over 63%, of China's primary energy consumption, and China is both the Dangers Bottled Water Essay largest consumer and producer of essay on poem coal in the world. China's coal consumption in 2000 was 1.27 billion short tons, or over 24% of the world total. The Chinese government has recently made a major upward revision to coal production and consumption figures covering the last several years. While the new figures still show coal use declining significantly, the of Buying Bottled Water decline is much less than the previously published figures. China's coal industry has had a serious oversupply problem in recent years, particularly in the late 1990s, and essay on poem the government has begun implementing major reforms aimed at reducing the oversupply, returning large state-owned mines to profitability as a prelude to of Buying Water Essay, possible future privatization, and reducing mine accidents. Essay On Poem? Large state-owned coal mines had experienced buildups of Dangers Essay unused inventories in Essay on Solving Crisis the mid-to-late-1990s, and many were operating at a financial loss. Dangers Water Essay? A large number of small, unlicensed mines also have added to the oversupply. In 1998, the government launched a large-scale effort to close down the how to small mines. Many small coal mines have been closed, and Dangers Water the effort is continuing.
As a result of the closures, depressed local coal prices have started to recover, and combined with cost-cutting measures, some of the large-scale mines returned to structuralist anthropology, profitability in 2000. It has become clear, however, through much anecdotal evidence, that not all of the closed mines have actually ceased operation, and the recent revision to the Chinese State Statistical Bureau's production and consumption figures appears to Dangers of Buying Bottled Water, reflect this. Web Designer? China also is Water increasingly seeking export markets for its coal as a way of dealing with its surplus production. According to Essay the Foreclosure Crisis, figures published by of Buying Bottled, the Chinese government, China's net coal exports for 2001 rose by 46% from the previous year. Japan and Analysis of Newspapers South Korea are the primary markets, and Dangers Bottled Water China is The Relationship Between beginning to emerge as a serious competitor to of Buying Bottled Essay, Australia for Japanese coal imports. India also has been importing modest quantities of Chinese coal.
Over the longer term, China's coal demand is projected to rise significantly , roughly doubling by the year 2020. While coal's share of overall Chinese energy consumption is projected to fall, coal consumption will still be increasing in how to web designer absolute terms. Several projects exist for the development of coal-fired power plants co-located with large mines, so called coal by wire projects. Other technological improvements also are being undertaken, including the first small-scale projects for Dangers Water Essay coal gasification, and a coal slurry pipeline to transport coal to the port of Qingdao. Essay On Poem? Coalbed methane production also is being developed, with recent American investors in this effort including BP, Texaco, and Virgin Oil, which was awarded a concession for Dangers Bottled Water exploration in Analysis of Newspapers Ningxia province in January 2001. Texaco is the Water largest foreign investor in coalbed methane, with activities in become web designer several provinces. Dangers Of Buying Water Essay? Coalbed methane production is expected to reach 0.4 billion Tcf by Essay on Solving the Foreclosure, 2010. In contrast to the past, China is becoming more open to foreign investment in Dangers of Buying Bottled Water Essay the coal sector, particularly in modernization of anthropology existing large-scale mines and the development of new ones. The China National Coal Import and Export Corporation is the primary Chinese partner for foreign investors in Dangers of Buying Water Essay the coal sector. Areas of Essay interest in foreign invesment concentrate on Dangers of Buying Water, new technologies only recently introduced in China or with environmental benefit, including coal liquefaction, coal bed methane production, and slurry pipeline transportation projects.
Over the longer term, China plans to aggregate the Essay Act is large state coal mines into seven corporations by the end of Dangers of Buying Water Essay 2005, in a process similar to the creation of CNPC and Sinopec out of Analysis of Newspapers state assets. Such firms might then seek to of Buying, pursue foreign capital through international stock offerings. China has expressed a strong interest in coal liquefaction technology, and would like see liquid fuels based on coal substitute for some of its petroleum demand for transportation. Essay On Poem? The first pilot coal liquefaction plant is planned to be operational in Dangers Bottled Water coal-rich Shanxi in late 2001. Become? Shell also signed an agreement in December 2001 for a coal gasification project in Yueyang in Hunan province, which is to replace naphtha as a feedstock for Bottled Water Essay a large fertilizer plant. As with coal, China's electric power industry experienced a serious oversupply problem in become web designer 1998-99, due largely to demand reductions from closures of inefficient state-owned industrial units, which were major consumers of electricity.
The Chinese government responded to the short-term oversupply in part by implementing a drive to close down small thermal power plants and by imposing a moratorium (with a few exceptions) on Dangers of Buying Essay, approval of new power plant construction, which ran through January 1, 2002, and Essay on The Act is there have not been a large number of new projects approved since then. Most of the small power plants closed were diesel or coal-fired plants which were opened by provincial or municipal governments as demand grew in the 1980's, and Dangers of Buying Water were relatively inefficient and Analysis of The Death polluting. Even with the moratorium on new construction approvals, many power plants have been coming online, due to the very large backlog of power generation projects approved prior to the moratorium. When the moratorium took effect, there was a total of 70 GW of new capacity under construction or with final approval, much of which is still under development. The largest project under construction, by far, is the of Buying Water Three Gorges Dam, which, when fully completed in The Relationship Between Antigone Antigone by Sophocles Essay 2009, will include 26 separate 700-MW generators, for Bottled a total of 18.2 GW. Plans were announced in March 2002 to Between Antigone by Sophocles Essay, reorganize the Three Gorges project into the China Three Gorges Electric Power Corporation. The corporation is expected to seek capital through an equity offering open to foreign investors, similar to those already carried out by the major Chinese oil companies, in 2003. Another large hydropower project involves a series of dams on the upper portion of the Yellow River. Shaanxi, Qinghai, and Gansu provinces have joined to Dangers of Buying Bottled Water, create the Yellow River Hydroelectric Development Corporation, with plans for the eventual construction of 25 generating stations with a combined installed capacity of 15.8 GW. Seven of of The Death of Newspapers these stations are either under construction or currently in operation.
Most of the major developments taking place in the Chinese electricity sector in 2002 involve nuclear power. Several nuclear projects are under construction, with the Dangers Bottled Essay involvement of Essay Patrior Unconstitutional Russian, French, and Canadian firms. The first generation unit of the Lingao nuclear power plant in Guangdong province began commercial operation in May 2002, with a capacity of of Buying Bottled Essay 1-GW. On The? The second 1 GW generating unit is expected to of Buying Bottled Water, begin operating in March 2003. An additional 600-MW generating unit at the Qinshan nuclear power plant in Zhejiang province began operation in anthropology February 2002, and another 600-MW unit at the same site is Dangers of Buying Bottled Essay scheduled to begin delivering electricity in late 2002. A major issue for China's electric power industry is the distribution of Analysis of The generation among power plants. China's stated intention eventually is to create a unified national power grid, and to have a modern power market in which plants sell power to the grid at market-determined rates. In the short term, though, traditional arrangements still hold sway, and state-owned power plants which have government connections tend to have a higher priority than independent private plants. Additionally, some private plants with take-or-pay contracts, which provide for guaranteed minimum sales amounts, have had trouble getting the provincial authorities running the local grids to honor those terms.
In the short term, oversupply and uncertainty are likely to reduce foreign investment in China's power sector. In the Dangers of Buying longer term, though, growth in electricity consumption is Essay on The projected at 5.5% per year through 2020. The largest gainer in terms of fuel share in the future is expected to be natural gas, due largely to Bottled Essay, environmental concerns in China's rapidly industrializing coastal provinces. If a truly competitive market for electric power develops as planned, the structuralist anthropology Chinese market may once again become attractive to foreign investment. At present, foreign direct investment is allowed only in power generation, but loan financing has been obtained for some power transmission projects. The Chinese government is in the early stages of formulating a fundamental long-term restructuring of of Buying their electric power sector, embodies in anthropology the National Power Industry Framework Reform Plan promulgated by the State Council in of Buying Essay April 2002. Essay On Poem? As with many other countries reform programs, generating assets are to of Buying Water, be largely separated from transmission and distribution. The State Power Corporation (SPC) will divest most of its generating assets (though retaining about anthropology, 20%), and then be split into regional transmission and distribution companies. Dangers Bottled Water? Electricity prices will still be regulated, but there are likely to be major changes in tarriffs and how to become web designer the overall regulatory structure for electricity pricing.
The process is at an early stage, and many of the details remain to Dangers of Buying, be worked out. China suffers from The Relationship major energy-related environmental problems. Dangers Of Buying Bottled Water Essay? According to a report by the World Health Organization (WHO), seven of the Essay on The Patrior Act is world's ten most polluted cities are in China. The country's heavy use of of Buying Bottled Water unwashed coal leads to large emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. China also is important to any effort to curb emissions of greenhouse gases, as it is projected to become, experience the largest absolute growth in carbon dioxide emissions between now and the year 2020. China is Bottled Essay a non-Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, meaning that it has not agreed to structuralist, binding targets for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions under the Kyoto Protocol.
While the Chinese government is concerned with its environmental problems, it tends to be more concerned with local problems, such as particulate matter and sulfur dioxide emissions. Thus, it is undertaking efforts to Dangers of Buying Bottled, lessen emissions of Death of Newspapers pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, through improved pollution controls on power plants as well as policies designed to increase the share of natural gas in the country's fuel mix, particularly around major metropolitan areas. President: Jiang Zemin (since March 1993) Premier: Zhu Rongji (since March 1998) Population (July 2001E): 1.3 billion. Location/Size: Eastern Asia/3.7 million square miles (9.6 million square kilometers, slightly smaller than the United States) Major Cities: Beijing (capital), Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Shenyang, Wuhan, Chengdu, Hong Kong. Languages: Mandarin (official), many local dialects. Ethnic Groups: Han Chinese (92%); Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, others (8%)
Religion: Officially atheist; Daoism, Buddhism, Muslim (2-3%); Christian (1%) Defense (8/98): Army (2.1 million), Navy (260,000), Air Force (470,000), reserves (1.2 million), People's Armed Police (1 million) Exchange Rate (6/2/02): US$1 = 8.3 Yuan/Renminbi. Gross Domestic Product (2001E): $1.18 trillion (2002F): $1.27 trillion. Real GDP Growth Rate (2001E): 7.3% (2002F): 6.7% Inflation Rate (2002F): 0.6%
Current Account Surplus (2002F): $20.3 billion. Major Trading Partners: Japan, United States, European Union, South Korea, Taiwan. Merchandise Exports (2002F): $303.6 billion. Merchandise Imports (2002F): $254.1 billion. Merchandise Trade Surplus (2002F): $33.1 billion. Major Export Products: Light industrial and textile products, mineral fuels, heavy manufactures, agricultural goods. Major Import Products: Machinery, steel, chemicals, miscellaneous manufactures, industrial materials, grain. Monetary Reserves (2002F, non-gold): $174.2 billion. External Debt (2002F): $164.1 billion. Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/02E): 24 billion barrels.
Oil Production (2001E): 3.3 million barrels per day (bbl/d) Oil Consumption (2001E): 4.9 million bbl/d. Net Oil Imports (2001E): 1.6 million bbl/d. Crude Oil Refining Capacity (1/1/02E): 4.5 million bbl/d. Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/02E) : 48.3 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) Natural Gas Production (2000E): 0.96 Tcf. Natural Gas Consumption (2000E): 0.96 Tcf. Recoverable Coal Reserves (1/1/96E): 126.2 billion short tons. Coal Production (2000E): 1.27 billion short tons.
Coal Consumption (2000E): 1.31 billion short tons. Electric Generation Capacity (1/1/00E): 294 GW (222 GW thermal; 70 GW hydro; 2 GW nuclear) Electricity Generation (1999E): 1,308 billion kilowatthours (1,070 conventional thermal; 220 hydro; 16 nuclear) Statistical note: All data reported here exclude Hong Kong, a former British colony which reverted to China on Essay, July 1, 1997. Minister of Land and Natural Resources: Yongkang Zhou. Minister of Water Resources: Shucheng Wang. Total Energy Consumption (2000E): 36.7 quadrillion Btu (9.2% of world total energy consumption) Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (2000E): 775.0 million metric tons of carbon (12.0% of become web designer world carbon emissions)
Per Capita Energy Consumption (2000E): 28.8 million Btu (vs. U.S. Dangers Of Buying Bottled Water? value of 351.0 million Btu) Per Capita Carbon Emissions (2000E): 0.61 metric tons of essay on poem carbon (vs. U.S. value of Dangers of Buying 5.6 metric tons of carbon) Energy Intensity (2000E): 35,201 Btu/$1995 (vs. U.S. Essay On Poem? value of 10,918 Btu/$1995)** Carbon Intensity (2000E): 0.74 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1995 (vs. U.S. value of 0.17 metric tons/thousand $1995)**
Sectoral Share of Energy Consumption (1998E): Residential (28.3%), Industrial (59.9%), Transportation (7.4%), Commercial (4.4%) Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions (1998E): Transportation (8.6%), Industrial (75.1%), Commercial (5.3%), Residential (10.9%) Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (2000E): Oil (26.8%), Natural Gas (3.0%), Coal (63.6%) Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (2000E): Oil (22.0%), Natural Gas (2.1%), Coal (75.9%) Renewable Energy Consumption (1998E): 10,895 trillion Btu* (2% increase from Dangers 1997) Number of structuralist anthropology People per Motor Vehicle (1998): 125 (vs.
U.S. value of 1.3) Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Non-Annex I country under the Dangers of Buying Bottled Water United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (ratified January 5th, 1993). Signatory to the Kyoto Protocol (signed May 29th, 1998 - not yet ratified). Major Environmental Issues: Air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from the overwhelming use of high-sulfur coal as a fuel, producing acid rain which is damaging forests; water shortages experienced throughout the country, particularly in urban areas and in on The the north; future growth in water usage threatens to outpace supplies; water pollution from industrial effluents; much of the population does not have access to potable water; less than 10% of sewage receives treatment; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and of Buying Water economic development; desertification; trade in Essay Patrior Unconstitutional endangered species. Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94 and Wetlands. Has signed but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban. * The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar, wind, wood and Dangers Water waste electric power.
The renewable energy consumption statistic is The Relationship and Ismene: Essay based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and of Buying Water Essay animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Antigone And Ismene:? Sectoral shares of energy consumption and Dangers of Buying Bottled Essay carbon emissions are also based on IEA data. **GDP based on EIA International Energy Annual 2000. Organization: Coal - China National Local Coal Mines Development Corp., China Northeast NEI-Mongolia United Coal Co., numerous local state-owned mines and rural collectives; Coal import/exports - China Coal Import and Export Group; Petroleum - China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC, PetroChina is essay on poem its publicly traded subsidiary), China National Offshore Oil Corp. (CNOOC), China National Oil Gas Exploration Development Corp. (CNODC), China National Star Petroleum (Star); China National Petrochemical Corp. Of Buying Bottled Water Essay? (SINOPEC); Oil imports/exports - China National Chemicals Import and Export Corporation (SINOCHEM), China United Petroleum Corporation (China Oil), China United Petrochemical Corp. (UNIPEC); Electric power - China State Power Corp., Huaneng Group, Inc., China National Power Industry Corp. Essay On Poem? (CNPIC), regional electric power corporations, China National Nuclear Industry Corp., China International Water and Electric Corp. Bottled Essay? (CWE).; Energy Finance - China National Energy Investment Corp. Major Producing Oil Fields (2000 Production): Daqing (1.1 MMBD), Shengli (0.5 MMBD), Liaohe (0.3 MMBD) Major Refineries (1/1/02 Capacity): Fushun (184,800 bbl/d), Maoming (170,700 bbl/d), Qilu (160,700 bbl/d), Gaoqiao (150,600 bbl/d), Dalian (142,600 bbl/d), Yanshan (190,800 bbl/d), Jinling (140,600 bbl/d); Zhenlai (160,700 bbl/d) Sources for Essay this report include: Asia Pulse; Coal Week International; Dow Jones Newswire; Economist Intelligence Unit; Financial Times; Oil and Gas Journal; Oil Daily; Petroleum Economist; Petroleum Intelligence Weekly; South China Morning Post; U.S. Commerce Department; International Trade Administration -- Country Commercial Guides; U.S. Dangers Of Buying Bottled? Energy Information Administration; DRI/WEFA Asia Economic Outlook; World Gas Intelligence.
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