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Using a Scientific Journal Article to Write a Critical Review. Writing a critical review of a journal article can help to improve your research skills. By assessing the work of others, you develop skills as a critical reader and netherland laws become familiar with the summaries, types of evaluation criteria that will be applied to research in your ?eld and thus your own research. You are expected to read the article carefully, analyse it, and evaluate the quality and originality of the laws, research, as well as its relevance and presentation. Its strengths and weaknesses are assessed, followed by its overall value.

Do not be confused by the term critique: it does not mean that you only look at the negative aspects of what the researcher has done. You should address both the positive and negative aspects. Physical Noise. If your lecturer has given you speci?c advice on how to write a critical review, follow that advice. If not, the following steps may help you. These steps are based on a detailed description of how to analyse and evaluate a research article provided by Wood (2003) in her lab guide. This guide is drug laws divided into two parts.

The ?rst part, Researching the Critique, outlines the physical noise, steps involved in selecting and evaluating a research article. The second part, Writing your Critique, discusses two possible ways to structure your critique paper. The questions listed under many of the subheadings in this section may provide you with a good place to begin understanding what you are looking for and what form your critique might take. Netherland Laws. If your lecturer does not assign a topic or a particular article for you to review, and you must choose a topic yourself, try using a review article from your ?eld. Review articles summarize and evaluate current studies (research articles) on a particular topic. Select a review article on a topic that interests you and that is written clearly so you can understand it. Use the review article to select a research article. This can be very useful in writing your critique. The review article will provide background information for your analysis, as well as establishing that the research paper you are critiquing is signi?cant: if the paper was not so highly regarded, it would not have been selected to be reviewed. When choosing a research article, examine the Materials Methods section closely and make sure you have a good grasp of the techniques and methods used. If you don#39;t, you may have di?culty evaluating them.

Read the article(s) carefully. Crimes. As you read the article(s) use the following questions to laws, help you understand how and why the research was carried out. What is the author#39;s central purpose? Look at chapter to kill, INTRODUCTION. What methods were used to accomplish this purpose (systematic recording of observations, analysis and evaluation of published research, assessment of theory)? Look at METHODS. What were the techniques used? and netherland drug how was each technique performed? What kind of data can be obtained using each technique? How are such data interpreted? What kind of information is produced by using the technique? What objective evidence was obtained from the author#39;s e?orts (observations, measurements etc.)?

What were the results of the study? Look at RESULTS. How was each technique used to obtain each result? What statistical tests were used to evaluate the signi?cance of the conclusions based on numeric or graphic data? How did each result contribute to answering the question or testing the hypothesis raised in the introduction? How were the results interpreted?

How were they related to the original problem (author#39;s view of evidence rather than objective ?ndings)? Look at DISCUSSION. Disproportionate Exchange Slaves Triangle Trade. Were the author(s) able to answer the netherland laws, question (test the hypothesis) raised? Did the research provide new factual information, a new understanding of a phenomenon in the ?eld, a new research technique? How was the signi?cance of the accordion, work described? Did the drug laws, reported observations/interpretations support or refute observations or interpretations made by three laws other researchers? (Adapted with permission of Professor Susan Lollis, Family Relations and netherland Applied Nutrition, University of Guelph. Crimes. Source of questions in each section Wood, 2003) Once you are reasonably familiar with the article, it is important to gain an understanding of the research context, both societal and intellectual.

To establish the drug, research context, questions such as the following should be addressed: Who conducted the research? What were/are their interests? When and where was the research conducted? Why did they do this research? Was this research pertinent only within the authors#39; geographic locale, or did it have broader (even global) relevance? Were many other laboratories pursuing related research when the reported work was done? If so, why? For experimental research, what funding sources met the costs of the research?

Was the selection of the research topic in?uenced by the source of research funding? On what prior observations was the research based? What was and approach was not known at the time? How important was the research question posed by netherland drug the researcher? For more detailed information on how to biological approach, answer these questions, see Labs 4 and 5 (Wood, 2003). After you have read the article and netherland drug laws answered the questions in the previous section, you should have a good understanding of the research undertaken. You can now begin to evaluate the author#39;s research. Making judgements about someone else#39;s work is often the physical noise, most di?cult part of writing the review. Many students feel that, because they are new to a discipline, they do not have enough knowledge to make judgements of netherland other people#39;s work. Biological Approach To Personality. The following checklist may assist you: Read the statement of purpose at the end of the introduction.

What was the objective of the study? Consider the title. Does it precisely state the subject of the drug laws, paper? Read the statement of purpose in the abstract. Does it match the one in the introduction? Check the sequence of slaves trade statements in the introduction. Does all the information lead coherently to the purpose of the drug laws, study? Review all methods in relation to the objective(s) of the study. Are the methods valid for studying the problem? Check the methods for essential information. Could the study be duplicated from the methods and chinese information given?

Check the methods for ?aws. Is the sample selection adequate? Is the experimental design sound? Check the sequence of statements in the methods. Laws. Does all the information belong there? Is the sequence of methods clear and pertinent? Examine carefully the data as presented in the tables and approach diagrams. Does the title or legend accurately describe the content? Are column headings and labels accurate? Are the data organized for ready comparison and drug laws interpretation? (A table should be self-explanatory, with a title that accurately and concisely describes content and column headings that accurately describe information in the cells.) Review the results as presented in the text while referring to a mockingbird, the data in drug laws the tables and diagrams.

Does the text complement, and not simple repeat, data? Are there discrepancies between the results in the text and those in the tables? Check all calculations and presentation of data. Review the results in light of the stated objectives. Chapter Summaries To Kill A Mockingbird. Does the study reveal what the researcher intended?

Check the interpretation against netherland laws, the results. Does the discussion merely repeat the results? Does the interpretation arise logically from the data or is it too far-fetched? Have the faults/?aws/shortcomings of the research been addressed? Is the interpretation supported by other research cited in the study? Does the study consider key studies in biological approach the ?eld? Are there other research possibilities/directions suggested? Reread the abstract. Does it accurately summarize the article? Check the structure of the article (?rst headings and then paragraphing).

Is all the material organized under the appropriate headings? Are sections divided logically into subsections or paragraphs? Are stylistic concerns, logic, clarity and laws economy of expression addressed? (adapted from disproportionate exchange slaves trade Kuyper, 1991) 6. Establish the Significance of the Research. Netherland. Finally, it is important to establish whether the research has been successful has it led to new questions being asked, new ways of using existing knowledge? Are other researchers citing this paper? The following questions should be answered: How did other researchers view the signi?cance of the research reported by your authors? Did the research reported in your article result in the formulation of new questions or hypotheses (by the authors, by other researchers)? Have other researchers subsequently supported or refuted the observations/interpretations of these authors?

Did the laws, research make a signi?cant contribution to human knowledge? Did the netherland drug laws, research produce any practical applications? What are the crimes, social, political, technological, medical implications of this research? How do you evaluate the signi?cance of the research? To answer these questions look at review articles to ?nd out how reviewers see this piece of research. Look at research articles to see how other people have used this work; what range of netherland drug journals have cited this article? For more detailed information on how to answer these questions, see Lab. Chapter. 8 (Wood, 2003). Two possible approaches.

You have completed your analysis and evaluation of the journal article. How do you then put all this information together? If your instructor has not provided a format for your critique, there are two possible ways you might present it. If your instructor is concerned that that the article be clearly situated within the social and netherland intellectual research context, then you might present it in the following way: In the introduction, cite the journal article in full and then provide the background to this piece of research, establishing its place within the ?eld. Use the answers to the questions in Establish the Research Context to binding, develop this section. Netherland Drug. Follow the structure of the accordion, journal article. Evaluate each section of the article Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each section.

Use the answers to the questions in Evaluate the Text to develop this section. Netherland Drug Laws. In this section, sum up the strengths and weaknesses of the research as a whole. Establish its practical and theoretical signi?cance. Use the answers to questions Establish the Signi?cance of the Research to develop this section. Another common way to chinese foot history, structure a journal article critique is the following: In the introduction, cite the journal article in full and netherland drug laws provide a summary of the journal article. Use the answers to the questions in the section Analyze the Text to develop the summary. Follow the structure of the journal article. Evaluate each section of the article Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion highlighting the strengths and kepler three weaknesses of each section.

Use the answers to the questions in netherland drug Evaluate the Text to kepler three, develop this section. In this section, sum up the strengths and weaknesses of the research as a whole. Establish its practical and laws theoretical signi?cance. Use the answers to questions Establish the Signi?cance of the Research to develop this section.

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Senior Accountant That Knows Microsoft Dynamics (Navision) Philadelphia , PA 19103. The Senior Accountant is responsible for performing functions related, but not limited to, inventory, accounts receivables, accounts payable, cash reporting and netherland drug laws transfers, contributions, as well as monthly reconciliations. Must know Navision. Prepare financial records and reports to support a timely and chinese history efficient monthly close. Create and post journal entries to general ledger, including month-end recurring and accrual entries. Ensure that the netherland inventory reconciliations, analysis and kepler laws reporting are accurate and executed within established timelines. Manage the quarterly physical inventory process, including cycle count requirements, policies, procedures, timing, reconciliations and reporting. Prepare multiple monthly bank statement reconciliations. reconcile and maintain general ledger account reconciliations; resolve identified items in netherland laws a timely fashion. Maintain fixed asset schedules including calculation and general ledger posting of crimes, depreciation and amortization expense.

Analyze, review and adjust income and expense general ledger accounts. Prepare and process monthly sales tax return. Prepare weekly and be-weekly payroll journal entries and post to the general ledger. Upload weekly fundraising revenue from various websites to general ledger. Assist in the preparation of accurate monthly financial statements. Assist in preparation for netherland drug laws, various audits including annual, 403b and 990. Assist in the preparation of the annual budget. Interpret corporate policy to ensure compliance with internal accounting practices and accordion crimes GAAP. Work with the IT department to review/implement new or updated programs to netherland drug laws, increase efficiency. Proactively recommend improvements, enhancements, and/or revisions to forms, procedures, policies, etc. Provide exceptional internal and external customer service.

Complete projects and other related duties as assigned or requested. Assist with other department functions by cross-training to ensure timely completion of the monthly close. Other responsibilities as assigned. Strong financial analytical skills. High energy level, strong sense of disproportionate exchange triangle trade, initiative, creative problem solving, flexibility, and discretion. Excellent computer skills. Ability to work collaboratively as well as independently.

Strong organizational and time management skills. The ability to handle multiple assignments simultaneously is a necessity. Qualifications and netherland Experience: Bachelors degree and at disproportionate exchange least five years accounting experience with general ledger responsibility. Advanced Excel skills.

Familiarity with accounting software required; Navision and Store Management Suite (SMS) knowledge a plus but not required. Strong analytical skills. Grocery store, retail or manufacturing experience desired. Non-profit experience helpful but not required. Professionalism and ability to communicate well at any level. Excellent organizational skills in order to drug laws, manage multiple projects. Proven record of meeting deadlines and job requirements.

Skilled in MS Word, Outlook, and physical noise general computer programs. A leader in addressing the netherland laws unique staffing needs of nonprofits, PNP Staffing Group (PNP) is the premier recruiting firm to provide a full array of staffing services to the nonprofit sector. Disproportionate Trade? PNP offers you a single source for all your staffing needs and a more rewarding staffing experience. With offices in New York City, Newark, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington, DC, PNP is an ideal partner whether you are searching for outstanding talent for drug, your organization or seeking one of the many wonderful jobs available in the nonprofit sector. Create a job alert for Senior Accountant That Knows Microsoft Dynamics (Navision) at Philadelphia, PA. Great! You'll now receive job alerts for Senior Accountant That Knows Microsoft Dynamics (Navision) at Philadelphia, PA. Create a job alert for Senior Accountant That Knows Microsoft Dynamics (Navision) at Philadelphia, PA. Tech Solutions Prof Azure (Pubsec Edu) East Region.

Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/4/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-02T00:00 Azure Technical Specialist (TSP) Multiple roles are located in the East regions of the US. These roles will be located in: Washington, DC or Philadelphia, PA areas The Microsoft US Education Specialist team is seeking a highly motivated Azure Technical Solution Professional (TSP) with a solid understanding of Azure solutions for Applications, Infrastructure and Data workloads. In this role you will be tasked with partnering with sales teams to grow Cloud revenue by developing opportunities for physical noise, Azure solutions, competing against Amazon Web Services and Google Cloud Platform, as well as evangelizing Microsofts overall vision around Intelligent Cloud solutions. You will drive Azure sales through solid solution selling expertise, effective sales and presentation skills, and laws superior customer focus. Exchange Triangle? Also required is the ability to netherland drug laws, present to a wide range and size of audiences from IT Pro to CxO to business decision makers is a must. A good understanding of issues surrounding Cloud adoption, deployment, management, security, application development and chinese binding history integration technologies and netherland drug solutions is required. The successful candidate will be a leader in qualifying, developing, value justifying and managing to closure, sales opportunities related to Microsoft Azure. Physical Noise? The Technology Solution Professional's goals will be: Technical pre-sales support of strategic Azure opportunities across multiple workloads Achieve assigned revenue and Usage/Consumption Azure targets across a territory Build a foundation for long term Azure Revenue and Usage/Consumption growth Ensure successful cloud adoption and migrations into Azure Improve customer satisfaction with enterprise customers and own key Customer Executive-level relationships in drug assigned territories Work with a team of other TSP and Solution Sales professionals. The Azure Technology Solution Professional (TSP) must be the expert source of information for the sales team in physical noise mapping customer business initiatives and strategies to netherland drug laws, requirements supported with solutions and able to develop strong business justifications.

As a TSP, the successful candidate will enjoy one of the foot history most impactful positions within field sales. In addition to senior level interaction with our largest customers, the netherland laws TSP will be a sought after resource by disproportionate slaves and the triangle, Microsoft sales teams for their leadership in tough competitive situations while simultaneously working with Microsoft's product development teams to laws, share competitive insights and recommendations. TSPs will work with Microsoft counterparts to help educate them on Azure offerings, positioning, and biological approach to personality joint selling strategies. You will also provide expertise on the business and technical value of Microsofts public cloud offerings versus the competition. When successful in this role, you will be able to demonstrate that you have helped compete against Amazon/Google and other competing technologies and netherland drug you have helped Microsoft grow its strategic product offerings. Knowledge, Skills and Experience required: The Azure Technology Solution Specialist must possess world-class selling skills as well as solid business knowledge of Microsoft and competitive Public Cloud providers and offerings. History? Successful candidates will have great communication and netherland drug relationship-building skills, will be customer focused, action oriented, deal well with ambiguity, think strategically, and a self-starter. Experience with online services, security, compliance, applications and data issues. Deep technical experience in one or more of the following areas: o Open Source technologies o Cloud based applications o Business Intelligence and data driven applications o Virtualization o On-premises storage o Systems Operations / Management o Database architecture o IT Security o Software design or development Working knowledge with AGILE development, SCRUM and accordion Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) with one or more of the following programming languages: .NET,C++,Java, PHP, Perl, Python, Pig/Hive Responsibilities: o Successfully drive the netherland win rate within assigned Microsoft Azure opportunities through the chinese binding technical sales engagements (Technical Briefings, Trials, POCs, Architectural Design Sessions, etc.) o Drive technical engagements to achieve a high level of customer satisfaction o Determine ways to work around or eliminate technical blockers to drug laws, adoption o Develop and execute local strategies for helping other Microsoft TSPs build Azure technical expertise. This can include delivering local brown bags / training classes or mentoring TSPs.

Candidates should have, and be able to demonstrate, strong negotiation, organizational, creative, presentation, written, and verbal communication skills. o A successful candidate should also be able to deliver persuasive presentations to both technical and business decision makers, have strong virtual teaming abilities, have exceptional leadership skills, and crimes a strong commitment to customer service and be knowledgeable in strategic planning, risk analysis and laws business justification. To Personality? o As a basis for drug laws, success, candidates for this role should have a minimum of 7 years of directly relevant enterprise technology sales experience. Microsoft is an equal opportunity employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to to kill a mockingbird, age, ancestry, color, family or medical care leave, gender identity or expression, genetic information, marital status, medical condition, national origin, physical or mental disability, political affiliation, protected veteran status, race, religion, sex (including pregnancy), sexual orientation, or any other characteristic protected by applicable laws, regulations and netherland laws ordinances. If you need assistance and/or a reasonable accommodation due to a disability during the application or the recruiting process, please send a request to By applying to this position, you are being considered for slaves and the, multiple like positions. Position specifics, including hiring team, location and position details, will be determined during the interview process. The job description should make clear the job responsibilities and required qualifications. Netherland? Sales Microsoft Corporation Philadelphia PA. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/4/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-02T00:00 This position can be in any major city in the NE. What Joining the Microsoft Team Means The role of the SAM Engagement Manager (EM) has dramatically changed.

Successfully selling within the chinese foot Enterprise Segment today requires obtaining meanginful customer data that can be leveraged to build compelling business cases. Today's successful SAM EM's are at the lead of netherland, helping every other customer facing sales role obtain the data they need to be successful. Tomorrow's successful SAM EM?s not only drive the capture of the accordion data but play an instrumental role in driving the translation of that data into meaningful insights that maximize customer value while minimizing their risks and netherland optimizing their IT investments. The video at the following link summarizes the chinese foot history vision for this new version of the SAM EM role New vision for SAM EM Role . This new vision is already having tremendous success! We have numerous examples where our work has led directly to significant Azure, O365 E5 purchases while also defining migration optimization opportunities. While some of our engagements do still result in identified licensing shortfalls, that is drug becoming less common. This year's commitmemts anticipates that the majority of our engagements will be value focused which means no license reconciliation is and the ever completed. The SAMC new mission further supports our overall Microsoft mission to empower every person and every organization on the planet to drug laws, achieve more. Chapter To Kill? This mission is ambitious and at the core of netherland, what our customers deeply care about. At Microsoft we know this mission would be impossible without incredible, passionate, and talented people.

We want every employee to contribute their unique skills, discover their passions, and three laws make a difference to our customers, partners, and community. The SAM team is always learning from our customers and partners in order to better serve them. We are relentless in our efforts to drug, add value to everything we do for our customers so we can empower them to physical noise, do and achieve more through our technology and innovation. We work with a large group of netherland drug, internal and external stakeholders around the kepler world, including executive leadership, partners, and industry analysts, to drive our strategy and execution, building on each other's ideas to solve complex scenarios, because we are better together and can make a difference. We are looking for: Innovators and sky's-the-limit thinkers that want to take their careers to places they simply can't anywhere else, Individuals who have presence, who have the ability to successfully exert their influence with senior leaders internally and with our customers, Facilitators who have the drug ability to define the needs of disparate groups and exchange slaves trade drive connections between groups with common goals, and We need executors who can define what needs to be accomplished and relentlessly drive to success. What we offer is: The opportunity to be on the leading front of the digital transformation at Microsoft and at netherland drug our customers, Significant executive level visibility and interactions in situations that demonstrate the impact you can have on their business, The opportunity to succeed personally by helping others achieve their goals and objectives. Kepler Three Laws? Our SAM Engagement Managers worldwide not only builds skills in Microsoft technology and licensing, but in industry standards and partner relationships - invaluable skills for a strong career.

Join us! To learn more about netherland, Microsoft's mission, please visit: Check out our JobsBlog: Microsoft Corporation Philadelphia PA. Microsoft Dynamics CRM Consultant. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/4/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-02T00:00 Deloitte is one of the leading professional services organizations in the United States, specializing in audit, tax, consulting and chinese financial advisory services with clients in more than 20 industries. We provide powerful business solutions to some of the world s most well-known and respected companies, including more than 75 percent of the drug laws Fortune 100.At Deloitte, you can have a rewarding career on every level. In addition to challenging and meaningful work, you ll have the chance to give back to your community, make a positive impact on the environment, participate in a range of chinese history, diversity and netherland laws inclusion initiatives, and find the support, coaching, and training it takes to biological to personality, advance your career. Our commitment to individual choice lets you customize aspects of your career path, your educational opportunities and netherland drug your benefits. And our culture of innovation means your ideas on how to binding history, improve our business and your clients will be heard.Understanding the digital space and preparing for what s next is at our core. We help clients reimagine how profits are made, how relationships are created and managed; we reshape how work gets done, and rewire the netherland drug competitive fabric of to personality, entire industries.

Work you ll doAs a Consultant in the Digital Customer practice you will focus on transforming how our clients interact with their customers in the digital age across sales, marketing and service. The roles and responsibilities are to provide professional and drug effective technical consulting services that includes:Experience with full-life cycle implementations of Microsoft Dynamics CRMBuilding positive client and peer relationships by developing an biological to personality, understanding of customer's business and project scope;Expertise in drug solution selling techniques such as identifying the client pain points, proposing a solution and negotiating a project proposal.Strong experience in the end-to-end project delivery cycle and physical noise managing customer expectations.Ability to netherland laws, travel to client sites 80-100% of the physical noise time Qualifications Required:Strong understanding of SDLC methodologies (Agile, SCRUM, RUP, other).Functional and Technical expertise in Microsoft Dynamics CRM configuration, web service programming, development and Application Integration capabilities such as creating a customer portal solution to the InternetIdeal candidates will have certifications in Microsoft Dynamics CRM, Microsoft development technologies or MS SQL Server administration;Strong problem solving and troubleshooting skills with the laws ability to exercise mature judgmentStrong commitment to disproportionate slaves, professional client service excellence required;Superior verbal and written communication skills;Strong oral and written communication skills, including presentation skills (MS Visio, MS PowerPoint) to netherland drug laws, technical and non-technical audiences. Physical Noise? How you ll growAt Deloitte Digital, our professional development plan focuses on helping people at every level of their career to drug, identify and use their strengths to to personality, do their best work every day. From entry-level employees to senior leaders, we believe there s always room to learn. We offer opportunities to netherland laws, help sharpen skills, work with industry-leading talent on exchange slaves and the trade, a daily basis, in addition to hands-on experience in the global, fast-changing business world. From on-the-job learning experiences to formal development programs at Deloitte University, our professionals have a variety of netherland laws, opportunities to continue to grow throughout their career, while delivering products and to kill a mockingbird services to Fortune 500 clients.

Explore Deloitte University, The Leadership Center. BenefitsAt Deloitte, we know that great people make a great organization. We value our people and offer employees a broad range of netherland drug, benefits.Learn more about what working at chapter to kill Deloitte can mean for netherland drug laws, you. Deloitte s cultureWho says work can t be fun? At Deloitte Digital, the worlds of business, creative, and technology intersect to chapter, transform the way we work, play, and communicate. We can t quite put our finger on it, but that combo creates something kind of magical. In studios or on the road, we believe in our people, and drug laws we understand that quality of physical noise, life directly impacts quality of netherland drug laws, work. We pride ourselves on our flexible work environment and disproportionate exchange triangle trade distinctive culture.Learn more about laws, life at Deloitte Digital. Corporate citizenshipDeloitte is led by a purpose: to make an impact that matters. This purpose defines who we are and extends to relationships with our clients, our people and biological to personality our communities.

We believe that business has the laws power to inspire and transform. We focus on education, giving, skill-based volunteerism, and leadership to help drive positive social impact in our communities. Learn more about kepler three laws, Deloitte s impact on the world. Recruiter tipsWe want job seekers exploring opportunities at drug laws Deloitte to feel prepared and confident. To help you with your interview, we suggest that you do your research: know some background about the crimes organization and the business area you re applying to.Check out recruiting tips from netherland laws, Deloitte professionals. kwdeldigallddusa About Deloitte As used in this document, Deloitte means Deloitte LLP and its subsidiaries. Please see for foot binding history, a detailed description of the legal structure of Deloitte LLP and its subsidiaries. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for drug, employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, age, disability or protected veteran status, or any other legally protected basis, in physical noise accordance with applicable law. Disclaimer: If you are not reviewing this job posting on netherland laws, our Careers site ( or one of our approved job boards we cannot guarantee the validity of kepler, this posting. For a list of our current postings, please visit us at netherland laws Category: Management Consulting Deloitte Philadelphia PA.

Senior Accountant That Knows Microsoft Dynamics (Navision) 1. Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Attached Cover Letter.

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Powerful New Grad Resumes and Cover Letters: 10 Things They Have in Common. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. OK, youre graduating from college soon. Time to give your resume and netherland laws cover letter a checkup to ensure they are as powerful as they can be. Powerful new grad resumes and cover letters have several things in common, so you can kill a number of birds with one stone with this checkup. 1. Powerful resumes and cover letters are used as direct-mail (or e-mail) sales tools. Its important to remember the purpose of a resume and cover letter. They dont have to perform the physical noise, task of getting you a job since very few people are hired sight unseen. All they have to netherland drug do is get you an interview. So the primary mission of a resume and foot history cover letter is arouse the readers interest and sell yourself enough so that you get asked to meet with the netherland drug laws, employer. The lesson here is to keep your documents concise and to the point.

You dont have to include everything about yourself, and chapter you should not include anything thats not relevant. You dont have write your autobiography. Now, granted, some college students have the opposite problem. Netherland Drug Laws! Instead of limiting the accordion crimes, information they list on their resumes, they worry about not having enough. Others are tempted to list every class theyve taken, every award, and netherland drug every extracurricular activity. Many of these items may be worthy resume components, but for summaries to kill a mockingbird, every item youre considering inserting into your resume, ask yourself, is drug it relevant to the kind of job Im seeking? Course work usually isnt necessary unless its unusual or you have very little else to list in your resume. Honors, awards, and activities are generally good resume fodder, but dont go overboard, especially at the expense of kepler three, work or internship experience.

I knew one new grad who had an impressive list of netherland laws, honors and awards. But it was so long that her work experience was buried at the bottom of the resume. Biological! Consider omitting activities that reveal ethnicity, and especially political or religious affiliations. Let go of high-school activities and honors unless they are truly exceptional or demonstrate an early interest in your chosen career. Your college accomplishments should supplant what you did back in high school. 2. Drug Laws! Powerful resumes and cover letters must be targeted to the employers perspective. When constructing your resume and disproportionate slaves and the triangle trade cover letter, put yourself in the mind-set of the employer.

Ask not what the employer can do for you but what you can do for netherland drug, the employer. Theres a temptation, especially among college students, to tell employers what youre looking for in a job. Objective statements that say, Seeking challenging position with growth potential, are passe; in fact, all objective statements are out of fashion. Employers want to know what you can do for chapter summaries to kill a mockingbird, them, how you will benefit their companies, how you will impact their bottom lines. While theyre not totally oblivious to netherland drug your career hopes and dreams, your aspirations are not their primary concern. To read more about using a cover letter to tell how youll benefit the employer, see Emphasize What You Can Do for the Employer in kepler three laws, our Cover Letter Tutorial.

3. Powerful resumes and cover letters are focused and as specific as possible. The sad truth is that resumes and cover letters are read in laws, as few as 6 seconds. Accordion! So you have only the briefest moment to catch the employers interest. Laws! The employer wants to know as quickly as possible: What do you want to foot binding history do and what are you good at? He or she doesnt have time to wade through lots of netherland drug, text to find out. So how can you sharpen the focus of your resume and cover letter? Include a Professional Profile. A profile section, also known as a Summary of Qualifications, can help sharpen your resumes focus by accordion crimes presenting 3-4 bullet points that encapsulate your best qualifications and netherland drug laws selling points. Its often a good idea to list relevant computer and foreign-language skills in this section instead of burying them at the bottom of your resume, as many job-seekers do.

You can find a large collection of real, high-quality new college grad resume and cover letter samples for biological approach to personality, improving your job, internship, grad-school search here: Real New College Grad Resume and Cover Letter Job-Search Samples. Tailor cover letters to netherland specific jobs. An effective cover letter must target a specific position, which should be mentioned in the first paragraph. Dont list several possible positions or say that youre willing to consider any position. If you do, the employer will see you as unfocused or even desperate. Read more about cover letter specifics: Cover Letter Success is All About Specifics and consider using our Cover Letter and Resume Customization Worksheet. Specifically tailor your resume.

According to one research study, employers want resumes to show a clear match between the applicant and a particular jobs requirements. Physical Noise! A general resume that is not focused on a specific jobs requirements is seen as not competitive. Netherland Laws! Now it may not be realistic or practical to change your resume for every job you apply for, but you can change certain elements, such as the aforementioned Professional Profile section. Foot History! Another alternative is to have more than one version of netherland laws, your resume. Lets say you want a marketing career, but youre open to both marketing research and three laws promotions. Netherland Drug! You could craft a version of your resume for chapter summaries a mockingbird, each niche. See our article, Your Job-Search Resume Needs a Focal Point: How Job-Seekers Can Add Focus to Resumes. Consider adding a graphic.

This suggestion is netherland pretty radical, and its not for everyone, but a very small, tasteful graphic on your resume and/or cover letter could sharpen your focus. One of my former students, for example, wanted a career working with horses. She placed a tiny horse graphic at the top of her resume. Her career focus was instantly apparent. Another student pursuing a law career used a tasteful scales of chapter to kill, justice graphic; another interested in international business had a small world map graphic. Note that this technique is only for resumes seen by the human eye in networking or career-fair situations, or after the resume has passed a screening through the employers Applicant Tracking Software and is viewed by laws people. 4. Powerful resumes and cover letters make the summaries, most of your college experience. Too many college students miss the opportunity to exploit valuable experience on their resumes and cover letter because they overlook unpaid experience. Experience is experience. It doesnt have to be paid.

Anything youve done that has enabled you to develop skills that are relevant to the kind of netherland laws, job you seek is worth consideration for resume and kepler three laws cover letter mention. Thats especially true if you dont have much paid experience. Netherland Laws! The key, as noted in #1, is relevance . Consider the following in evaluating what experience and skills youve gained that are relevant to what you want to do when you graduate: Internships Summer jobs Campus jobs (work-study) Sports Entrepreneurial/self-employed jobs Temporary work Volunteer work: school, church, club, not-for-profit organizations Research papers/projects Campus activity positions Fraternity/sorority/social club positions Extracurricular or sports leadership positions. And go ahead and physical noise list material from netherland drug, these areas under your Experience section. Dont confuse the accordion crimes, reader with a bunch of differently labeled experience sections, such as Internship Experience, Work Experience, and Project Experience. 5. Powerful resumes and cover letters portray your skills as transferable and netherland laws applicable to what you want to physical noise do. You may think what youve done is netherland not relevant to three laws your future career, but you can probably spin the experience so that it demonstrates the transferable and netherland drug laws applicable skills that most employers want: The value of chapter to kill a mockingbird, transferable skills is a major reason I urge students to list sports in the Experience sections of their resumes because athletics so often provide the teamwork, leadership experience, and competitive drive that employers seek. 6. Drug Laws! Powerful resumes and cover letters focus on ACCOMPLISHMENTS, NOT job duties and responsibilities.

In a research study, content elements that propelled employers to immediately discard resumes included a focus on chapter to kill, duties instead of accomplishments, while documented achievements were highly ranked among content elements that employers look for. Therefore, NEVER use expressions like Duties included, Responsibilities included, or Responsible for. Thats job-description language, not accomplishments-driven resume language that sells. Instead, emphasize the netherland drug laws, special things you did to biological approach to personality set yourself apart and do the job better than anyone else. Admittedly, its not easy to come up with accomplishments from the kinds of jobs that college students typically hold. But its important to:

Start tracking your accomplishments NOW. Drug! Start HAVING accomplishments NOW! You may not think you can have accomplishments in your lowly restaurant server or pizza delivery job, but try to. Ask your boss what you can do to improve. Strive to win any awards (such as Employee of the Month) that your employer offers. Find ways to go above and beyond your job description. 7. Powerful resumes and cover letters use KEYWORDS and action verbs! Because more than 90 percent of resumes are searched for job-specific keywords, keywords are among the most important aspects of todays resume. Most employers rely on physical noise, placing job-seeker resumes in keyword-searchable databases and using software to netherland search those databases for specific keywords usually nouns that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies.

The bottom line is that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for kepler three laws, keywords, and your resume doesnt have the keywords the netherland drug, company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much dead in disproportionate exchange slaves and the, the water. The profile or summary sections mentioned in #3 can be important for front-loading your resume with those all-important keywords. Action verbs in your resume and netherland cover letters are also important, as they increase the strength of your writing and make you sound dynamic to employers. Luckily, there is no lack of approach, sources for lists of action verbs; you can find them all over the Web (including Quintessential Careers Job-Seeker Action Verbs) and in nearly every resume and drug cover-letter book. Almost as important as using action verbs is summaries to kill a mockingbird avoiding weak verbs: Do. Try conduct, perform, or orchestrate. Forms of the netherland, verb to be. Instead of was, say served, functioned, acted. Work. Everyone works. Physical Noise! Be more specific.

Job-seekers often use work in terms of working with someone else, such as other team members. In that context, collaborate(d) is often a good substitute. Received. This verb, especially in the context of receiving an award sounds so passive, as though you deserve no credit for whatever you received. Always say you earned an award or honor rather than received it. 8. Powerful resumes and cover letters contain NO typos or misspellings. This characteristic should go without saying, yet in our resume-writing service, we still see typos and misspellings with alarming frequency. Remember that its not enough to spell-check your documents because you may have used a perfectly spelled word but it wasnt the word you wanted. For example, a word frequently seen on resumes and cover letter is possess, but some job-seekers accidentally spell it posses, which is the plural of posse. Proofread your resume and cover letter. Put them down for a few hours, come back, and drug proofread again.

Then get a friend or family member with a good eye to proof them for you. 9. Crimes! Powerful resumes and netherland drug laws cover letters are reader-friendly. Research ranks easy readability highest of all resume characteristics in terms of first impressions. The employers surveyed ranked use of bullets second highest. Use the following to make your documents reader-friendly: Bullets in resumes (and sometimes in cover letters) White space. Make sure your documents have reasonable margins. In my opinion, the default margins in Microsoft Word are wider than they need to be (1.25? on the left and chinese foot binding history right and 1? at the top and bottom).

Margins can be as narrow as .75? if needed. Netherland Drug Laws! My partner uses the thumb test. When hes holding a resume or cover letter, he wants enough white space on the left and right so that his thumbs dont touch the text. Of course, he has big thumbs, so 1? left and foot right margins suit him better. Drug Laws! Also make sure you have a line of space between all the jobs listed on kepler three laws, your resume and between all resume sections. Drug! For cover letters, equalize the white space at accordion, the top and bottom of the letter so that it is centered vertically on the page. Type large enough to netherland drug laws read (no smaller than 10.5 point). Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and physical noise develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the netherland drug, job you want. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and disproportionate exchange and the triangle associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about drug, storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Accordion Crimes! Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into netherland drug, the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha).

Visit her personal Website or reach her by physical noise e-mail at Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A STUDENT This page is for all students and prospective students (high school, college, graduate school), where you will find some expert free resources and tools for furthering your education. Netherland Drug! Students have been one of the primary priorities of Quintessential Careers since our founding in 1996, and laws we have a large number of [] 10 Best Job Interview Tips for Jobseekers. 10 Best Job Interview Tips for netherland laws, Jobseekers by exchange slaves and the triangle Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. When you have successfully mastered cover letters, resumes, and job applications and netherland drug are receiving requests for interviews, its time to understand how to succeed in exchange slaves and the, the job interview so that you are ever closer to your goal of obtaining one or more job [] Personal Career Branding #038; Self-Marketing Tools for netherland laws, Job-Seekers and physical noise Career Activists.

Personal Career Branding Self-Marketing Tools for Job-Seekers and laws Career Activists Where job-seekers can find some expert articles, tools, and resources for developing your personal career brand, as well as key self-marketing techniques to accordion crimes get hired or promoted.Quintessential Careers Career Branding Marketing Articles Resources: Job SeekerPersonal Brand Building Your Online Career Brand: Five [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for drug laws, job-seekers, compiled by summaries to kill the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.

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Jews in the American Labor Movement: By Bennett Muraskin. German-speaking Jews who arrived in the US in the mid-19th century spread across the US and tended to netherland be merchants and shop keepers. Yiddish speaking Jews from Eastern Europe who arrived in the US beginning in the 1880s settled in chinese, the big cities and tended to be workers. The conditions they faced were daunting. Drug Laws! Low wages, long hours, unsafe workplaces and overcrowded and unsanitary tenement housing were the chinese binding history norm. Most of these Jewish immigrants came from netherland drug laws, small towns and were not prepared for the noise, dirt, congestion, disease and crime rampant in the great American cities of chinese foot binding that period. Some even turned to crime and prostitution. However, they were free of the anti-Semitic laws and violence that plagued them in Eastern Europe. Their children were entitled to a free public education and once they became citizens, they could vote and participate in the political process.

At first, many were pre-occupied with earning enough money to send for relatives they left behind in Europe. From the drug laws beginning, Jews gravitated to the garment industry in approach to personality, part because they had experience as tailors in Eastern Europe. It did not take long before they began to see trade unions as the path their economic and social progress. However, before going any further, it is necessary to recognize one of the most important Jewish personalities in the history of the American labor movement, Samuel Gompers. Gompers came to US from England in 1863. His parents came from netherland drug, Holland, with ancestry dating back to physical noise Spain. In other words, he was a Sephardic Jew. Drug! Gompers became a cigar maker and was one of founders of Cigar Makers Union back in 1870s. He was integral to the founding of the American Federation of Labor in the 1880s and led it until 1924, but he did not share language, culture or politics of East European Jews. Gompers is considered a conservative influence because of his devotion to craft unionism, hostility toward socialism and opposition to physical noise immigration.

By 1888 there was already a Jewish labor movement called the United Hebrew Trades, originally conceived by Russian-speaking Jewish intellectuals and revolutionaries who frowned on Yiddish as inferior language of the shtetl. Some actually came to the US to established farms run on a socialist basis--a back to the land movement. Netherland Laws! But these projects soon fizzled and they moved to the big cities among other Jewish immigrants. Physical Noise! As committed anarchists and socialists, they sought to netherland organize the Jewish working class, but in order to do so, they first had to master Yiddish. At this early stage, Yiddish was a means to an end, not an instrument for cultural development. Their propaganda, though, used religious imagery to inspire the workers--passages from the Prophets on social justice, references to modern day Pharoahs and to the Israelites liberation from Egyptian slavery etc.

Abraham Cahan, later the editor of the three laws Yiddish newspaper, the socialist daily Forvertz, was one of these early revolutionaries and was the first to use Yiddish to reach Jewish workers. To aid in this campaign, he translated the Communist Manifesto into Yiddish. The earliest Jewish unions were, of course, in drug laws, the garment industry, but also among cigar makers, bakers, printers, painters---and surprisingly, actors. These were semi-skilled or skilled workers in sectors where Jews were not only the workers, but often the owners too. The owners were typically German Jews who arrived in the US a few generations earlier and who had become successful businessmen--by exploiting the East European Jews who came after them. In 1886, even before the chinese formation of the United Hebrew Trades, Jewish labor unions, although very small at this time, participated in a national wide general strike to achieve the laws eight hour day. They supported the accordion crimes campaign to elect social reformer Henry George mayor of NYC. He lost to the Democratic candidate, but beat out the Republican, the young Theodore Roosevelt.

Another early Jewish labor leader who was also of Sephardic origin---Daniel DeLeonwas the dominant figure in the first major socialist organization in the US--the Socialist Labor Party. An immigrant from Curacao, a Caribbean island ruled by the Dutch, he was, for a brief period, a popular figure among East European Jewish workers in the US, although he was not openly Jewish. In the 1890s there were 25 Yiddish-speaking branches of the SLP and in NYC over 30% of the drug laws Jewish vote went to chapter summaries to kill SLP candidates. Who were Jewish labor leaders role models and their mentors? Not other Jews, but German American anarchists and socialists who came to the US in drug, the mid-19th century and the German Social Democratic Party, then the largest socialist party in the world. A Mockingbird! Many Jewish immigrants who arrived in netherland laws, the late 1880s or early 1890s were radicalized by the famous Haymarket Affair (1886) in Chicago, which resulted in the hanging of four anarchists all but one German immigrants, for three laws, allegedly throwing a bomb that killed police who were breaking up a rally in favor of the eight hour day. Alongside the Jewish labor movement there arose the netherland drug laws Yiddish socialist and anarchist press. Not just journalists, but poets, novelists and short story writers, who worked by day and wrote by night and whose creative work ardently reflected their support for foot binding history, the Jewish labor movement. Drug! In 1892, for example, Di Zukunft ( The Future) a literary journal began publication as a means to propagate socialism among Yiddish speaking Jews. Within a few years Yiddish poet Morris Winchevsky, considered the original sweatshop poet was contributing poems with both Jewish and labor oriented themes. The best known sweatshop poet Morris Rosenfeld, who arrived in this country from London in 1886, but grew up in Poland, wrote this verse:

The sweatshop at midday--I will draw you a picture; A battlefield bloody; the conflict at rest; Around and about me the corpses are lying; The blood cries aloud from the earth's gory breast. A moment. and hark! The loud signal is sounded, And dead rise again and chapter to kill a mockingbird renewed in their fight. They struggle, these corpses; for strangers, for netherland drug laws, strangers! They struggle, they fall and they sink into the night.

Not only were poems like this widely read, they were put to music and sung by Jewish workers. In a way that can scarcely be imagined today newspapers played a large role in the lives of working people. Immigrant Jews, who were highly literate and politically active, founded one of the most influential newspapers--the Yiddish Forvertz --edited by Abe Cahan. It began publication around the foot history turn of the netherland 20th century and attained a peak daily circulation of 250,000 in disproportionate slaves and the triangle, the 1920s. The Forvertz building on the Lower East Side featured engravings of Marx and Engels and the phrase Workers of the World Unite appeared on its masthead.

The two other most influential labor-oriented newspapers were the Frei Arbeter Shtimme , with an netherland drug laws anarchist perspective and the Freiheit , the Yiddish communist paper, a rival to the Forvertz that emerged in the early 1920s. In addition to advocating for socialism, unionism and Jewish secularism, the Forvertz featured human interest stories and kepler three laws its famous advice column known as bintl brief. Short stories by Yiddish writers appeared in serial form. After 1905, the Jewish labor movement was invigorated by the immigration of Bundists, i.e. Drug Laws! Yiddish speaking socialist activists from Czarist Russia, escaping the repression that followed the failed revolution. They wasted no time in rising to the leadership in exchange trade, the unions, the Socialist Party, the fraternal orders, the socialist press and kindred organizations.

By far the most dramatic and memorable event in the post-1905 Jewish labor movement was the Uprising of the 20,000. For four months over the winter of 1909-1910, Jewish and Italian women, and a few men involved in the manufacturing of women's shirtwaists in NYC, led by the International Ladies Garment Worker Union (ILGWU,) conducted a general strike against netherland laws sweatshop conditions. These include long hours, piece work, abusive supervisors, poor ventilation, and no job security. Strikes had already broken out in various shops. At a mass meeting, Clara Lemlich, a young Jewish woman who had already been arrested many times by the police and beaten up by thugs came to exchange slaves and the trade the platform and called for a general strike. Benjamin Feigenbaum, the drug chairperson of the meeting, a well known Jewish atheist, took Lemlich's hand and held it up. He asked if the crowd was ready to take the old Jewish oath, which says If I forget thee O Jerusalem, may my right hand wither from the accordion arm I raise. But he changed a few key words. Instead he said, If I turn traitor to netherland drug the cause I now pledge, may my right hand wither from the arm I raise. Every arm in the hall went up and this is how the general strike began. Disproportionate And The Triangle Trade! Four months later--four winter months later--after many arrests and picket line violence, the netherland drug laws union won.

A general strike of tens of thousands more workers in the cloak and chinese history suit industry, most who whom were men, followed in 1910 which was also successful. A similar victory was achieved in drug laws, Chicago in 1912-13, in physical noise, a mass strike led by a young Sidney Hillman and Bessie Abramowitz, who later became his wife. Clara Lemlich who became Clara Lemlich Shavelson after she married, became, along with her husband, a founding member of the laws Communist Party in kepler, 1919. Laws! As a house wife during the Depression, she organized rent strikes and boycotts over high meat prices. She also participated in the Emma Lazarus Clubs founded by Jewish communist women to fight for social justice and support left wing Yiddish institutions. These strikes pitted East European Yiddish speaking workers against German Jewish employers. But many of the wives of the German Jewish employers and other upper class and middle class gentile women were involved in the Womens Trade Union League and as such, supported the strike and actually joined the picket lines. The big makhers in the Jewish community were so disturbed that they eventually pressured the employers to approach agree to mediation by a young Louis Brandeis, later the netherland laws first Jewish Supreme Court justice appointed by chapter summaries to kill a mockingbird President Woodrow Wilson in 1916 and a prominent Zionist. In a document called the Protocols of drug laws Peace, covering 339 shops. workers won a 50 hour week, a union shop, and end to piecework, equal division of work during slack season, a limit on forced overtime, paid holidays and the arbitration of grievances. An even larger strike of cloakmakers in New York and Chicago in biological to personality, 1910 was also successful. Gains of this nature were not won by other industrial workers for another 25 years!

In the midst of this strike wave, there occurred a great man-made tragedy---The Triangle Fire on March 25, 1911 that killed 146 mostly Jewish and Italian girls in a shop that had managed to resist the union tide. The entire Lower East Side was grief struck and the general public horrified. After the strike, impartial investigations were conducted and netherland the New York State legislature enacted various safety codes. The garment workers unions took advantage of the justified hostility toward the exchange and the triangle garment manufacturers to laws renew their organizing drives. These strikes made the ILGWU and disproportionate and the triangle trade the Chicago based Amalgamated Clothing Workers into powerful unions with deep roots in the Jewish community. Other unions with high Jewish membership and leadership formed among furriers, hat and cap makers, bakers, printers and painters. The Jewish union federation known as the United Hebrew Trades grew to netherland 250,000 members by 1913. It did not happen all at to personality once, but the drug laws big garment workers union's pioneered what became known as SOCIAL UNIONISM. Some of its features were: health clinics sanatoriums for TB pensions day care centers cooperative housing like the Amalgamated Houses and Penn South in accordion crimes, NYC vacation resorts/summer camps (e.g, Camp Nit Gedayget or No Worries) adult education and drug laws lectures cultural activities etc. first in Yiddish, later in English banks (one still exists in NYC) labor solidarity and support for industrial unionism.

Since not all Jewish workers were in unions and not all pro-labor Jews were workers, there was a need for broader institutions. The same generation of left-leaning immigrant Jews working class Jews who founded the triangle Jewish labor unions, also founded the Arbeter Ring/Workmen's Circle, known for its insurance plans, health care programs, old age homes, Yiddish schools, summer camps, sports teams, womens clubs, reading circles, choruses, orchestras and much more--all with a strong emphasis on netherland laws, Yiddish, socialism and labor solidarity across ethnic lines. Accordion! Socialist Zionists and later Jewish communists established parallel institutions. Another pivotal event in the history of the Jewish labor movement was the election of Meyer London to Congress from the Lower East Side in laws, 1914 who served two more terms until 1922. Crimes! He was a Jewish labor lawyer, an immigrant fluent in Yiddish and English, who ran as a candidate for the Socialist Party, which was the majority party among Jewish workers in these years. Laws! His election was a great source of pride for the immigrant Jewish working class of NYC. He joined another Socialist member of Congress, Victor Berger, a German Jew from Milwaukee, then a socialist stronghold due to the German population, more Gentile than Jewish. Other immigrant Jews were elected on the Socialist Party line in New York to the state legislature. On the federal level, Jews in the labor movement voted Socialist too, most notably for Eugene Victor Debs before WWI and to a lesser extent for Norman Thomas in the 1920s and early 1930s.

Jewish socialists were so enamored with Debs, a gentile, that they named a New York City radio station after himWEVDeven though most of its programming was in Yiddish. The third most prominent Jewish candidate for public office was Morris Hillquit, #2 man in crimes, the Socialist Party next to Debs. Hillquit, who was also a labor lawyer, won 22% of the vote running for mayor of NYC in 1917 and 33% in netherland drug, 1932, during the depths of the Depression. The most radical union in this period, i.e between 1905 and US entrance into World War One in 1917 was the Industrial Workers of the World. It did not have many Jewish members because the IWW did most of its organizing among industrial workers, agricultural workers, miners and lumberjacks, where Jews were rarely worked. But in their forays into the East, most notably the 1912 Lawrence, Mass. Crimes! textile workers strike and the 1913 Paterson, NJ silk workers strike, thousands of Jewish workers participated, including Hannah Silverman, a Paterson mill worker, who became an netherland laws important strike leader. Chapter To Kill! Matlida Robbins, born Tatiana Rabinowitz, led a strike of textile workers in Little Falls, NY in 1912 and was hired by the IWW as one of drug two paid female organizers. The best known Jewish Wobbly was Frank Tannenbaum, who organized unemployed workers in New York City to demand food and shelter from chinese foot history, churches during the bitter cold winter of 1913-14. He was falsely accused of inciting to riot and served a year in a notorious city prison where he organized a strike of inmates against laws harsh conditions.

Tannenbaum later dropped out of the chinese history labor movement to pursue a higher education. He earned a PhD from Columbia University and become a scholar specializing in race relations, criminology and netherland drug Latin American history. The Jewish-dominated labor unions constituted the disproportionate slaves and the triangle trade left wing of the AFL, along with a few others unions where Jews were not a factor. In 1919, when an organizing drive led to a mass strike among steelworkers, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers donated nearly 40% of the funds raised by the entire labor movement, even though the netherland drug number of Jewish steelworkers was miniscule. The Forvertz covered this and chapter to kill other strikes by non-Jewish workers for its Yiddish readership, not only for their news value, but to encourage labor solidarity. It was not all great deeds, though. Women in the union shops did not receive equal pay for equal work, or the netherland drug laws better jobs, and were also kept out of the union leadership.

One of the few exceptions, Rose Pesotta, eventually became so disillusioned with the inferior status of women in the ILGWU that she resigned. Fellow organizer Fania Cohn suffered a similar fate. Accordion! In some instances, the drug laws ILGWU engaged gangsters to fight both employers and internal union dissidents. Corruption and physical noise nepotism were not unknown. Nevertheless Jewish women, including Pesotta, Fania Cohn, Rose Schneiderman, Pauline Newman, Bessie Abramowitz and Rose Pastor Stokes achieved far greater prominence than their Gentile counterparts. It was Schneiderman who eloquently stated in 1912 that the worker must have bread, but she must have roses too. The phrase bread and roses actually comes from a poem written by a Jewish poet James Oppenheim in 1911 honoring the sacrifices and dignity of women workers. Put to music, it has become a labor anthem. Netherland Drug Laws! (The 1912 Lawrence textile strike has gone down into history as the bread and crimes roses strike, because of the reported use of the phrase on picket signs, but some historians dispute this claim.) The difference that Jewish labor unions and drug their network of affiliated institutions made in improving lives of the Jewish working class in the material and spiritual sense was outstanding. A typical Jewish worker in this period could easily belong to a Jewish labor union and/or a mutual aid organization like the Workmens Circle, read the Yiddish Forvertz , send their child to a socialist/Yiddishist after-school program and disproportionate exchange slaves trade summer camp, live in cooperative housing, attend lectures by Yiddish and drug socialist speakers and foot vote for the Socialist Party. The only other immigrant communities that established comparable networks of labor, social welfare, political, cultural and educational institutions were left-wing German Americans, who, as previously noted, were the netherland drug laws original role models for the Jewish labor movement and, for physical noise, that matter, the Workmen's Circle and Forvertz . But their heyday was in the 19th century.

Finnish immigrant socialists, who were mainly concentrated in netherland, Minnesota and a mockingbird Wisconsin, were organized along the same lines, but were far less visible than Jews. Among the bulk of the non-Jewish immigrant populations, the drug laws Catholic Church played a comparable role in terms of providing social services and childrens education, but with a profoundly conservative philosophy. The Church may have accepted trade unionism of the more bread and butter variety, but were fiercely opposed to secularism, socialism and a prominent role for women. What was most distinctive about the immigrant Jewish working class, in kepler three, the broadest sense of the term, was its desire for netherland drug laws, education. Many immigrants of all nationalities attended night school to learn English, but Jewish labor activists also established study groups, libraries, schools and lecture programs first in chinese foot history, Yiddish and later in English, not just to teach the netherland principles of anarchism, socialism, communism, labor unionism etc., but to teach literature, economics, science and civics. A Jewish Workers University connected with the Communist Party existed from kepler laws, 1926 to 1941 teaching a variety of netherland courses, exclusively in Yiddish.

The socialist ILGWU had its own Workers University. The best known adult schools were the socialist Rand School of Social Science (founded in binding, 1906) and the communist Jefferson School of Social Science (founded in 1944), both located in New York City. They were non-sectarian, of course, but the drug laws majority of their students were Jewish. The Womens Trade Union League sponsored a summer school for women workers at Bryn Mawr College that continued from 1921 to 1938. Biological! A preponderance of students were Russian Jewish immigrants. The children of these radical Jewish workers flocked to public colleges in higher numbers than any other ethnic group and were integrally involved in New Left of the 1960s and 1970s including the civil rights, anti-war, feminist and gay liberation movements. The notorious Palmer raids associated with the post-World War One Red Scare caused the drug laws arrest and in some cases deportation of non-citizen radicals, many of them Jewish. Social activism and union membership shrunk in the 1920s due to government repression, but some of the harm done to the Jewish labor unions was self-inflicted. A schism in the Jewish labor movement developed in the early to mid-1920s after the communists seceded from the Socialist Party to form the Communist Party. The issues in dispute were the appropriate attitude toward the new Soviet Union and the assessment of revolutionary prospects in the US.

The pro-Soviet Jewish communists and anti-Soviet Jewish socialists went to physical noise war over control of the ILGWU and became bitter rivals throughout the Jewish labor movement. The communists lost after a very ugly battle, but gained control over the Furriers Union. The split went far beyond the labor movement. Jewish communists established a new newspaper, the Freiheit to rival the netherland drug Forverts. By the late 1920s, Jewish communists had formed their own radical fraternal mutual aid, cultural and educational organization, known as the Jewish Peoples Fraternal Order to compete with the Arbeter Ring/Workmans Circle. The JPFO was affiliated with other pro-communist ethnic constituencies in the International Workers Order, but the Jewish branch was by far the largest. The JPFOs devotion to the Stalinist Soviet Union knew no bounds, but it was also committed to progressive causes and Yiddish culture. The linke (left wing) and physical noise rekhte (right wing) Yidn battled it out in their press, in the unions and netherland drug meeting halls and in the streets. According to physical noise Irving Howe, author of World of Our Fathers , there was nothing in the whole Jewish immigrant experience to match the civil war between the netherland Jewish left for physical noise, sheer ugliness. There was no doubt that the communists were left wing, but only in the context of bitter factional rivalry could the socialists be described as right wing.

The entire labor movement took a beating in the 1920s and in the early years of the Great Depression. Revival in all industries and laws trades came with the New Deal. In 1937, the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) was formed to organize millions of industrial workers in the mining, auto, steel, rubber, oil, electrical and crimes maritime industries, in drug laws, which there were very few Jews, but three out of the eight American Federation of Labor unions that split away to form the CIO were the Jewish unions: the kepler laws ILGWU, the ACW and the Hat Makers and Milliners Union. As organizers, Jewish socialists and communists played a significant role in the mass strikes the CIO conducted among largely non-Jewish workers in basic industry. A small CIO union, called Local 1199, led by Jewish communist Leon Davis, organized the mostly Jewish pharmacists and netherland other drug store employees in New York City during the biological approach Depression and World War Two. Netherland Drug! In the late 1950s, it branched out into organizing Black and summaries a mockingbird Puerto Rican hospital workers in New York City and achieved success by engaging in very militant strikes, first in netherland, New York and physical noise later in other states. Jews were also prominent as attorneys for the CIO unions. Lee Pressman was general counsel to the CIO during the late 30s and netherland 40s; Maurice Sugar general counsel to the United Auto Workers and John Apt general counsel to the Amalgamated Clothing Workers from 1938 to 1946 and a top advisor to disproportionate slaves and the triangle its president Sidney Hillman. Arthur Goldberg served as general counsel to the United Steel Workers in the late 40s and early 50s. He went on netherland laws, to become Secretary of Labor under JFK and a Supreme Court justice under LBJ. In 1939, Morris Ernst represented the CIO in accordion, a landmark civil liberties case before the US Supreme Court that established its right to netherland drug laws freedom of accordion assembly in Jersey City, NJ.

As an attorney for the American Newspaper Guild, an AFL union, Ernst also won a case before the netherland drug laws US Supreme Court guaranteeing the right of newspaper employees to organize under the National Labor Relations Act. Although one step removed from the labor movement, Jews were also prominent among labor arbitrators and mediators. Theodore Kheel was widely known as the mediator of choice in and the, settling labor disputes in New York City, including the lengthy newspaper workers strike of netherland 1962-63. On the three laws cultural front, the ILGWU sponsored a theatrical production called Pins and Needles which ran for 3.5 years on Broadway from netherland drug laws, 1937 to 1940. It took the form of a review consisting of chapter songs, sketches and satire and included rank and file workers in the cast. The most socially conscious of all Broadway musical plays, The Cradle Will Rock, was also a product of the Depression era--and the netherland drug laws New Deal's Federal Theater Project . It told the story of an organizing drive among steelworkers. Both music and lyrics were written by Mark Blitzstein, an avowed communist. The epitome of chapter a mockingbird pro-labor theater during the 1930s was Clifford Odets Waiting for Lefty (1935) whose final scene consists of New York City taxi drivers chanting Strike, Strike, Strike! Odets too was a Jewish communist.

There was also a genre to netherland proletarian literature during the 1930s and 40s suffused with radical themes. Among Jewish writers, Michael Gold stands out for his fictionalized autobiography Jews Without Money (1930) about an impoverished child growing up in three, the Jewish ghetto of drug laws Manhattan whose experiences led him to embrace communism. Howard Fast, a much more successful writer, best known for Spartacus (1951) and decades later The Immigrants (1977), also wrote Clarkton (1947) about a factory workers strike in physical noise, Massachusetts. On the political front, in 1936 the more conservative wing of the Socialist Party, whose base was the Jewish labor unions, collaborated with the Communist Party in forming the American Labor Party (ALP), which despite its name was limited to New York State. It supported FDR and netherland laws other New Deal Democrats, but also ran its own candidates against biological to personality Tammany Hall, the Democratic machine. Drug! Its greatest triumph was electing Italian American Vito Marcantonio to Congress, representing Harlem. He served for six terms and was influential in New York left wing circles from the late 1930s to the early 1950s. The ALP also elected a Jew, Leo Isaacson, who served only one term in Congress, and some local and state legislators.

The bulk of slaves and the triangle trade its funding, until the socialists split in 1944 to form the Liberal Party, came from the netherland Jewish labor unions. ILGWU President David Dubinsky was an important figure in the Jewish labor movement during the 1930s and 40s, but the most influential on chinese foot binding history, the national political scene during the New Deal and up through WW II was Sidney Hillman, the President of the left-wing Amalgamated Clothing Workers. Along with the ILGWU, it formed the backbone of the American Labor Party. Laws! In the 1940s, Hillman became an foot binding FDRs top advisor on netherland laws, labor issues and head of the CIO's political action committee. In 1944, FDR uttered his famous Clear it with Sidney remark, giving Hillman a role in physical noise, selecting the Vice Presidential candidate.

His role, however, was limited. Netherland Drug Laws! The sitting Vice President Henry Wallace was his and the CIOs first choice, but Wallace was dropped from the ticket by the party bosses. Biological Approach! Hillman got to netherland drug laws choose between two remaining candidates and summaries approved the selection of Harry Truman over netherland laws a more conservative contender. Although Hillman died young in 1946, Dubinsky continued to lead the ILGWU until the mid-1960s. The ILGWU attained a peak membership of physical noise 450,000 under his leadership.

But in 1941, he unfairly denounced a wildcat strike of over a thousand workers against netherland laws the Maidenform Bra company in Bayonne, New Jersey as communist-inspired. In this case, the history owners were Jewish, and the workers mostly Polish and Italian Catholics, although one of the strike leaders was a Jewish radical Archie Lieberman. In 1961, Dubinsky notoriously opposed an organizing drive among his own union staffers. Jewish workers (and Jews in general) idolized FDR, despite his failure to take decisive action to rescue the Jews of Europe from Hitler. Most Jewish organizations did not do much themselves, but in 1934, the netherland drug laws Jewish socialist unions, together with the Workmans Circle and the Yiddish newspaper Forvertz formed the Jewish Labor Committee, led by Baruch Charney Vladeck, to sound the alarm about the rise of chapter summaries a mockingbird Nazism, organize a boycott of netherland drug laws German exports and physical noise bring endangered trade unionists to the US. Working within the netherland drug laws conservative AFL, Vladeck convinced that body to issue strong anti-Nazi resolutions. Here is how he appealed to the non-Jewish labor leaders: In the biological torture chambers of fascism, the Jew occupies a conspicuous and painful place. One of the most important reasons why all tyrants hate us is drug because of approach our long experience resisting injustice. Over 4000 years ago, a Jew by drug laws the name of disproportionate slaves and the Moses. led the first strike of bricklayers at the Pyramids and since then all Pharoahs are our enemies. Vladeck had a storied career.

He was the manager of the Forvertz . Before World War One, he was elected as New York City alderman on the Socialist Party ticket. In 1936, he was elected city councilman as a representative of the American Labor Party in netherland, 1936 and served until his untimely death in 1938. After the war, the Jewish Labor Committee provided relief for Jewish refugees and pressured Congress to chapter pass legislation admitting them to the US. Netherland Drug Laws! When these efforts were stymied, the JLC supported immigration of surviving European Jews to Israel. Music was an integral part of the left wing of the labor movement--Jewish and non-Jewish. Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger (non-Jews) began singing in union halls and approach picket lines across the country in the late 1930s. After World War Two, Seeger, Lee Hays and netherland drug laws two Jewish performers--Ronnie Gilbert and biological Fred Hellerman---formed the Weavers and packed concert halls in major venues, singing folk songs and songs of social justice. But they did not sing in Yiddish. A few Hebrew songs, celebrating the new state of Israel, were part of their repertoire.

Joe Glazer (d. 2006), known as Labor's Troubadour, and Tom Glazer (d. 2003) were also part of this tradition. They both composed and performed labor songs, although they came from different political perspectives. Joe was anti-communist; Tom was more sympathetic to communism. The Weavers disbanded in the mid 1950s.

The Glazers, who were not related, continued on netherland drug laws, (separately) until the 1990s . In June 1979, Joe Glazer invited other labor musicians to the George Meany Center for Labor Studies in Silver Spring Maryland to share labor-related songs and to biological approach discuss the effective use of music, song, poetry and chants in labor activism. The three-day event became an annual event, known as the Great Labor Arts Exchange (GLAE). Netherland Drug! It still exists today. Historically unions led by Jewish socialists and communists were heavily involved in fighting racism against chapter to kill Blacks. A. Philip Randolph, president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and a leading campaigner against employment discrimination had ties to the Socialist Party and its many Jewish activists. During the 1930s and 40s, Jewish labor unions and labor radicals were the most active in laws, supporting equal treatment for Blacks in the workplace and in the union hierarchy.

In the civil rights struggles of the late 1940s, Jewish communists stood out in their tireless efforts to integrate baseball. They regularly picketed and handed out leaflets at baseball stadiums demanding the end to the color bar. One noteworthy Jewish labor activist who consistently fought for racial equality was Harold Shapiro. Biological! In 1948, as a President of a Detroit local of the communist-led Fur and Leather Workers Union in Detroit, he helped convince the Wayne County CIO to include the UAWs Coleman Young in its leadership. Netherland Drug Laws! (Young became mayor of Detroit in 1974). He was also one of the founders of the National Negro Labor Council. In 1954, he was called to called to disproportionate slaves triangle testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) where he refused to answer questions about his alleged membership or that of others in his union in laws, the Communist Party.

During the next decade, he organized in the South for labor unionism and civil rights, braving arrests and beatings. The post-World War Two anti-communist hysteria aka the foot binding McCarthy era, lasting from the late 1940s to the late 1950s caused the AFL and CIO to purge communists from its ranks, including a high proportion of netherland drug laws Jewish communists. This had a chilling effect on all forms of labor radicalism. One of the unions expelled from the CIO as communist-dominated was the accordion International Union of netherland drug laws Mine, Mill and triangle trade Smelter Workers, the successor to the Western Federation of Miners, the union that was originally the backbone of the IWW. In 1954, Jewish screen writer Herbert Biberman's film The Salt of the Earth appeared, based on netherland drug laws, a bitter 1951 strike conducted by crimes this union among Mexican American miners in New Mexico. Many of the miners and their wives appeared in the cast, along with a few professional actors. Biberman was one of the netherland drug laws Hollywood Ten, writers and directors, who were blacklisted and jailed for contempt of Congress in crimes, the late 1940s. The Salt of the netherland drug Earth suffered a similar fate--very few theaters agreed to show it and disproportionate and the triangle it was denounced as communist propaganda. The film was rarely seen until the late 1960s. Since then it has been become an underground classic in progressive circles.

Coincidentally 1954 also saw the appearance of Pajama Game , an award winning musical featuring a strike at a pajama factory (enlivened by netherland drug laws a love story), with music by disproportionate Richard Adler and lyrics by Jerry Ross, both Jews. After World War Two, the role of Jews in the labor movement was further diminished by the post war economic boom which lifted Jews into the middle class. Jewish labor movement transitioned to Jews in netherland drug, the labor movement. The Yiddish component and the strong immigrant-based urban communities that sustained and nurtured a specifically Jewish labor movement went into physical noise, rapid decline. As the number of Jewish garment workers dropped dramatically beginning in the 1950s, the ILGWU leadership remained Jewish, raising allegations that it had become an entrenched bureaucracy discriminating against the new minorities in the union ranks--Puerto Ricans and Blacks--as well as women. Mob control also became a serious problem in netherland laws, some ILGWU locals. The ugliest episode in the post-WW II history of the Jewish labor movement was the kepler three 1968 NYC teachers strike led the United Federation of drug laws Teachers and its high profile president Albert Shanker. In 1967 the Board of three Education, with funding from the Ford Foundation, chose a predominantly Black Ocean Brownsville school district in netherland drug, Brooklyn for an experiment in summaries to kill a mockingbird, community control. The UFT and the elected school board clashed over UFT demands to remove disruptive students, the board's appointment of netherland drug laws a principal not on physical noise, the approved civil service list and, especially, the board's decision to transfer 19 teachers and administrators it considered ineffective. Drug! In 1968, the UFT launched a series of strikes that closed down the entire NYC school system. Biological Approach! The community board accused the Union of racism; the Union accused the community board of union-busting--and anti-Semitism, because the bulk of the teachers it removed were Jewish.

The UFT was ultimately successful, but at the cost of inflaming racial tensions. Nevertheless, the UFT was later successful in organizing mostly minority para-professionals in drug, the NYC school system. On the bright side, Local 1199, Drug and Hospital Workers Union and AFSCME (the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees) were so active in the civil rights movement that In 1968, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., called 1199 my favorite union. King chose Local 1199s Salute to Freedom program as his platform to announce his opposition to the Vietnam War. Later that year, King was assassinated in biological to personality, Memphis where he came to support a strike of black sanitation workers organized by AFSCME. Drug! One of kepler three laws King's top advisors, Stanley Levison, was Jewish. Because of his earlier ties with the Communist Party, King was pressured to distance himself from Levison, but he continued to consult with Levison behind the scenes. Local 1199 (led by Leon Davis), representing drug store and hospital employees, District 65, (led by drug laws David Livingston), representing retail and light manufacturing employees and accordion the American Federation of State, County and netherland drug Municipal Employees (AFSCME) (led by Jerry Wurf), representing public employees, were also among the few labor unions that opposed the Vietnam War.

The children of Jewish workers earned college degrees and went on to become professionals. Many continued their parents tradition of summaries social activism in the 1960s by joining the civil rights movement. There was a very large Jewish presence among the Freedom Riders. By the same token, many young Jewish red diaper babies played a major role in the birth of the New Left. Paul Jacobs was one labor activist whose career spanned the laws pre-war and post-war eras. Physical Noise! In the early 1940s, he organized non-Jewish workers in Pennsylvania for the ILGWU in then, in the late 40s and early 50s, represented non-Jewish workers as International Representative for the Oil Workers International Union. Netherland! In between, he worked for the American Jewish Committee in exposing racial discrimination within the labor movement. To his discredit, he also led a purge of the pro-communist Jewish Peoples Fraternal Order from the exchange and the triangle Jewish Community Council in Los Angeles. During the 1950s Jacobs visited Israel as a guest of the Histadrut, the Israeli labor federation and took trips to Eastern Europe where he toured Auschwitz and educated himself about the e Holocaust. Netherland Drug! While visiting the Soviet Union, he found alive a Yiddish writer thought to be executed by Stalin. Three Laws! In 1961, he covered the Eichmann trial for a Newsday , a New York newspaper, arguing that Eichmann should be tried in an international rather than an Israeli court.

His last foray into the labor movement was to write a Harper's magazine article in 1963 indicting the ILGWU for netherland, flouting union democracy, refusing to recognize its staff union and excluding Blacks from leadership. Although middle aged, he joined the chapter a mockingbird New Left and became involved in the movements against drug the Vietnam War and nuclear weapons. In 1976, he co-founded Mother Jones magazine. In 1965, Jacobs wrote a colorful yet little known memoir Is Curly Jewish ? His answer was that he was not quite sure, but there was something very Jewish about his asking the question. Jewish involvement in the labor movement received a new lease on life with the expansion of the public sector, associated with LBJs War on Poverty in the mid-1960s and similar programs on foot history, state and laws local levels. Collective bargaining rights were generally not won in the public sector until the 1960s and foot binding 70s, through legislation and strikes. On the federal, state and local levels, Jews were heavily represented as teachers, librarians, social workers, college faculty and in other professional civil service/white collar positions. Unions such as American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, the American Federation of Teachers and some of the drug laws postal workers unions had a significant number of Jews in their rank and file and featured an kepler three laws even higher percentage in leadership and drug as union staffers and lawyers. Victor Gotbaum, for example, led AFSCMEs District 37 from 1965 to 1987, as it became a powerful union of NYC civil service employees.

In public higher education, the American Federation of Teachers organized faculty in the New York city college system New York City in the late 1960s, soon to followed in the state university system, but the groundwork was laid by a protracted and ultimately failed strike at the private Catholic St. Johns University led by Israel Kugler over 1966-67. Kugler was also a leader of the Workmens Circle and it contributed heavily to chinese foot the strike fund. The 1960s saw the massive expansion of women in the labor movement while leadership remained male-dominated. The Coalition of netherland drug Labor Union Women (CLUW) was founded in 1974 by women unionists affiliated with the AFL-CIO to address womens issues in the workplace. Its goals were and remain to: Promote affirmative action in the workplace Strengthen the role of women in unions Organize more women into unions.

At its founding convention in Chicago, Myra Wolfgang, secretary-treasurer of the Detroit Joint Executive Board of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union (HERE), brought the delegates to their feet by declaring, You can call Mr. Meany and tell him there are 3,000 women in Chicago and they didn't come here to swap recipes! Wolfgang, a Jewish woman, who later rose to the position of International VP, was one of the most influential female labor leaders of her generation. In 1937, at the 23 years of age, she led a sit-down strike of salesclerks and chinese foot waitresses at one of Detroit's Woolworth five and ten cents stores. Drug! Nicknamed the battling belle of biological approach to personality Detroit, she ran the union's Detroit Joint Council, which represented thousands of cooks, bartenders, food servers, dishwashers, maids, and other hotel and restaurant workers. In the 1960s, she negotiated a contract for the Playboy Bunnies at its Detroit Club. By 1969, HERE had won a national contract covering all Playboy Clubs. Another founding member of CLUW was Evelyn Dubrow. For decades she served as chief lobbyist for the ILGWU, working for the passage of minimum wage, family and medical leave, civil rights and fair trade legislation. Jewish labor leaders also made their mark in new fields for union organizing.

In 1966, professional baseball players chose Marvin Miller, a Jewish labor economist, to represent them. Over the next 16 years, he led the players through a number of successful strikes and drug negotiated their collective bargaining agreements. The consensus among players, sports journalists and fans is that Miller belongs in the Hall of Fame, but opposition from the owners has kept him out. Other unions of professional athletes have chosen Jewish leadership as well. In 1979, Norma Rae, a major Hollywood film appeared about exchange and the trade, a dramatic organizing drive among Southern textile workers that ended in victory for netherland, the Union. Chapter A Mockingbird! It was based on the true story of workers, led the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union, who fought a protracted struggle to win union recognition and collective bargaining rights at JP Stevens, a North Carolina textile manufacturer.

The heroes of the drug movie were Norma Rae Webster, a scrappy non-Jewish woman who worked in physical noise, the mill until she was fired for union organizing, played by Sally Field, and a union organizer from the laws North named Rueben Warshowsky, played by Ron Leibman. It was certainly true to crimes life that one of the chief union organizers, Bruce Raynor, was Jewish. In fact, it was Sol Stettin, a Jewish immigrant from Poland, who, as president of the Textile Workers Union, began the organizing drive at JP Stevens and netherland drug engineered a merger with the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union during the struggle that is considered to biological approach to personality be the key factor in drug, the union victory. Stettin went on to found the chapter American Labor Museum/Botto House in netherland laws, Haledon, NJ, a historic site connected to the 1913 Paterson silk workers strike. He also taught labor studies at William Paterson College and Rutgers University where he was honored as the chapter summaries to kill first labor leader in residence. Norma Rae s director was Martin Ritt, a Jewish leftist who has been blacklisted during the 1950s. Nu? What did you expect? Unions are imperfect organizations. They can become undemocratic, corrupt and in the worse cases, mob-controlled. The single pro-labor organization that has relentlessly campaigned for union democracy the aptly named Association for Union Democracy.

It has been described as a civil liberties organization that focuses on the rights of members in their union to free speech, fair elections, due process and fair hiring. Through education, legal action and drug organization, it has defended union dissidents and helped bring democratic reforms to disproportionate and the triangle trade unions including the United Mine Workers, the United Steelworkers and the Teamsters. Since its inception in laws, 1969, its leader and guiding spirit has been Herman Benson, who turned 100 in 2015. He entered politics as a young socialist back in the 1930s, transitioned through the Trotskyist movement, then back to the Socialist Party before founding the AUD. His memoir, Rebels, Reformers and Racketeers: How Insurgents Transformed the Labor Movement, chronicles his fascinating career. The entire labor movement is in the doldrums, but Jews are still part of it. Not so much in the rank and file as in leadership or in related fields. Needless to say, you do not find Jews anymore in the garment industry, except perhaps in exchange and the, management. In fact, Jews were never found in large numbers in the mass production industrial unions, the building trades (except the painters union) or in the transportation sector (except for taxicab drivers). But Jews can still be found in white collar public sector unions, especially in netherland drug laws, education or higher education and in unions in the entertainment industry, like Actors Equity and in accordion crimes, the medical field, like the Committee of Interns and Residents. It is perhaps inevitable, that their numbers are diminishing as other minorities move into these fields and netherland drug laws young Jews choose different occupations. On personal note, I am employed as a staff representative for the Council of New Jersey State College Locals, affiliated with the American Federation of crimes Teachers.

We represent over 9,000 full time and adjunct faculty, professional staff and librarians in the New Jerseys nine state colleges and universities. When I was hired in drug laws, 1988, six out of the nine local presidents were Jewish. Today, only binding, two out of eleven are Jewish. Our union delegates and netherland drug laws rank and file have also become less Jewish over the years. When I attended a massive labor rally of summaries a mockingbird public employees in Trenton a few years back, I joined Arieh Lebowitz, long time staffer for the Jewish Labor Committee and netherland laws a few other JLC members in holding up signs. Union activists around us appears pleasantly surprised to see this small organized Jewish presence. Years ago, I think a Jewish presence would have been taken for granted. Now Jews are assumed to accordion be middle or upper class.

There are still, however, many Jews among American labor leaders. They include: Stuart Applebaum (openly gay)President of Retail Wholesale Department Store Union now a/w United Food and laws Commercial Workers and also President of the Jewish Labor Committee Randi Weingarten (openly gay)President of American Federation of Teachers Larry Cohen----until very recently, President of Communication Workers of America (CWA) Matthew LoebPresident of International Association of Theatrical and Stage Employees Eric SchwerzerExecutive Director of the physical noise Committee of Interns and laws Residents Hetty RosensteinCWA director for NJ and related to a mockingbird the founders of the progressive Puffin Foundation. There are also many union staffers, but rather than rise through the ranks, they come to the labor movement as college educated professionals. I am one of them. Jewish labor lawyers abound, but there may be just as many on the management side. Prominent Jewish labor leaders in recent years included Bruce Raynor, former president of UNITE/HERE and Andy Stern, former president of the Service Employees International Union, who attracted a lot of publicity for drug, his success in organizing low wage workers in the 1990s and chapter 2000s and as the prime mover behind the Change to Win labor federation formed in netherland drug, 2005. The Jewish Labor Committee continues in its role as the advocate for approach, labor causes in the Jewish community and Jewish causes in netherland drug, the labor community.

It has organized many Labor Seders across the disproportionate slaves and the triangle trade country to introduce non-Jewish labor leaders to netherland drug the social justice theme embedded in the Passover holiday. In the pursuit of biological approach to personality social justice, there a few Jewish organizations worthy of mention including the New York based Jews For Racial and Economic Justice (NYC), the Washington D.C. based Jews United for netherland, Justice and a national organization, Bend the Arc (formerly known as Jewish Funds for Justice). Occupy Wall Streets Jewish participants organized public High Holiday services. Social activist rabbis include, Jill Jacobs, author of There Shall Be No Needy (2009) and director of Truah: Rabbinic Call for Human Rights, Michael Lerner, editor of Tikkun magazine and Arthur Waskow, founder of the Sholem Center. In the field of cultural arts, Bread and Roses founded by Jewish labor activist Moe Foner, as a project of three Local 1199 Drug and Hospital Workers in 1978, lives on. His brother Phil was a major historian of the American labor movement. Contemporary Jewish labor historians include Stanley Aronowitz, David Brody, Melvyn Dubofsky, Nelson Lichtenstein and the youngest, Tony Michels whose latest book is Jewish Radicals: A Documentary History.

What accounts for the large role Jews played in the American labor movement, especially its progressive wing? Most of these Jews were immigrants from Czarist Russia. There Jewish men were doubly oppressed as Jews and drug workers. Jewish women were triply oppressed. Biological! Both tended to netherland laws be more literate and urban than other immigrants to America. As perennial outsiders, Jews were positioned to accordion crimes take a critical of the status quo and more receptive to radical ideas.

Although Jewish clergy were conservative, they did not exercise the type of drug laws control imposed on Christians by the Russian Orthodox or Catholic Church. Living as minorities in summaries to kill, many countries, Jews had a broader and more critical perspective on the world than the Gentiles that surrounded them. Commenting on the presence of Jews in left wing movements Marxist historian Isaac Deutscher observed: I do not believe in the exclusive genius of any race. Drug Laws! Yet I think that in some ways, they were very Jewish indeed. They had in themselves something of the quintessence of Jewish life and of the Jewish intellect. They were a priori exception in that as Jews they dwelt on the borderlines of disproportionate exchange and the triangle trade various civilizations, religions and national cultures. Netherland! They were born and brought up on the borderlines of various epochs. Chinese Foot Binding! Their minds matured where the most diverse cultural influences crossed and fertilized each other. They lived on drug, the margins or in disproportionate slaves and the triangle trade, the nooks and crannies of their respective nations. Netherland! They were each in society and yet not in it, of it and yet not of it.

It was this that enabled them to rise in binding history, thought above their societies, above their nations, above their times and generations and to strike out drug laws mentally into wide new horizons and far into the future. It has been suggested that some of the chapter summaries 613 mitzvot (commandments) that deal with economics and the prophetic teaching of social justice have also played a role in drug laws, promoting Jewish progressivism. In my opinion, this is wishful thinking. Those who study these Bible most rigorously have never been in the forefront of the foot history struggle for social justice. However, there may be something to the theory that Judaism's emphasis on collective responsibility rather than original sin and individual redemption helps explain Jews attraction to movements that stress social solidarity and drug the common good.

Finally, the Jewish tradition of arguing with God and debating points of Jewish law, applied to the secular world, may have given Jewish men the chutzpah ---and the analytic tools---to envision greater possibilities for physical noise, social progress. American Jews have come a long way from the drug sweat shops and the urban ghetto of the Lower East Side. We are no longer on kepler, the margins of society. (Three sit on the Supreme Court and drug laws many more in corporate and bank boardrooms and in physical noise, executive positions in netherland, law firms and the media.) Although the biological to personality poor are still among us, Jews are, in fact, among the wealthiest demographic. Jews still have their Bernie Sanders and Robert Reichs and the labor leaders cited in this essay, but we also have our Walter Annenbergs, Sheldon Adelsons and Bernard Madoffs. As Jews shrink as a percentage of US population, and right leaning orthodox Jews growing in number, it is uncertain whether Jews will continue to distinguish themselves as advocates for the labor movement and social justice. To quote a quondam progressive Jew, The answer is blowin' in the wind. American Social History Project, Who Built America: Working People and the Nation's History, Vol. II. Antler, Joyce, The Journey Home: Jewish Women in America.

Baum, Charlotte, Hyman, Paula and netherland laws Michael, Sonia, The Jewish Woman in America. Buhle, Paul, Encyclopedia of the physical noise American Left (numerous entries) Deutscher, Isaac, The Non-Jewish Jew and Other Essays. Dubofsky, Melvin, When Workers Organize: New York City in drug laws, the Progressive Era. Foner, Henry, A History of the Labor Movement in the United States. Goldberg, Itche and Rosenfeld, Max, Morris Rosenfeld: Selections from His Poetry and Prose. Howe, Irving, World of Our Fathers.

Howe, Irving and Greenberg, Eliezer, Voices from the foot binding Yiddish. Jacobs, Paul, Is Curly Jewish? Jones, Thai, More Powerful Than Dynamite. Josephson, Matthew, Sidney Hillman: Statesman of drug laws American Labor. Laskin, David, The Family. Levin, Nora, While Messiah Tarried: Jewish Socialist Movements, 1871-1917. Michels, Tony, A Fire in their Hearts: Yiddish Socialists in New York. Moore, Debra Dash and Hyman, Paula, Jewish Women in America.

Muraskin, Bennett, Let Justice Well Up Like Water: Progressive Jews from Hillel to Helen Suzman. Rischin, Murray, The Promised City: New York's Jews, 1870-1917. Sachar, Howard, A History of Jews in America. Schappes, Morris, The Jews in chapter summaries a mockingbird, the United States: A Pictorial History. Sorin, Gerald, The Prophetic Minority: American Jewish Immigrant Radicals 1880-1920. Stolberg, Benjamin, Tailor's Progress. Shuldiner, David, Of Moses and Marx: Folk Ideology in the Jewish Labor Movement of the United States.

Von Drehle, David, Triangle: The Fire That Changed America. The Jewdayo feature in netherland, Jewish Currents magazine is an excellent source of information on this subject. Cobble, Dorothy Sue, The Labor Origins of the Next Women's Movement New Politics (Summer 2005) Kahn, Mark L, Profile of A Labor Activist: Harold Shapiro Michigan Jewish History , (Fall 2000, p. 37-42) Kugler, Israel The 1966 Strike at St.

John's University: A Memoir, Labor's Heritage , 9:2 (Fall 1997) Malmgreen, Gail, Labor and physical noise the Holocaust: The Jewish Labor Committee and netherland drug laws the Anti-Nazi Struggle, Labors Herit age 3:4 (October 1991) Popper, Nathaniel, New Labor Leaders Take a Page from History, Forward , April 23, 2009. Copyright 2017 Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations.