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Internet Encyclopedia of 7 marketing, Philosophy. Blaise Pascal was a French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, inventor, and theologian. In mathematics, he was an early pioneer in trifle story, the fields of game theory and probability theory. In philosophy he was an early pioneer in 7 marketing ps, existentialism. As a writer on theology and religion he was a defender of Christianity. Despite chronic ill health, Pascal made historic contributions to mathematics and to physical science, including both experimental and poundland tools theoretical work on hydraulics, atmospheric pressure, and the existence and nature of the vacuum. As a scientist and philosopher of science, Pascal championed strict empirical observation and the use of controlled experiments; he opposed the rationalism and ps logico-deductive method of the Cartesians; and he opposed the metaphysical speculations and reverence for authority of the in psychology as theologians of the Middle Ages. Although he never fully abandoned his scientific and mathematical interests, after his uncanny Night of Fire (the intense mystical illumination and midnight conversion that he experienced on the evening of 7 marketing ps, November 23, 1654), Pascal turned his talents almost exclusively to religious writing. Trickster Names? It was during the period from 1656 until his death in 1662 that he wrote the Lettres Provinciales and ps the Pensees . Present And Future? The Lettres Provinciales is 7 marketing ps, a satirical attack on Jesuit casuistry and a polemical defense of Jansenism.

The Pensees is a posthumously published collection of unfinished notes for what was intended to be a systematic apologia for the Christian religion. Along with his scientific writings, these two great literary works have attracted the admiration and critical interest of philosophers and poundland tools serious readers of every generation. Pascals life is inseparable from his work.A. J. Krailsheimer. Pascals life has stirred the same fascination and generated as much lively discussion and learned commentary as his writings. This is largely attributable to his intriguing, enigmatic personality. 7 Marketing? To read him is to Essay Torn Directions, come into direct contact with both his strangeness and 7 marketing ps his charm. It is also to encounter a tangle of incongruities and seeming contradictions. For Pascal himself humble yet forceful; fanatical as well as skeptical; mild and empathetic, yet also capable of withering scorn personified the trickster names very chimera he famously declared man to be ( Pensees , 131/164). [Note: Throughout this article, fragments of the Pensees are identified first (that is, before the slash) by 7 marketing ps, the numeration system of Lafuma and trifle story second (after the slash) by that of Sellier L/S.] Interest in his life is ps, also due to our natural desire to learn more about poundland tools, this scary genius , or effrayant g enie Chateaubriands memorable phrase, whose unique combination of talents enabled him to ps, make revolutionary contributions not only to mathematics and physical science but also to the theology and literature of his age. Merely to list his achievements is once again to encounter Pascal the chimera, the human riddle who was both an warfare: present and future avant-garde crusader for empirical science as well as an avid supporter of ancient prophecy, mysticism, miracles, and Biblical hermeneutics.

Modern readers are usually shocked to discover that the father of gambling odds and the mechanical computer wore a spiked girdle to chastise himself and further mortify a body already tormented by recurrent illness and chronic pain. He has been the subject of dozens of biographies, beginning with La Vie de M. Pascal , the brief hagiographic sketch composed by his sister Gilberte Perier shortly after his death in 7 marketing, 1662 and first published in 1684. New treatments of the authors life have appeared in both French and English with remarkable regularity ever since. Periers memoir established a precedent by applying an underlying pattern and symmetry to her brothers life. Warfare: And Future? The implied form is that of a well-made play with classic five-act structure. In Periers treatment this life-drama is a divine comedy showing the spiritual rise and eventual salvation of a distressed soul who, after a series of trials and setbacks, reunites with God.

Meanwhile Pascals secular biographers and commentators, beginning with Voltaire, offer an opposite view. 7 Marketing? They portray Pascals career as essentially a tragedy, a descending arc tracing the decline into timidity and superstition of Cyber warfare: present and future, a once bold and ps independent thinker. Nietzsches characterization of Pascal as the most instructive victim of Christianity, murdered slowly, first physically, then psychologically is a typical summation ( Ecce Homo , II, 3, p. 243). Both views are oversimplified. First of all, at no point during his lifetime was Pascal ever a libertine or libre-penseur . So portraying his life as though it consisted of arriba in english, two sudden and powerful conversions, with an intervening slide into worldliness and sins of the flesh, seems a bit too pat and melodramatic. Similarly, since Pascal was a lifelong supporter of the Catholic faith, and since he also maintained an interest in ps, scientific and mathematical problems well after his commitment to Jansenism and Port-Royal, it seems unfair to portray his final years as a betrayal of warfare: The past, his scientific principles rather than as an intensification or culmination of ps, his religious views. Despite these and other distortions, the traditional division of Pascals biography into five stages or periods remains a convenient way of reviewing his career.

Blaise Pascal was born on June 19, 1623, in Torn in Different, Clermont (now Clermont-Ferrand) in the Auvergne region of central France. His parents were Etienne Pascal (1588 1651), a magistrate, civil servant, and member of the 7 marketing ps aristocratic and professional class known as the noblesse de robe , and Antoinette Begon Pascal (1596-1626), the daughter of a Clermont merchant. Pascal was named for his paternal uncle as well as for St. Blaise, the 3rd-century Armenian saint martyred by having his flesh flayed by iron carding combs as his namesake would later punish his own flesh by wearing a belt studded with sharp nails. The Pascal family, including Pascals older sister Gilberte (b. Trickster Names? 1620) and younger sister Jacqueline (b. 1625), enjoyed a comfortable, upper-bourgeois lifestyle. Etienne, in addition to being a lawyer, public official, and tax administrator, was proficient in Latin and 7 marketing ps Greek, a dabbler in natural philosophy, and trifle story an expert mathematician.

He was also a demanding but loving father who took great pride in his childrens accomplishments. Gilberte would go on to become Pascals first biographer and ps serve as a fierce guardian of his reputation. Arriba In English? Jacqueline displayed an early literary genius and earned acclaim as a poet and 7 marketing ps dramatist before becoming a nun at trickster names Port-Royal. Pascals mother, who was known for her piety and ps charitable work, died when Pascal was only three years old and Jacqueline was but an infant. Pascal was a sickly child who suffered various pains and diseases throughout his life. According to a family anecdote related by his niece, at age one he supposedly fell victim to a strange illness. His abdomen became distended and swollen, and the slightest annoyance triggered fits of crying and screaming. This affliction supposedly continued for poundland tools more than a year, and the child often seemed on the verge of death.

Hearing of the boys condition, neighbors attributed it to witchcraft and blamed a poor elderly woman who occasionally performed household chores for the Pascal family. Etienne, as an educated gentleman, at first scoffed at ps the accusation, but when his patience eventually wore thin he confronted the woman and threatened her with hanging if she didnt come forward with the truth. The woman reportedly fell to the floor and promised to divulge everything if her life would be spared. She confessed that in a moment of aggression is defined in psychology, anger and resentment she had cast a spell on the child a fatal spell that could be undone only by having it transferred to some other living creature. Supposedly the family cat was given to her and ps made a scapegoat for the otherwise doomed child. The old woman then prescribed that a poultice of special herbs be applied to Pascals stomach. After an intense crisis, during which he appeared to be comatose and close to death, Pascal awoke from his spell and eventually recovered his health.

This strange and improbable witch tale is scarcely credible today. But that Pascal endured a serious and potentially fatal childhood illness during which his parents desperately tried all kinds of fanciful cures and treatments seems very likely. In fact, the anecdote is perfectly consistent with the wild and poundland tools paradoxical world of 17 th_ century culture and especially the ps medical practice of the time a time when empirical science and natural magic, enlightened new techniques and poundland tools antique superstitions, were routinely intermingled and practiced side by side. The exact cause and 7 marketing basis of Pascals lifelong health problems have never been fully settled or accounted for. According to Gilberte, after his 18 th birthday Pascal never lived a day of his life free from pain or from some sort of illness or medical affliction. The most common medical opinion is that he contracted gastrointestinal tuberculosis in warfare: The past, early childhood and that manifestations of the disease, along with signs of possible concurrent nephritis or rheumatoid arthritis, recurred periodically throughout his lifetime. The accounts of his pathology are also consistent with migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, and fibromyalgia a complex of illnesses often found together and which also frequently occur in combination with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and emotional distress. Scholarly interest in this matter involves more than just idle curiosity and 7 marketing medical detective-work. Trifle Story? The question of Pascals physical and 7 marketing mental health goes to the heart of desires to learn more about the conditions and circumstances that produce extraordinary genius.

Affliction and disease, physical or emotional trauma, a natural disadvantage or disability have often served as an added motive or accelerator for high-level creative achievement. Examples abound from the ancient legend of the blind and vagabond Homer to the documented histories of modern creative figures like Isaac Newton, Van Gogh, Stephen Hawking, and Christy Brown. We can only speculate whether and to what extent Pascals physical ailments and trifle story disabilities, instead of retarding his career, may have actually spurred and given rise to his intellectual triumphs. In 1631, a few years after the death of his wife, Etienne sold his government post (a common practice of the day) along with most of his property and moved with his children to Paris. 7 Marketing? Over the next nine years he devoted himself to his amateur scientific and poundland tools mathematical pursuits and took personal charge of his childrens education. Recognizing early on his sons exceptional intellectual gifts, Etienne designed and supervised a special program and curriculum for the boy based on his own anti-scholastic and progressive educational principles. Young Pascal was taught Latin and Greek as well as history, geography, and philosophy all on an impromptu schedule, including during meals and at various hours throughout the day.

Science, or natural philosophy as the discipline was then known, ignited Pascals imagination, and he demonstrated an early inquisitiveness about 7 marketing ps, natural phenomena and trifle story a fondness for devising experiments. Civil and canon law were also part of a varied curriculum that included study of the Bible and the Church Fathers. 7 Marketing Ps? The latter studies were in accordance with Etiennes personal religious views, which were plain and respectful and as progressive as his views on education. He taught his son his own cardinal principle that whatever is boca arriba in english, a matter of faith should not also be treated as a matter of reason; and vice-versa. 7 Marketing Ps? It is a tenet that Pascal took to heart and followed throughout his career.

In the poundland tools belief that, once exposed to ps, mathematics, his son would be so captivated by it that he would forsake or ignore his other studies, Etienne determined to withhold instruction in math and geometry until Pascal had completed the rest of his training. Cyber Warfare: Present Essay? However, upon discovering that the boy had already achieved an intuitive understanding of the discipline including his own independently worked out demonstration of a proof in Euclid, Etienne acquiesced. 7 Marketing? The pages of aggression as, Euclid were finally opened to the youth, and thus began Pascals belated introduction to mathematics the subject with which he would conduct, at times guiltily, a lifelong love affair. Pascals education was unique for his own time and would be unusual in any era. 7 Marketing Ps? A passionate student who delved earnestly into aggression is defined as, each new subject, he absorbed new material, including, at a later period, the 7 marketing most arcane and technical components of theology quickly and effortlessly. Poundland Tools? However, his learning, while deep in a few areas, was never broad and was in some ways less remarkable for what it included than for 7 marketing what it left out.

For example, due to his assorted maladies, Pascals regimen included no physical training or any form of exercise. In addition, because of the sequestered, hermetic, entirely private form of his schooling, he never experienced any of the personal contacts or opportunities for social development that most young people, including even novice monks in monastic schools, commonly do. Aggression Is Defined As? To what extent this may have deformed or limited his social and interpersonal skills it is hard to ps, say. He was known to be temperamentally impatient with and demanding of la noche, others while sometimes seeming arrogant and self-absorbed. 7 Marketing? At a later point in his career, he fully acknowledged his deficiencies and indeed chastised himself for his social ambition and intellectual vanity. Pascal was not widely read in the classics or in contemporary literature. Though he was well acquainted with Aristotelian and Scholastic thought, philosophy for him consisted mainly of Epictetus, Montaigne, and the traditional debate between Stoicism and Epicureanism. The Past And Future Essay? Profane literature was foreign to him, and given his tastes and habits its impossible to imagine him reading, say, Ovid or Catullus, much less Rabelais. In fact its uncertain whether he had even read Homer or Virgil or for that matter any verses other than the Psalms and his sister Jacquelines religious poems. As for drama, Corneille was a family friend who at ps one time personally championed Jacquelines poetry and dramaturgy, and the young Racine studied classical literature and Cyber warfare: and future rhetoric at the school at ps Port-Royal while Jacqueline and Pascal were also there.

Yet Pascal never mentions the work of either great writer and indeed other than to refer to boca in english, the stage as a dangerous diversion ( Pensees , 764/630) seems to have taken little interest at 7 marketing all in contemporary French theatre, which was then at its artistic zenith. But whatever he may have lacked in physical education, humanistic studies, and art appreciation, Pascal more than made up for in his favored pursuits. In fact, so rapidly did he advance in physics and mathematics that Etienne boldly introduced the boy at the age of only thirteen into his small Parisian academic circle known as the Acad emie libre. The central figure of this group was the polymathic philosopher, mathematician, theologian, and music theorist Pere Marin Mersenne, one of the leading intellectuals of the age. Mersenne corresponded with Descartes, Huygens, Hobbes, and other luminaries of the period and Essay about Gogol in Different actively promoted the work of controversial thinkers like Galileo and 7 marketing ps Gassendi. The Mersenne circle also included such notable mathematicians as Girard Desargues and Gilles de Roberval. These inspirational figures served the young Pascal as mentors, examiners, intellectual models, and academic guides.

It was during his involvement with the Mersenne circle that Pascal published, at age sixteen, his Essai pour les Coniques , an important contribution to the relatively new field of projective geometry. The essay includes an original proof concerning the special properties of hexagons inscribed within conic sections that is trifle story, still known today as Pascals Theorem. Around the same time that Pascal was working on his Theorem, Etienne, who had at one time served as an adviser to Cardinal Richelieu, incurred the wrath of the First Minister by leading a protest over a government bond default. Ps? Threatened with prison, he sought refuge in Auvergne. He was eventually restored to the Cardinals good graces by the intervention of his daughter Jacqueline. (The Cardinal, a patron of the theatre, was charmed not only by Jacquelines poetic and trickster names dramatic skills but also by her beauty and courtly manners.) Its also likely that Richelieu had an additional motive for welcoming Etienne back. For no sooner was Etienne returned to royal favor than Richelieu appointed him the ps chief tax administrator for Rouen. At the Cardinals behest, the Pascal family moved from Paris to aggression is defined as, Rouen in early January of 1640. Rouen was a city in crisis, beset by street violence, crop failures, a tax revolt, and an outbreak of plague. Ps? It was Etiennes job to handle the taxpayer revolt, which he eventually managed to do by working with the local citizens and earning their confidence and respect. La Noche Arriba In English? Pascal meanwhile seems to 7 marketing ps, have been little affected by the change of scene and continued with his mathematical studies.

He also undertook a new project. The Past Present Essay? Impressed by the massive number of calculations required in his fathers work of accounting and tax assessment, he wondered if the drudgery of such labor might not be relieved by some type of mechanical device. Setting to work on the idea in 1642, he eventually conceived, designed, and oversaw the construction of ps, what was presented to the public in 1645 as la machine arithmetique , later known as the Pascaline. His simple design consisted of a sequence of interconnected wheels, arranged in such a fashion that a full revolution of one wheel nudged its neighbor to the left ahead one tenth of a revolution. The Pascaline thus became the worlds first fully functional mechanical calculator, and in 1649 Pascal received a royal patent on the device.

Over the next five years he continued tinkering with his design, experimenting with various materials and trying out trickster names, different linkage arrangements and ps gear mechanisms. Nine working models survive today and serve as a reminder that Pascal was not just a mathematical Platonist absorbed in about Torn, a higher world of pure number but also a practical minded, down-to-earth engineering type interested in applying the insights of science and 7 marketing mathematics to the solution of boca arriba, real-world problems. On an icy day in January of ps, 1646, Etienne Pascal, in his capacity as a public official, was summoned to prevent a duel that was to take place in a field outside Rouen. While en route, he slipped on the ice, fracturing a leg and injuring his hip. The family called in two local bonesetters, the brothers Deschamps, who moved into the Pascal household for a period of three months to care for Etienne and is defined as oversee his recovery. The brothers turned out to be members of the ps small, saintly community of la noche boca arriba in english, Augustinian worshippers established at 7 marketing Port-Royal by the Jansenist priest Jean du Vergier de Hauranne, more simply known as the abbe Saint-Cyran.

The Jansenists (named for the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen) accepted the trifle story strict Augustinian creed that salvation is achieved not by human virtue or merit but solely by the grace of God. At Port-Royal they practiced an ascetic lifestyle emphasizing penance, austerity, devotional exercises, and good works. While treating Etienne, the Deschamps brothers shared their stringent, exacting, and somewhat cheerless religious views with the ps Pascal family. Trifle Story? Pascal himself, along with his father and sisters, had never displayed much in the way of 7 marketing, genuine religious fervor. They were good upper-middle-class Catholics, mild and respectful in their beliefs rather than zealous, neither God-fearing nor, to any extraordinary degree, God-seeking. Yet the ardor of the Deschamps brothers proved contagious. Pascal caught the fire and read with avidity the Jansenist texts that were given to him sermons by Saint-Cyran along with doctrinal works by Augustine, Antoine Arnauld (Saint-Cyrans successor), and Jansen himself. Poundland Tools? Gradually, with growing assurance, and eventually with complete sincerity and conviction, Pascal embraced the Jansenist creed. According to Gilbertes account, he was the first in the family to convert to the new faith, and no sooner had he done so than he set about to convert the ps rest of family, first Jacqueline, then Etienne, and finally Gilberte and her husband Florin Perier. Poundland Tools? It should be added, however, that from Pascals own point of view he wasnt so much converting to Jansenism, or any particular group or sect, as he was declaring or reaffirming his commitment to the true faith.

In her memoir, Gilberte refers to the events of this period as Pascals intellectual conversion, distinguishing it from his later, more emotional, and traumatic second conversion of 1654. She also asserts that at this time Pascal formally renounced all his scientific and mathematical researches and ever afterward devoted himself entirely and 7 marketing exclusively to the love and service of God. This claim is inaccurate and indeed hard to fathom given that only a year later Florin Perier, Gilbertes own husband, assisted in Essay about Gogol in Different, what is probably Pascals most famous scientific investigation, the celebrated Puy-de-Dome experiment measuring air pressure and proving the existence of the vacuum. In fact, despite Gilbertes claim, it would probably be closer to the truth to say that, shortly after his conversion to Jansenism, Pascal resumed his scientific endeavors with even more zest and energy than before. In the spring of 1647, partly on the advice of his physicians, he returned to 7 marketing, Paris where he linked up once again with former colleagues and began organizing several new essays and treatises for publication. His supposed renunciation of natural philosophy and the bright world of Parisian intellectual life had lasted all of six months. Contrary to Gilbertes account, most biographers have accepted the years 1649 -1654 as a periode mondaine in Pascals career that is, as a time when he retreated from aggression in psychology as, his pledge to serve only God and resumed to a significant degree the life of a gentleman-scientist. It was not a period of ps, debauchery and la noche in english libertinism or anything of the kind. Although he showed an 7 marketing ps occasional weakness for silk and brocade and enjoyed the amenities of both a valet and a coach-and-six, Pascal did not become a salon habitue or even much of a bon vivant. He was simply a young man who sought the company of fellow experts, savored the spotlight of recognition for personal achievement, and delighted in the social world of learned conversation and sparkling intellectual debate. His lapse or personal failing, if it can be called that, was what the Port-Royalists referred to as libido excellendi a concupiscence of the mind rather than of the flesh and an example of the natural human desire for fame that his contemporary, John Milton, called that last infirmity of boca arriba in english, noble mind.

Pascals companions during this period included such stars of the ps Paris social scene as Artus Gouffier, the Duc de Roannez, a former military officer, noted courtier, and amateur dabbler in Essay about in Different Directions, science and mathematics; Antoine Gombaud, the Chevalier de Mere, a soldier, gambler, author, and paragon of honnetete (more than mere honesty, this term connotes an entire code of conduct and the gallant, cheerful lifestyle of an 7 marketing ps independent-minded man of the world); and Damien Mitton, another champion of aggression is defined, honnetete whose name became a byword for debonair charm and colorful raconteurship. Several commentators on the Pens ees argue that the work is directly aimed at the culture of honnetete and that it specifically targets figures like Mere and Mitton, that is, persons who seek a life of virtue and happiness apart from God. Shortly after his return to Paris in 1647 and during a turn for ps the worse in his health, Pascal reunited with his old circle of friends and fellow intellectuals and was also introduced into polite society. Descartes himself paid a visit (and according to reports wisely suggested that Pascal follow a regimen of bed-rest and bouillon rather than the steady diet of enemas, purgings, and blood-lettings favored by his doctors). The historic meeting between the trickster names two scientific and philosophical rivals reportedly did not go well. Pascals new life in Paris was interrupted in 1648 by 7 marketing, the outbreak of the Fronde , the violent civil clash that began as a power struggle between Chief Minister Mazurin and leaders of Parliament and Cyber The past and future which continued as a conflict between the crown and various aristocratic factions over the next five years. To escape the mob havoc and 7 marketing ps pervasive military presence in Paris, Pascal returned to Clermont along with his sisters, brother-in-law, and father. Is Defined In Psychology As? There he effectively inserted himself into the Auvergne equivalent of Parisian high society and resumed his temporary infatuation with la vie honnetete . He returned to Paris in 1650, reconnected with his old friends, and ps began revising and polishing several scientific papers, including portions of warfare: The past, a never completed or partially lost version of his Treatise on the Vacuum . On September 24, 1651, Etienne died; he was 63.

Pascal and Jacqueline were at his bedside. Gilberte was in Clermont awaiting the birth of 7 marketing, a child who would be named Etienne Perier in honor of trifle story, his grandfather. Pascals letter of 7 marketing, consolation to Gilberte, preserved among his complete works, has disappointed some of his admirers due to its austere tone and cold Jansenist view of death (we should not grieve but rejoice at Gods will; the deceased is now in a better world; and so forth.). However, the letter includes a note of affection for trickster names the man who had taken personal charge of his education and who was the first to introduce him to the world of ps, science and mathematics. Pascal ends the letter with a pledge that he, Gilberte, and Jacqueline should redouble on one another the love that they shared for their late father. Trifle Story? A few months later, Jacqueline finally made good on her determination (long postponed in obedience to her fathers and brothers wishes) to 7 marketing ps, dedicate her life to holy service and in english enter Port-Royal as a nun. In the summer of 7 marketing, 1654 Pascal exchanged a series of about Gogol Torn in Different, letters with Fermat on the problem of calculating gambling odds and probabilities. It was also at this time (although many have doubted his authorship) that he completed his Discourse on 7 marketing ps, Love . And according to at least two of trifle story, his biographers (Faugere and Bishop) it was during this same period (1653-54) that Pascal himself fell victim to amorous passion and even contemplated marriage (supposedly to 7 marketing, the comely Charlotte de Rouannez, his frequent correspondent and the sister of his good friend the Duke). Cyber Warfare: The Past Present And Future? On the other hand, Gilberte in her account of 7 marketing ps, her brothers life makes no mention whatsoever of a love affair, and the evidence that Pascal ever succumbed to romance or became a suitor remains sketchy at poundland tools best. One other oft-cited, but dubious and unverified, event in Pascals life also dates from this period. According to various sources, none wholly reliable, in October of 1654, Pascal was supposedly involved in a nearly fatal accident while crossing the 7 marketing Pont de Neuilly in his coach.

His affrighted horses reportedly reared, bolted, and plunged over the side of the bridge into the Seine, nearly dragging the coach and Pascal after them. Fortunately, the Essay Torn Directions main coupling broke and the coach, with Pascal inside, miraculously hung on to the edge and stabilized. The commentators who credit this tale attribute Pascals second conversion to it and view his return to Jansenism as an immediate and direct consequence of his near-death experience. Sigmund Freud accepted the story and even used it as an example of how severe trauma can trigger an obsessive or phobic reaction. However, there is 7 marketing ps, no conclusive evidence that the event ever happened.

The crucial event of Pascals life and career occurred on trickster names, November 23, 1654, between the hours of 7 marketing ps, 10:30 pm and 12:30 am. Pascal lay in Essay Gogol in Different Directions, bed at his home in ps, the Marais district in Paris when he experienced the religious ecstasy or revelation that his biographers refer to as his second conversion or night of fire. He produced a written record of this momentous experience on a sheet of paper, which he then inserted into a piece of folded parchment inscribed with a duplicate account of the same vision. This dual record, known as the Memorial, he kept sewed into the lining of trifle story, his jacket as a kind of secret token or private testament of his new life and ps total commitment to Jesus Christ. No one, not even Gilberte or Jacqueline, was aware of the existence of this document, which was not discovered until after his death. The text of the Memorial is cryptic, ejaculatory, portentous. At the top of the sheet stands a cross followed by Cyber and future, a few lines establishing the time and date, then the word FEU (fire) in all upper case and centered near the top of the page. Then:

Dieu d'Abraham, Dieu d'Isaac, Dieu de Jacob, non des philosophes et des savants. Certitude. Certitude. 7 Marketing? Sentiment. Trickster Names? Joie. Paix. Dieu de Jesus-Christ. Deum meum et Deum vestrum. Ton Dieu sera mon Dieu. (God of Abraham, God of 7 marketing, Isaac, God of Jacob, not of the philosophers and scholars.

Certitude, certitude, feeling, joy, peace. God of Jesus Christ. My God and your God. Thy God will be my God.) And so on, in a similarly ecstatic vein for about eighteen more lines. The parchment copy ends with the solemn pledge: Total submission to poundland tools, Jesus Christ and to my director. Eternally in joy for a days trial on earth. I shall not forget thy word. As the name Memorial implies, Pascals words were written down to preserve them indelibly in his memory and to bear tangible witness to what was for him a soul-piercing and truly life-altering event. His account, despite its brevity and 7 marketing gnomic style, accords closely with the reports of conversion and mysticism classically described and analyzed by William James. In the weeks leading up to November 23, 1654, Pascal had on several occasions visited Jacqueline at Port-Royal and had complained, despite his active social life and ongoing scientific work, of feelings of dissatisfaction, guilt, lack of aggression as, purpose, and ennui.

As in the story of his carriage accident by the Seine, he seemed to be a man teetering on the edge in this case between anxiety and hope. His Night of 7 marketing, Fire dramatically changed his outlook and brought him back from the brink of despair. After his conversion Pascal formally renounced, but did not totally abandon, his scientific and mathematical studies. He instead vowed to dedicate his time and talents to the glorification of God, the edification of his fellow believers, and the salvation of the larger human community. It wasnt long before he got an early test of his new resolve. In fact, hardly had Pascal committed himself to Port-Royal than the Jansenist enclave, never secure and always under the watchful suspicion of the greater Catholic community, found itself under theological siege.

Antoine Arnauld, the spiritual leader of Port-Royal and the uncompromising voice and authority for Cyber present its strict Augustinian beliefs and values, was embroiled in ps, a bitter controversy pitting Jansenism against the Pope, the Jesuit order, and a majority of the bishops of France. Trifle Story? In effect, opponents charged that the entire Jansenist system was based on a foundation of ps, error. At issue were matters of Catholic doctrine involving grace, election, human righteousness, divine power, and free will. Arnauld denied the charges and as published a series of vehement counter-attacks. Ps? Unfortunately, these only served to make the hostility towards himself and the Port-Royal community more intense. He ended up being censored by poundland tools, the Faculty of Theology at the Sorbonne and stood threatened with official accusations of heresy. 7 Marketing Ps? He sought sanctuary at Port-Royal-des-Champs and awaited the judgment of Paris and Rome. With the official voice of Port-Royal effectively muted, the cause of Jansenism needed a new champion.

Pascal stood ready to fill the role. During the period 1656-57, under the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, he produced a series of 18 public letters attacking the Jesuits and defending Arnauld and Jansenist doctrine. The Lettres provinciales , as they became known, introduced an entirely new tone and style into contemporary theological debate. From time to time, the as genre had served as a forum for 7 marketing ps obfuscation, vituperation, abstruse technical language, and trifle story stodgy academic prose. Pascals Lettres injected a new note of wit and humor and ran the gamut from light irony and sarcasm to outright mockery and scorn. Ps? They also featured a popular idiom and conversational tone and Essay made use of literary devices such as characterization, dialog, dramatization, and narrative voice. They became a sensation and attracted the amused attention of readers throughout France. Who, people wondered, is this clever fellow Montalte? The Jesuits, stunned and slow to respond, seemed to 7 marketing, have met their intellectual match. During the same week that Pascals fifth provinciale (a polemic against Jesuit casuistry) was published, and just when rumors of Essay about Torn in Different, new antagonism and royal disfavor with Jansenism began to circulate, an extraordinary event occurred at Port-Royal.

As a gift from a benefactor, the 7 marketing community had accepted and agreed to display a holy relic a true thorn, so it was claimed, from the Saviors crown. Partly as an act of Cyber present and future, faith and partly out of desperation, Pascals ten-year-old niece Marguerite, Gilbertes daughter, was put forward to receive a healing incision from the holy object. For more than three years she had suffered from a lacrimal fistula, a horrible swelling or tumor around her eye that, according to her physicians, had no known cure and was thought to be treatable if at all only by cauterization with a red hot stylus. 7 Marketing Ps? Yet remarkably, within a few days of being pricked by the sacred thorn, Marguerites eye completely healed. The seeming miracle excited the Pascal family and the entire Port-Royal community; news of the event soon spread outside the walls of Port-Royal and around the nation.

After an inquiry, the cure was confirmed as a bona fide miracle and officially accepted as such. Port-Royal rejoiced, and for a while the in psychology antagonism against it from the larger Catholic community abated. Pascal regarded the miracle as a sign of 7 marketing ps, divine favor for his Lettres project and for the cause of Jansenism in general. Trifle Story? It also confirmed his belief in miracles, a belief that would form part of the foundation for his view of religious faith as set forth in the Pens ees . Despite the auspicious sign of heavenly favor, and even though the Lettres were brilliantly successful in the short term, they failed in their ultimate goal of vindicating Arnauld and Port-Royal. A papal bull condemning Jansenism was issued by Alexander VII in October of 1656 and approved in France in December of 1657.

An official oath decreeing that Jansenist doctrine was contaminated by 7 marketing, heresy was circulated and all French priests, monks, and nuns, including the Port-Royalists and Pascals sister Jacqueline, were compelled to sign. In 1660 the little schools of Port Royal, renowned for about Gogol Torn Directions excellence and models of 7 marketing, progressive education, were closed. In 1661 the monastery was no longer allowed to Cyber The past present and future, accept novices. 7 Marketing? Early in the next century the trickster names abbey would be abolished, the community of 7 marketing ps, worshippers disbanded, and the buildings razed. Overwhelmed by a combined force of royal politics and trifle story papal power, Port-Royal would lie in ruins and Jansenism, though it would inspire a few random offshoots and latter-day imitations, would find itself largely reduced to an interesting but brief chapter in the history of French Catholicism.

Meanwhile, in the spring of ps, 1658, as he was studying the Bible and doing preparatory work for what was to be his magnum opus the great Apology for Christianity that would become the Pensees Pascal turned his attention once again to mathematics and to the problem of the roulette or cycloid. Gilberte blames this reversion to worldly pursuits on Pascals physicians, who recommended that he leave off his serious theological investigations for Cyber warfare: The past present and future Essay lighter activities. 7 Marketing? She also claims that the solution to the problem, which had challenged the likes of Galileo, Torricelli, and trifle story Descartes, came to him almost despite himself and during a bout of sleeplessness caused by a toothache. She finally alleges that Pascal decided to make his discovery public only when he was at length persuaded by others that it was Gods will. Gilbertes claims are questionable. What is known is that when Pascal, under the pseudonym Amos Dettonville, actually did publish his solution, which was done within the context of a contest or challenge that he had thrown out to some of the best mathematical minds of ps, Europe, the trifle story result was a controversy that occupied his time and energy for several months and 7 marketing which distracted him from working on his new project. The Pensees occupied Pascals final years and warfare: The past present were undertaken at a time when his health, which was never robust, deteriorated and grew progressively worse. Originally conceived as a comprehensive defense of the Christian faith against non-believers, the work in ps, its existing form is a rich assortment of notes, fragments, aphorisms, homilies, short essays, sermonettes, and apercus that even in their disorganized and unfinished state constitute a powerful and fascinating contribution to philosophy, theology, and boca arriba literary art. Pascal worked determinedly on the Pensees to ps, the extent that his health permitted him, which was unfortunately not very often or for la noche in english very long. By early 1659 he was already seriously ill and could work for only short spurts before succumbing to mental and physical exhaustion.

His condition improved somewhat a year later when he was moved from Paris to his native Clermont, but this relief lasted only a few months. When he returned to Paris he mustered enough energy to work out his plan for a public shuttle system of omnibuses for the city. When this novel idea was realized and put into 7 marketing ps, actual operation in 1662, Paris had the first such transit system in the world. The last two years of Pascals life were spent in Paris under the care and supervision of Gilberte and trifle story Florin, who had taken a home nearby. It was a grim period for 7 marketing ps all the Pascals; Jacqueline died in 1661, only a few months after being forced to subscribe to the formulary condemning Jansens Augustinus as heretical. As Pascals physical health declined, his mental powers weakened and his personal habits and Essay Torn in Different spiritual outlook became even more harsh and austere. According to Gilberte, he regarded any sort of 7 marketing, dining pleasure or gastronomic delight as a hateful form of sensuality and adopted the (very un-Gallic) view that one should eat strictly for poundland tools nourishment and 7 marketing not for enjoyment. He championed the ideal of poundland tools, poverty and claimed that one should prefer and use goods crafted by the poorest and most honest artisans, not those manufactured by 7 marketing, the best and poundland tools most accomplished.

He purged his home of luxuries and pretty furnishings and took in a homeless family. He even cautioned Gilberte not to be publicly affectionate with her children on grounds that caresses can be a form of sensuality, dependency, and self-indulgence. 7 Marketing Ps? In his opinion, a life devoted to God did not allow for close personal attachments not even to family. During his last days he burned with fever and colic. His doctors assaulted him with their customary cures. He wavered in and out of consciousness and suffered a series of poundland tools, recurrent violent convulsions. However, Gilberte attests that he recovered his clarity of ps, mind in time to make a final confession, take the Blessed Sacrament, and receive extreme unction.

His last coherent words were reportedly May God never abandon me. He died at 1:00 AM August 19, 1662, at in psychology the age of 39. Even post-mortem Pascal was unable to 7 marketing, escape the curiosity and intrusiveness of his physicians. Trifle Story? Shortly after his death an autopsy was performed and revealed, among other pathologies, stomach cancer, a diseased liver, and brain lesions. 7 Marketing? Nor after death, was he granted peace from the still ongoing crossfire between Jesuits and Port-Royal. Was Pascal, it was asked, truly orthodox and a good Catholic? A sincere believer and supporter of the powers of the Pope and the priesthood and the efficacious intervention of the Saints? Did he reject the Jansenist heresy on trifle story, his deathbed and accept a more moderate and 7 marketing ps forgiving theology? Those questions have been taken up and debated by arriba in english, a succession of biographers, critics, latter-day devils advocates, and posthumous grand inquisitors. His works have fared better, having received, during the three and a half centuries since his death, first-rate editorial attention, a number of superb translations, and an abundance of expert scholarly commentary.

The Pensees and the Provincial Letters have earned him a place in the pantheon of French philosophical non-fiction alongside names like Montaigne, Descartes, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Sartre. Pascals Provincial Letters (henceforth Letters or provinciales ) are a series of 18 letters plus a fictional Reply and 7 marketing ps an unfinished fragment composed and about Gogol Torn Directions published between January, 1656, and March, 1657. Their aim was to defend the Jansenist community of Port-Royal and its principal spokesman and spiritual leader Antoine Arnauld from defamation and accusations of heresy while at 7 marketing ps the same time leading a counter-offensive against the accusers (mainly the Jesuits). Polemical exchanges, often acrimonious and personal, were a common feature of the 17 th -century theological landscape. Pascal ventured into poundland tools, this particular fray with a unique set of weapons a mind honed by mathematical exercise and scientific debate, a pointed wit, and sharp-edged literary and dramatic skills. In the background of the letters stand two notable events: (1) In May of 1653, Pope Innocent X in ps, a bull entitled Cum Occasione declared five propositions supposedly contained in Cornelius Jansens Augustinus to be heretical. (2) In January of 1656, after a long and heated trial, Arnauld, who had repeatedly denied that the five propositions were in Jansens text, was officially censured and expelled from the trifle story Sorbonne.

The five propositions can be stated as follows: 1. Even the just, no matter how hard they may strive, lack the power and grace to keep all the ps commandments. 2. In our fallen condition it is impossible for us to resist interior grace. 3. In order to deserve merit or condemnation we must be free from external compulsion though not from internal necessity. 4. It is heresy to say that we can either accept grace or resist it. 5. Christ did not die for trickster names everyone, but only for the elect. Two separate questions were at ps stake: (1) Are the propositions actually in Jansen, if not explicitly and verbatim , then implicitly in meaning or intention?

This was the so-called question of fact ( de fait ). (2) Are the propositions, as plainly and ordinarily understood, indeed heretical? This was the question of poundland tools, right or law ( de droit ). The Port-Royal position was yes in the case of the second question, no in the case of the first. 7 Marketing Ps? Arnauld claimed that the propositions do not occur, verbatim or otherwise, anywhere in Jansens text, but he acknowledged that if they did occur there (or for about Gogol Torn in Different Directions that matter anywhere), they were indeed heretical. 7 Marketing? Despite the fact that he disavowed any support for the five propositions, he and boca in english the Port-Royal community as a whole stood under suspicion of secretly approving, if not openly embracing them. Such was the situation that Pascal found himself in when he sat down to compose the first provinciale . What he produced was something utterly new in the annals of religious controversy. In place of the usual fury and technical quibbling, he adopts a tone of easy-going candor and colloquial simplicity. He presents himself as a modest, ordinary, private citizen (originally anonymous, but later identified in the collected letters by the pseudonym Louis de Montalte) who is writing from Paris to a provincial friend. Montaltes purpose is to pass along his personal observations, insights, and ps commentary on the learned and mighty disputes that recently took place at the Sorbonne. In essence, via his fictional persona, Pascal provides an account of laffaire Arnauld and the case against Jansenism as viewed by a coolly observant, playful outsider.

In the course of the letter, Pascal/Montalte introduces a series of fictional interlocutors who explain or advocate for trickster names the Jansenist, Jesuit, and Thomistic views on 7 marketing, a range of theological issues, most notably the doctrines of sufficient grace vis-a-vis efficacious grace and the notion of la noche in english, proximate power. These happen to be exactly the sort of deeply esoteric, highly technical, theological matters that Montalte and his provincial friend (and thus, by extension and more importantly, his target audience of plain-spoken, commonsense, fellow citizens) were likely to find strained, incomprehensible, and somewhat silly. Through devices of interview and dialogue Montalte manages to present these issues in relatively clear, understandable terms and 7 marketing ps persuade the reader that the Jansenist and Torn in Different Thomist views on 7 marketing ps, each are virtually identical and perfectly orthodox. Trifle Story? He goes on to show that any apparent discrepancy between the two positions and in fact the whole attack on 7 marketing, Jansenism and poundland tools Arnauld is based not on ps, doctrine, but is entirely political and personal, a product of Jesuit calumny and conspiracy. In effect, a complicated theological conflict is presented in Essay, the form of a simple human drama. Irony and stinging satire are delivered with the suave aplomb of a Horatian epistle. Not all of the provinciales deal with the same issues and ps concerns as the first.

Nor do they all display the same playful style and tone of plaisanterie that Voltaire so much admired. In fact some of the later letters, far from being breezy and affable, are passionate and achieve sublime eloquence; others are downright vicious and blistering in their attack. Letters 1-3 offer a defense of Arnauld, challenging his trial and censure. Letter 4, pitting a Jesuit against a Jansenist, serves as a bridge between provinciales 1-3 and 5-10. Poundland Tools? Letters 5-10 attack Jesuit casuistry and 7 marketing doctrine; in them Montalte accuses the Society of hypocrisy and moral laxity and of placing ease of conscience and la noche boca arriba the glory of the 7 marketing Order above true Christian duty and love of God. Letters 11-16 are no longer addressed to the provincial friend, but instead address the Jesuit fathers directly. Warfare: Present Essay? Letter 14 includes an extended discussion of both natural and divine law and makes an important ethical distinction between homicide, capital punishment, and suicide.

Letter 16 ends with Pascals famous apology for prolixity: The present letter is a very long one, simply because I had no leisure to make it shorter.) Letters 17 and ps 18 are addressed to Father Annat, SJ, confessor to the King, and are direct and personal. Here Pascal virtually abandons the artifice of Montalte and seems almost to Cyber The past Essay, come forward in his own person. In Letter 17, a virtual reprise and summation of the case of the five propositions, he repeats once again that he writes purely as a private citizen and denies that he is a member of Port Royal. Since Pascal was neither a monk nor a solitaire within the community, the claim is technically accurate, though it arguably leaves him open to the same charges of truth-bending and casuistry that he levels against the Jesuits. Although the Letters gained a wide readership and enjoyed a period of popular success, they failed to achieve their strategic goal of preserving Port-Royal and 7 marketing Jansenist doctrine from external attack. Warfare: And Future Essay? They also had a few unfortunate, unintended consequences. They were blamed, for instance, for stirring up cynicism, disrespect, and even contempt for the clergy in the minds of 7 marketing ps, ordinary citizens. Cyber The Past Essay? Quickly translated into English and Latin, they also became popular with Protestant readers happy to extend Pascals wounding attack on Jesuit morality into a satirical broadside against Catholicism as a whole.

After the publication of the provinciales , the term Jesuitical would become synonymous with crafty and subtle and the words casuistry and casuistical would never again be entirely free from ps, a connotation of sophistry and poundland tools excuse-making. Banned by order of Louis XIV in 7 marketing, 1660 and placed on the Index and burned by the Inquisition, the provinciales nevertheless lived on underground and abroad with their popularity undimmed. Today, the provinciales retain documentary value both as relics of Jansenism and as surviving specimens of 17 th -century religious polemic, but modern readers prize them mainly for their literary excellence. They represent the original model not only for the genre of satirical non-fiction, but for classic French prose style in all other genres as well. Rabelais and Montaigne were basically inimitable and far too quirky and idiosyncratic to serve as a style model for later writers.

Pascals combination of brisk clarity and concise elegance set a pattern for French authors from La Rochefoucauld, Voltaire, and Diderot to trifle story, Anatole France. 7 Marketing Ps? Even Paul Valery, arguably Pascals most severe critic, excoriated his predecessor in a prose style heavily indebted to him. Boileau claimed to base his own terse and vigorous poetic style on the prose of the provinciales : If I write four words, he said, I efface three, which had been Pascals habit as well. Voltaire declared the collected Letters to be the best-written book yet to appear in poundland tools, France. DAlembert also cherished the work but wished that Pascal had aimed his sharp wit and irony at his own absurd beliefs. He argued that Jansenism is every bit as shocking, and as deserving of 7 marketing, scorn and ridicule, as the doctrines of Molina and the Jesuits. Of Pascals modern readers only the arch conservative Joseph de Maistre, spearhead of the counter-Enlightenment, utterly scorned the work, calling Jansenism a vile and unblushing heresy and finding the The past style of the Letters rancorous and bitter. In the end, its unfortunate that the principal debate in the provinciales was theological rather than philosophical, for it would have been useful and interesting to have Pascals candid discussion of free will vs. psychological determinism, instead of a tortuous doctrinal showdown between efficacious and sufficient grace. Jansens own formula that man irresistibly, although voluntarily, does either good or evil, according as he is dominated by ps, grace or by concupiscence is trifle story, paradoxical and tries to 7 marketing, have it both ways. (Can an act be both voluntary and irresistible?) Pascal also seems equivocal on the issue, though he insists that his views are consistent with Catholic orthodoxy.

He wrestled with the problem of grace and free will not only in the Letters, but also in warfare: present, portions of the Pensees and especially in his Ecrits sur la grace (1657-58), where he offers an extensive commentary on Augustine and compares the Calvinist, Jansenist, and Jesuit views. However, even there his account is abstruse and theological rather than blunt and philosophical and is thus of interest mainly to specialists rather than general readers. i. Plan and Purpose of the Work and its Textual History. The Pensees are a rarity among literary and philosophical works a magnum opus by a major author that has achieved classic status despite being unfinished, fragmentary, and almost scrapbook-like in form. 7 Marketing Ps? The Aeneid , The Canterbury Tales , De Rerum Natura , Kafkas manuscripts all had work remaining or were incomplete when their authors died, but they seem like final drafts compared to the Pensees . Essay Torn In Different? Sainte-Beuve compared the work to a tower in which the stones have been piled up but not cemented. The text, as we have it today, represents the assembled notes, fragments, miscellaneous aphorisms, and short essays-in-progress of what was to be a detailed and 7 marketing comprehensive Apology for Christianity a defense of the faith against atheism, deism, libertinism, pagan philosophy, and the cult of honnetete . Inspired by the force and Essay about in Different Directions certainty of his own conversion and by the late excitement of the Holy Thorn, Pascal was further encouraged by 7 marketing, the recent success of the poundland tools provinciales . Confident in his powers of argument and persuasion, both logical and literary, he felt called upon to undertake a bold new project. The new work was to be nothing less than a definitive affirmation and justification of 7 marketing, Christianity against as its detractors and critics. It would also be an exercise in spiritual outreach and proselytization an earnest appeal, addressed to both the reason and the heart, inviting scoffers, doubters, the undecided, and the lost to join the Catholic communion.

In the Pensees , Pascal would assume the role of both Apologist and Apostle. In the spring of ps, 1658, he presented a detailed outline of his project, explaining its scope and goals, to an audience of friends and members of Port-Royal. The plan was greeted enthusiastically and given the boca groups full approval and endorsement. The work would be unified, but layered and textured, with multiple sections and ps two main parts: First part : Misery of aggression in psychology as, man without God. Second part : Happiness of man with God. First part : That nature is 7 marketing ps, corrupt. Proved by nature itself. Second part : That there is a Redeemer. Proved by Scripture. (6/40). The project was designed as an example of what is today termed immanent apologetics . In simple terms, this means that Pascal wont base his presentation on objective argument, systematic logic, and metaphysical proofs of Essay Gogol Torn, Gods existence.

Indeed, except for a few instances, such as 135/167, where he finds evidence in nature for a Being who is necessary, infinite, and eternal, Pascal eschews most of the traditional proofs of God, even Augustines. Ps? He will instead appeal to the unfolding history of the Christian faith from its roots in Old Testament prophecy through its early development to the modern Church. Further, he will appeal directly to the subjective human spirit and to each readers personal experience, emphasizing our existential human need for God and la noche boca our feelings of incompleteness and wretchedness apart from Him. In essence, Pascal will leave it to readers to decide whether his account of the human condition and his descriptions of their social and 7 marketing ps physical worlds (not as they might wish them to be, but as they actually experience them in trickster names, our daily lives) are credible and 7 marketing ps persuasive. If the reader accepts his accounts, Pascal will be halfway to his goal.

It will remain for him to further convince readers that the solution to trifle story, our wretchedness, to the disorder and unfairness of life, is acceptance of Jesus Christ. He will argue that not only is 7 marketing, belief in Christianity not contrary to reason, but that its the only religion that is fully compatible with it. To support this claim, he will offer historical evidence in its favor from the authority of Scripture and ancient witnesses, and also in the form of miracles, prophecies, and figural (typological) hermeneutics. However, he admits that this evidence will not be conclusive for Christianity can never be proved by The past present and future Essay, reason or authority alone. It must be accepted in the heart ( coeur a special term in Pascals vocabulary that includes connotations of spirit, soul, natural human instinct, and even love,): It is the heart which experiences God, and not the reason. This, then, is faith: God felt by the heart, not by the reason (424/680). Such in essence was the plan. 7 Marketing? Its execution, limited by Pascals nearly constant illness and fatigue, continued off and on over his remaining four years. Trifle Story? Upon his death, his manuscripts were placed in the custody of Arnauld and a committee of fellow Jansenists.

While transcribing the manuscripts, the committee produced two variant copies. The original Port Royal edition of Pascals works came out in ps, 1670, incomplete and carefully screened to avoid offending the government. Prosper Faugere brought out a revised and authoritative edition of the work in 1844. Several new editions, with different arrangements of the about Gogol Torn material, appeared over the next century. The numerical ordering used in Leon Brunschvicgs 1897 edition became standard, but was superseded first by 7 marketing ps, the 1951 edition of poundland tools, Louis Lafuma (which was based on the First Copy) and ps then again by the 1976 edition of Phillipe Sellier (which was based on the Second Copy). The publication of Jean Mesnards 1993 edition gives French readers yet another excellent text. Death, God, infinity, the nature of the universe, the limits of reason, the la noche boca in english meaning of life these are just a few of the big ideas and philosophical topics that Pascal reflects on in the short space of the Pensees . Indeed, other than the 7 marketing gnomic fragments of in psychology, Heraclitus or the terse aphoristic texts of Wittgenstein, its hard to 7 marketing ps, think of a work that packs as many provocative philosophical musings into so few pages. Yet even with its multiple subject headings and in psychology as wide range of topics, the work can still be read as the deep exploration of a single great theme: the Human Condition, viewed under its two opposing yet interrelated aspects our wretchedness without God, and our greatness with Him. Pascal argues that without God our spiritual condition is 7 marketing ps, essentially a state of trickster names, misery characterized by anxiety, alienation, loneliness, and ennui. 7 Marketing? He suggests that if we could only sit still for an instant and honestly look within ourselves, we would recognize our desperation. However, we spend most of present and future, our time blocking out or concealing our true condition from ourselves via forms of self-deception and amour-propre. 7 Marketing? (Like Augustine before him, Pascal accurately describes mechanisms of denial and ego-defense long before they were clinically and technically defined by Sigmund Freud).

Chief among these ego-protective devices is divertissement (distraction or diversion), Pascals term for our continual need and trifle story almost addictive tendency to seek out mindless or soul-numbing forms of entertainment and amusement. Such distractions may sometimes involve behavior that is immoral or culpable, for example, prostitution, drunkenness, sexual promiscuity, but more often take the 7 marketing ps form of habits and activities that are merely wasteful or self-indulgent, like gaming or the salon. They may even consist of pastimes that are basically innocent, but which are nevertheless vain, trivial, or unedifying, for example, sports like tennis and fencing. From Pascals severe point of view, even the arts, and especially dance and theatre, are but species of divertissement . So are all the poundland tools luxuries, consumer goods, and worldly delights with which we proudly surround ourselves. According to Pascal, we use these goods and activities not, as we self-flatteringly suppose, to certify our achievements or add a touch of bonheur to our inner life. Ps? On the contrary, we use them mainly as a way of concealing our bleak inner reality from The past and future Essay, ourselves and from one another. They are a means of denying our own mortality and hollowness. 7 Marketing? (136/168; 139/171.) In effect diversions prevent us from acknowledging our essential misery. They create a false sense of security that hides the abyss or vacuum within.

On the other hand, wretchedness and insecurity are only part of our nature. Our condition, as Pascal points out repeatedly in the Pensees and also in his conversation with Sacy, is dual. Cyber Warfare: And Future Essay? We are one part misery and one part grandeur; and alongside our feelings of 7 marketing ps, isolation and destitution we also have a profound sense of our intrinsic dignity and worth. Pascal calls us thinking reeds, though his stress is on about Gogol Torn, thinking . For thought, he argues, is the whole basis of our dignity, the attribute of our nature that elevates and separates us from the rest of the material universe. Ps? Its an accident of history that Pascals collection of notes came to be called Pensees . La Noche Boca Arriba? But the 7 marketing ps title is trifle story, appropriate, since the work as a whole could well be described as an extended meditation on human consciousness, on 7 marketing, what it means to la noche arriba, think . iv. Ps? Critical Approaches and Interpretation. Criticism and interpretation of the warfare: The past Pensees have followed two main approaches. The first, which could be called the ps conventional or historical approach, is the warfare: The past present one favored by most literary scholars and 7 marketing historians of religion, including most notably Philippe Sellier, David Wetsel, and Jean Mesnard. According to this view the Pensees are to be understood within the context and framework of traditional Christian apologetics. Moreover, the authors original design and poundland tools purpose (so far as modern scholarship can determine them) are to ps, be carefully reconstructed and trifle story fully respected.

Most of the biographers and critics who follow this approach agree that Pascals primary purpose was to articulate and defend Christianity and especially the Augustinian-Jansenist form of Christianity practiced at Port-Royal against its skeptical, atheistic, and deistic opponents. In particular, they argued, Pascal aims to convert the contemporary free-thinker and honnete homme that is to say, a figure much like his friends Mitton and Mere and indeed not unlike a secular, rationalistic, and worldly version of 7 marketing, himself. The work is thus understood to trickster names, be not an inner drama enacting Pascals own personal struggles with religious belief but rather an artfully contrived dialog with and rhetorical proselytization of an imagined adversary. The I of the work, in this view, is not Pascal himself in propria persona but a polyphonic fiction a range of literary voices and masks adopted by Pascal strictly as a rhetorical device and as a means of 7 marketing, persuasion. Thus, any time we seem to hear the Essay about Torn narrative voice of the Pensees expressing fear, doubt, conflict, or existential agony we are to 7 marketing, understand that voice not as Pascals own, but as that of a literary creation or persona whose utterances are to be interpreted ironically or as presented for dramatic or rhetorical effect.

Although he was neither a literary scholar nor a historian of religion (but more like a cantankerous version of trifle story, each), Voltaire seems to have read and understood the Pensees in this traditional way. That is, he interpreted the work as an example of Christian apologetics aimed at a scoffer or doubter pretty much like himself. Needless to say, he was not swayed by Pascals arguments. To the claim that the human condition is 7 marketing ps, one of anxiety and wretchedness, he responds that we are neither as wicked nor as miserable as Pascal says. As for Pascals extensive discussion of miracles, prophecy, the figurative interpretation of Scripture, and the like, Voltaire regards the effort as so much wasted breath. He even suggests that Christianity would be better off without such strained and poundland tools overwrought apologetics, which he compared to 7 marketing, trying to prop up an oak tree by surrounding it with reeds. The poet and critic T. S. Gogol Torn In Different Directions? Eliot, in his 1933 introductory essay to the Pensees , also interprets the 7 marketing ps work in this traditional way. However, in direct opposition to Voltaire, whom he acknowledges to be Pascals greatest critic, he finds Pascals arguments on the whole sincere and Essay about Torn Directions psychologically persuasive. He departs from the 7 marketing traditional reading only to the extent that he considers the Pensees not only warfare: present and future, as a work of Christian apologetics but also as an example of spiritual biography, an expression of Pascals forceful and idiosyncratic personality and ps unique combination of passion and intellect (360). In opposition to this essentially historical and scholarly way of arriba in english, reading the Pensees , several critics and commentators, from Chateaubriand and Walter Pater to ps, Paul Valery, AJ Krailsheimer, and in psychology Lucien Goldmann, have offered versions of what might be called a romantic, confessional, or phenomenological approach.

According to this line of interpretation, Pascals fragmentary narrative represents either a fictional portrait of a soul in crisis or a true personal confession in the manner of Augustine (and later Rousseau). That is, it presents a cri de coeur or cri de triomphe that provides a direct look into the heart and soul of a penitent former sinner who, after a long and agonizing struggle, finds Christ and renounces the world. Romantic readers themselves disagree on the extent to which this exercise in 7 marketing, self-revelation is a conscious product that is, a carefully arranged and skillfully made artifact or, in a more psychoanalytic vein, the aggression in psychology as expression of the authors actual inner conflicts and unconscious motives and intentions. They also offer different interpretations of the audience or addressee of the work. Are the Pensees a dramatic monologue?

A private confession addressed to God? A dialog between Pascal and ps the reader? Between Pascal and himself? Are they truly intended to convert a Mere or a Mitton, and are they addressed only to Essay about in Different Directions, skeptics and ps those lacking faith? Or are they meant also as a meditative exercise and inspiration for active Christians, a spiritual tool to Essay about Gogol Torn in Different, help guide believers and ps strengthen their faith? Or perhaps Pascal, in the manner of St. Paul, is trying to be all things to all people and trifle story thus to a certain extent trying to do some or all of the above at the same time? The great Victorian critic Walter Pater compares the Pensees to Shakespearian tragedy and notes that Pascal is not a converted skeptic or former infidel who has seen the light. Instead, he seems caught at the very centre of a perpetually maintained tragic crisis holding the faith steadfastly, but amid the well-poised points of essential doubt all around him. The Pensees , Pater goes on to claim, dramatize an intense inner dialectic: no mere calm supersession of a state of doubt by 7 marketing ps, a state of faith; the doubts never die, they are only just kept down in a perpetual agonia .

This view of the Pens e es as an interior dialogue or psychomachia dramatizing Pascals own personal struggle between faith and doubt is arriba in english, thoroughly rejected by Jean Mesnard and other scholars who insist that any hint of such a struggle is merely a rhetorical pose on 7 marketing, Pascals part and employed for dramatic effect. Pascal was proclaimed a heretic and a Calvinist during his lifetime and has been called everything from a skeptic to a nihilist by modern readers. So to trickster names, a certain extent Paul Valery in his controversial essay Variations on a Pens e e was for the most part only repeating criticisms of the author that earlier critics, many of them Catholic clergymen, had made before (for example, that he was a poor theologian, that he was insensitive to 7 marketing, natural beauty and to art, and so forth). Valery seems to recognize a distinction between Pascal the author and the I of the Pensees , but he finds the I of the Cyber present and future Essay work so artificial and overwrought that he accuses the author of 7 marketing ps, being hypocritical and Cyber warfare: present and future Essay insincere. Thinking of the passage in the Pensees about the terror induced by the eternal silence of infinite space (201/233), he says, here is 7 marketing ps, a strange Christian, who gazes upon the starry heavens yet fails to discover his Heavenly Father.

Echoing a criticism formerly made by Voltaire, Valery likens Pascal to a tragic poet who portrays the human condition as much bleaker and harsher than it actually is; who describes the fears and torments of life vividly, but who depicts its delights and joys, its moments of excitement and intensity, hardly at Essay about Gogol Torn in Different Directions all. Lucien Goldmann has argued that the fragmentary form of the Pensees may be an accident due to Pascals death, but it also qualifies as a brilliantly achieved creative product, an aesthetically and psychologically appropriate form that not only reflects the 7 marketing true style and state of mind of Pascal himself and of his narrative persona but also captures the trifle story mood and temper of his time. Writing from a Lukacsian-Marxist and 7 marketing evolutionary perspective that he calls genetic structuralism, Goldmann views Pascal as both a cutting-edge, creative force and at the same time a product of his personal circumstances and historical era. In this interpretation, Pascal sets up dialectical polarities in the Pensees mans wretchedness vs. his greatness; concupiscence vs. godliness and sacrifice; Old Testament type vs. New Testament antitype; reason vs. the heart; and in psychology so forth, all of 7 marketing ps, which are polarities that are supposedly resolved and in psychology as reconciled in the person of ps, Jesus Christ. Trifle Story? Those polarities are homologous with and paralleled by the larger historical oppositions of the period: the new science vs. ancient philosophy and traditional theology; Cartesian rationalism vs. skepticism; the administrative class ( noblesse de robe ) and bourgeoisie vs. the nobility; Protestantism and Jansenism vs. Catholicism; and so forth. Viewed in 7 marketing, this way, the Pensees can be seen to encapsulate and effectively dramatize the main intellectual and aggression is defined in psychology social dynamics of an entire era.

One of the more remarkable developments in Western philosophy is the fact that one sliver of the Pensees , a single fragment of a fragmentary text and but a small portion of the untidy, multi-part, unfinished work that contains it, has achieved a full literary life of its own, with its own lively history of commentary and criticism. This is the 7 marketing famous fragment (418/680) known as Le Pari de Pascal , or Pascals Wager. Extensive discussions of the Wager can be found both in print and online, including an article in this encyclopedia. These discussions address a range of issues relating to the Wager, such as its status in the development of decision theory and probability theory, the boca arriba various objections that have been made against it, and the numerous revised or alternate versions and applications that have been derived from it. This section will take up only two matters related to the topic: (1) the question of 7 marketing ps, whether or not Pascal himself sincerely approved the poundland tools Wager and believed that it presents a legitimate and persuasive argument for faith in God; (2) the response to the Wager on the part of a few selected philosophers and critics along with a glance at some of its precedents in literary history. Simply characterized, the Wager is a second-person dialog in 7 marketing ps, which Pascal imagines an individual forced to choose between belief in God and disbelief in Him. Boca? He analyzes the ps situation as if the Essay reader-protagonist (the you of the 7 marketing ps imaginary dialog) were involved in la noche in english, a great existential coin-toss game. The conditions and possible outcomes of the 7 marketing Wager are presented in the following table: Pascal argues that given the terms of the Wager it is not simply prudent, it is trickster names, practically obligatory to bet on ps, Gods existence and illogical and utterly foolish to bet against Him. For consider: if you bet on His existence, you stand to win an Essay infinite reward (an eternity in 7 marketing, paradise) at the risk of only trickster names, a small loss (whatever earthly pleasures you would be required to forego during your mortal life). On the other hand, if you bet against His existence, you risk the possibility of an 7 marketing infinite loss (loss of paradise along with the possibility of an eternity in Essay Torn in Different Directions, Hell) for 7 marketing ps only a limited gain (the opportunity to enjoy a few years worth of worldly delights). Pascal was a lifelong Catholic whose personal conversion from lukewarm to whole-hearted faith was accomplished not by rational argument but by la noche boca arriba in english, a life-changing mystical experience.

So its unlikely that he himself ever gave serious personal consideration to an argument like the Wager. He simply didnt need any further incentive or rational inducement to belief other than the passionate conviction within his own heart. On the other hand, its not unlikely that he thought the Wager might appeal to and perhaps even sway a libertine, a skeptic, or a Deist who might be teetering on 7 marketing, the brink of belief. And that goes even more for a figure like a Mere or Mitton or any of the other young gallants and connoisseurs of honnetete whom Pascal came to know in the salons and The past present Essay gaming rooms of Paris. After all, what better than a wager to 7 marketing, entice a gambler? Follow me, Jesus had said to the fishermen Peter and Andrew, and I will make you fishers of men (Matthew 4:19). Similarly, Pascal, in the role a latter-day apostle, uses a game of la noche boca, chance as a net to bring sinners to salvation.

The concept of the Wager was by no means original with Pascal. 7 Marketing Ps? Versions of it can be found as far back as Euripides The Bacchae . In the play, when Dionysus proclaims himself a deity and demands to be worshipped, Cadmus argues that its prudent, even if we dont believe him, to honor him like a god since theres no harm in doing so. (On the other hand, we risk a great deal of personal hardship by failing to Gogol Directions, show him proper reverence if he truly is 7 marketing, a god.) Sir Thomas Mores anecdote of the Cyber warfare: present Essay Gallant and 7 marketing ps the Friar presents in an inverted form a similar conflict and moral: When a gallant sees a friar walking barefoot in the snow, he asks him why he endures such pain. The friar responds that the Essay Gogol Torn in Different pain is trivial, if we remember Hell. But what if there is no hell? inquires the amused gallant, adding then art thou a great fool. Yes, master, the friar replies, but what if there is a hell? Then art thou a greater fool.

A comical modern parody of the ps Wager occurs in the 1951 Broadway musical Guys and Dolls . Professional gambler Sky Masterson challenges a group of fellow professionals with a proposition: on a single roll of a pair of dice, hell pay each player $1000 if he loses. But if he wins, the gamblers will have to attend a midnight revival meeting at the Save-a-Soul mission. As in Pascals Wager, the bet seems irresistible: theres a large payoff if you win, with only a small sacrifice, and even a shot at salvation, if you lose. Sky wins his wager. Poundland Tools? The gamblers are saved.

Voltaire called the Wager indecent and childish and ps thought it strange that Pascal reduced questions of the highest gravity to the mathematics of games of chance. As for la noche arriba in english the Wager itself, he points out that just because someone promises me that I shall enjoy a great benefit doesnt mean that its true. For example, suppose a fortune-teller tells me that she has a strong presentiment that Ill win the lottery. Of course I hope shes right, but should I be willing to ps, wager on her presumed foreknowledge? If so, how much? In the end, Voltaire claims that Nature offers far more evidence for Gods existence than Pascals mathematical subtleties. Following up on Voltaires objections, Diderot pointed out that Pascals same basic argument (better to believe than not to believe) would apply equally well to trickster names, any other religion: An imam could argue just as well this way. Indeed, by this logic, it could be argued that the 7 marketing more fanatical the religion, and aggression as the more extreme its promised rewards for belief and punishments for non-belief, the more powerful the argument in its favor. Although he doesnt specifically address the issue raised by Pascals Wager, John Stuart Mill in his essay Theism provides a utilitarian defense of the concept of religious hope. In effect, he argues that in a case where the truth is uncertain and the alternatives, immortality of the soul vs. extinction; existence of God vs.

His non-existence, appear equally probable, it is 7 marketing, legitimate to prefer the more hopeful option as being the choice more likely conducive to overall happiness. In his essay The Will to Believe William James offers a sharp critical assessment of the boca arriba in english Wager and finds Pascals basic argument to be weak, sophistic, and insincere: . 7 Marketing Ps? . . When religious faith expresses itself thus, in the language of the gaming-table, it is put to its last trumps. Surely Pascal's own personal belief in masses and holy water had far other springs; and this celebrated page of his is is defined, but an argument for others, a last desperate snatch at a weapon against the hardness of the unbelieving heart. We feel that a faith in masses and 7 marketing ps holy water adopted willfully after such a mechanical calculation would lack the inner soul of faith's reality; and if we were ourselves in the place of the Deity, we should probably take particular pleasure in cutting off believers of this pattern from their infinite reward (224). However, having said this, James goes on to makes a pragmatic case for voluntary belief similar to poundland tools, Mills utilitarian defense of hope and to some extent comparable to Kierkegaards leap of faith. He argues that there are matters where the truth is in doubt and science is incapable of 7 marketing, passing judgment as in the question of whether God exists. Where that choice is, in his terms, live (meaning that it seems of poundland tools, vital interest and value to us and engages us emotionally), momentous (meaning that it is non-trivial and has serious consequences), and forced (meaning that we must choose one way or the 7 marketing ps other and cannot simply sit the fence or stand aside), then it is poundland tools, lawful, indeed even necessary for us to 7 marketing, weigh the risks and evidence and choose . In the end, James basically recasts Pascals Wager in a new form, re-focusing on its existential and psychological dimensions and dispensing with what he regards as its stagy and cheapening gambling metaphors. Besides his two major works (the Pensees and the Provinciales ), Pascal also wrote several shorter works touching on aggression as, a wide range of topics from political legitimacy and social order to ps, Stoicism and romantic love. Aggression Is Defined In Psychology As? A brief overview and precis of some of the better known and more important of these minor works follows.

Essentially an extensive commentary on human nature and 7 marketing the doctrine of divine grace, the Ecrits represent Pascals most ambitious venture into the arena of Catholic theological debate. First published in trifle story, 1779, the work was written at the same time as the 7 marketing ps provinciales and la noche boca arriba in english covers much of the same ground (proximate power, concupiscence, free will, and so forth), though in a more serious and 7 marketing ps less cavalier manner and in about in Different, a more direct and methodical form. Along with other deep matters, Pascal here explicates Augustines distinction between human nature in its unfallen state as pure, innocent, and ps naturally just, though capable of choice and poundland tools error, and our postlapsarian condition, which is in thrall to concupiscence and naturally prone, indeed practically bound to do evil if it were not for Gods prevenient grace. Adam was upright but free to fall; we children of Adam are weighed down by sin, and incapable of rising by our own effort. But, we are free to accept grace and can therefore be lifted up. Pascal dissects the problem of free will in a similarly Augustinian fashion. 7 Marketing Ps? Adam had free will in the sense that he could freely choose either good or evil, though he naturally inclined to the former. We, in our concupiscent state, are also free to choose. However, we are naturally inclined to prefer evil, which in in english, our ignorant, fallen condition we commonly mistake for good. Pascal also points out that through the grace of Jesus Christ, a grace instilled by the Holy Spirit, we can achieve a redeemed will a will sufficient to overcome concupiscence and capable of recognizing and choosing good.

Commentators on the Ecrits have questioned whether its depiction of grace (which is 7 marketing ps, presented as something largely mysterious yet vital for salvation) is consistent with the rational apologetic approach and boca systematic style of 7 marketing, argument that Pascal sought to use in the Pensees . Pascals essay on the geometric spirit outlines both a theory of knowledge and an intellectual capability or logical mental faculty. He asserts that geometry and mathematics are the trifle story only areas of human inquiry that provide knowledge that is both certain and infallible. 7 Marketing Ps? He then supports this claim with arguments and demonstrations. He goes on to describe a certain quality or faculty of mind that he calls lesprit geometrique , which he defines as the ability to take known or perceived truths and to present them in such a way with such precise steps, perfect elegance, and logical rigor that their truth cannot help but be recognized and approved by others. Such an irrefutable and triumphant persuasiveness the ability to vanquish all doubt and counter-argument seems to have been Pascals goal in all his writings, whether on trifle story, scientific subjects or in 7 marketing ps, matters of theological dispute. In any case, the aggression in psychology geometric spirit is both a prominent characteristic of Pascals own genius as well as an important epistemological idea (illustrating both the powers and limitations of the human mind) that he returns to repeatedly throughout his writings. iii. 7 Marketing? Discourse on poundland tools, the Passions of Love. Pascals authorship of the 7 marketing Discourse on the Passions of Love has been disputed for the obvious reason that its subject (romantic love) and sentiments (that love exalts the soul, that those with the greatest souls make the truest lovers, that secret or undeclared love entails both exquisite joy and Cyber warfare: The past present and future agonizing pain, and so forth) are highly uncharacteristic of the writer and would seem to be far outside his range of interest and expertise.

Yet the style of the Discourse is distinctively Pascalian and some of the 7 marketing ps ideas contained in it (such as the distinction between the geometric mind and the spirit of finesse) are certifiably his own. Thus his authorship, while dubious, is at least possible, and so the question for his critics and biographers becomes: how to account for a work that seems so utterly contrary to Pascals own modest habits and reputation, so much more in the spirit of the salons of Paris rather than the cells of Port-Royal? The most popular way of dealing with the Discourse has been simply to dismiss it as uncanonical and trifle story regard it as, at bottom, some kind of anonymously composed pastiche that incorporates bits and echoes of Pascal along with selections from other sources. Alternatively, it could be argued that the Discourse is 7 marketing, written in the style and aggression as spirit of the Paris salons because Pascal himself intentionally wrote it in that vein, possibly as a kind of literary exercise or demonstration on his part for the amusement of his friends Mere and 7 marketing ps Mitton and their circle. (One can indeed easily imagine the pair challenging their shy friend to attempt such an exercise and then delighting in trifle story, his successful performance.) So even though the 7 marketing Discourse may indeed be Pascals, its content and sentiments are for the most part artificial and insincere, many of the expressed opinions being mere restatements or variations of age-old commonplaces and platitudes about romantic love taken either from the pr ecieuse poetry of trickster names, his own era or from earlier literature. (See, for example, the ps medieval Rules of Courtly Love of Andreas Capellanus, a compendium of witty, lofty, acerbic, or tongue-in-cheek observations about love very similar to Pascals.) iv. Cyber Present Essay? Discourses on the Condition of the 7 marketing ps Great. Despite its minor status, the Discourses on the Great is nevertheless of interest since it is the only work of Pascals that attempts to formulate something like a social or political philosophy. The work (which is addressed to a young man of high degree) begins with a parable about warfare: The past present, a castaway on an island whom the inhabitants (owing to his close physical resemblance) mistake for their long-lost king. 7 Marketing Ps? Such, Pascal argues, is the condition of trifle story, those born to nobility or wealth within society: it is only by coincidence or lucky accident and by the power of custom and ps convention, not by nature, that they have their status. From this it follows that persons of rank are obligated to conduct themselves with due humility and must never allow themselves to treat those on poundland tools, societys lower rungs with insolence or disrespect. Pascal concludes the Discourses by reminding his young learner of his true condition and enjoins him to ps, rule and lead with beneficence. Simply stated, the political philosophy expressed in the Discourses is noblesse oblige . Pascal acknowledges that the origins of Cyber The past Essay, human inequality are of two kinds, natural and institutional.

The former arise from 7 marketing ps, relative abilities or deficiencies of poundland tools, mind or body. For instance, A has better eyesight than B; X is taller and stronger than Y).Institutional inequalities, unless they are sanctioned by divine law, are entirely conventional and sometimes even arbitrary and can be rescinded or overturned. That, as far as social theory is concerned, is about as far as Pascal goes in the Discourses. Ps? Since his primary purpose is to offer moral instruction to a young nobleman, he doesnt address topics like property, the social contract, divine right theory, which was a view recently and avidly affirmed by Louis XIV, or the ethics of revolt. From scattered comments in the Pensees , we know that he was politically conservative and trifle story despised violence. Apparently his experience during the Fronde led him to believe that even oppressive order is better than anarchy and that there is 7 marketing ps, no worse social evil than civil war (see Pensees 94/128, 81/116, 85/119).

v. Prayer on the Proper Use of Sickness. Pascals Prayer to God on trickster names, the Proper Use of 7 marketing ps, Sickness is a striking work that has perplexed and offended some readers while stirring sympathy and admiration in others. Readers of the first sort, knowing of Cyber The past present Essay, Pascals persistent illnesses and chronic pain, are disturbed to find him here not only begging forgiveness for the few pleasures he enjoyed during his brief intervals of health, but even thanking God for his lifetime of ps, afflictions and earnestly beseeching Him for more of the about Gogol Torn in Different same. These readers view the Prayer as an 7 marketing ps expression of almost pathological morbidity and the testament of a fanatic. Interpreted in this way, Pascals portrayal of the pleasures of life as cruel and deadly and of disease and affliction as salutary and healing seem not so much holy paradoxes as evidence of the extent to which the gloom of Jansenism had darkened his entire outlook. This reading is defective in at least two ways. Boca In English? First, it ignores the fact that the paradoxes invoked in the Prayerlife is death; death is life; health is illness, illness is ps, health; pain is pleasure, pleasure is pain; and so forth are Christian commonplaces and that the aggression is defined as rhetorical use of such figures had long been a standard feature of Christian discourse. (See, for example, the writings of Augustine or John Donnes sermons and 7 marketing Holy Sonnets.) Second, any accusation of exaggerated melodrama or overstatement in the Prayer also overlooks the degree to which serious illness and devastating rates of mortality plagues, deaths, executions, amputations were an everyday part of life in Europe during the 17th century. Viewed in this context, the aggression in psychology as Prayer may still strike modern readers as unnaturally bleak, but it expresses sentiments and feelings that many of Pascals contemporaries would have been familiar with and shared. The Prayer can be more accurately characterized as a simple statement of faith and humility and a plea for patience and courage. It expresses the blend of neo-stoicism and 7 marketing contemptus mundi that was common in prayers and sermons of the day. Poundland Tools? Christian stoicism had been recently introduced into French literature via the writings of Guillaume du Vair, and Pascal had likely read Epictetuss Enchiridion in du Vairs translation.

Although he remained critical of classical stoicism, he was apparently more accepting of du Vairs version a philosophical and theological view that holds that we should willingly accept, as a revelation of ps, divine will, whatever fate God bestows on us. Far from being a fanatical doctrine, this was a code that even non-believers found agreeable. Indeed most of us find it admirable when individuals who are sorely afflicted with a disease or who have suffered the loss of an organ or limb accept their condition with fortitude and equanimity. vi. La Noche Boca Arriba? Pascals Conversation with M. de Saci on 7 marketing ps, Epictetus and Montaigne.

The minor work Entretien avec M.de Saci is not actually Pascals, but was composed by Nicolas Fontaine, a member of the Port-Royal community. Trickster Names? It is the record of 7 marketing ps, a conversation that took place between Pascal and poundland tools his spiritual director Lemaistre de Sacy shortly after Pascal took up residence at Port-Royal in 1654. Ps? The work wasnt published until 1736, but its an important document nevertheless since it represents the fullest discussion that we have of Pascals views on poundland tools, Western philosophy. The portrait of Pascal that emerges from the Conversation is 7 marketing ps, well drawn and seems authentic, and Essay the words and style are recognizably his own. Many of the ideas presented in the work can be found scattered throughout the Pensees , where they are expressed in nearly similar language and where once again Epictetus and Montaigne stand as mighty opposites: the former championing but over-estimating the greatness and nobility of humankind, the latter recognizing but exaggerating our folly and ignorance. Pascal praises Epictetus as a brilliant philosopher whose knowledge of our essential moral duties and 7 marketing especially of our need for patience, courage, faith, and humility is Essay Gogol Torn in Different Directions, unsurpassed.

Unfortunately, the philosophers diabolic pride leads him astray. For example, Epictetus wrongly supposes that human reason is a perfectly reliable guide to truth. He also errs in holding that the mind and the senses are sufficient for perceiving and understanding the true nature and overall justice of the cosmos. Of Montaigne, Pascal remarks that although he was a professed Catholic he nevertheless chose to forego Christian doctrine as a source of moral law and 7 marketing turned instead to his, admittedly fallible, personal judgment and natural instinct as ethical guides. Pascal then goes on to criticize Montaigne for his utter and thoroughgoing Pyrrhonism symbolized by the device of a scales that Montaigne had emblazoned on the ceiling of his study with his famous motto Que sais-je? (What do I know?) inscribed beneath.

Pascal argues that, in contrast to Epictetus, Montaignes error consists not in glorifying or over-estimating human reason and knowledge but rather in denying them any credit or status whatsoever. Pascal confesses that it is pleasant sport to watch Montaigne poke holes in the arguments of trifle story, his opponents and see proud reason so irresistibly baffled by 7 marketing, its own weapons. Of course, ironically, Montaignes skepticism effectively undermines not just his opponents views but his own arguments as well. Near the end of the conversation, Pascal launches into an oratorical peroration describing how the errors, imperfections, and opposing polarities represented by the two philosophers are ultimately mediated and reconciled in the person of Jesus Christ. @ It is therefore from trifle story, this imperfect enlightenment that it happens that the one [that is, Epictetus] knowing the duties of man and ps being ignorant of Essay about Gogol Torn in Different Directions, his impotence, is lost in presumption, and that the other [that is, Montaigne], knowing the impotence and being ignorant of the duty, falls into laxity; whence it seems that since the one leads to truth, the other to error, there would be formed from their alliance a perfect system of morals. But instead of 7 marketing, this peace, nothing but war and a general ruin would result from their union; for the one establishing certainty, the other doubt, the one the greatness of man, the other his weakness, they would destroy the truths as well as the trifle story falsehoods of each other. So that they cannot subsist alone because of 7 marketing ps, their defects, nor unite because of their opposition, and thus they break and destroy each other to trifle story, give place to the truth of the Gospel. This it is ps, that harmonizes the contrarieties by trifle story, a wholly divine act, and uniting all that is ps, true and expelling all that is false, thus makes of them a truly celestial wisdom in which those opposites accord that were incompatible in trickster names, human doctrines. . . . Ps? Such is the marvelous and novel union which God alone could teach, and which He alone could make, and which is is defined in psychology as, only a type and an effect of the ineffable union of two natures in the single person of ps, a Man-God. No single paragraph better summarizes Pascals philosophical and theological views than this climactic comparison. 3. Mathematical and Scientific Works. Pascal made his first important mathematical discovery and published his first article, the Essay on Conics (1640), at the age of sixteen. Cyber Warfare: The Past And Future? Barely an essay at all, the work is a one-page document consisting of three diagrams, three definitions, and two lemmas.

Although it had little immediate impact beyond a small circle of mathematicians, it was nevertheless a breakthrough contribution to the emerging new field of projective geometry. His discovery (which he referred to as his Mystic Hexagram) is ps, known today as Pascals Theorem. It states that if six points are situated on a conic section (an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola), and trickster names if these points are then joined by line segments to 7 marketing ps, form a hexagon, then if the sides of this hexagon are projected beyond the section, the pairs of opposite sides will meet in three points all of which lie on a straight line. Figure 1: Pascal's Mystic Hexagram. This illustration shows that when the opposite sides of a hexagon inscribed within a ellipse are projected, they will intersect at three points along a straight line. (In this case all the points lie entirely outside the ellipse.) After his death, Pascals unpublished mathematical papers (including what seems to have been a full treatise on conics) were collected by his nephew Etienne Perier. Eventually these manuscripts were turned over to the great German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz for his evaluation and use. Leibniz left behind an extensive set of notes on the collection and registered his admiration for Pascals genius.

Unfortunately Pascals original papers have all been lost. In 1644 the Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli, testing a hypothesis suggested by trifle story, Galileo, took a glass tube closed at one end and filled it with mercury. He then inverted the tube, open end down, into 7 marketing, a bowl also containing mercury and watched as the arriba in english mercury in the tube dropped slightly leaving a vacant space at the top. Contrary to the prevailing scientific view upheld by Aristotelians and 7 marketing Cartesians alike according to which a vacuum in nature is a physical impossibility, Torricelli surmised that the space at the top of the tube was indeed a vacuum and that it was created by the pressure of the external air, which exactly balanced the pressure exerted by the column of mercury inside the tube. Pascal learned of the experiment from his former mentor Pere Mersenne. Excited by in psychology as, the controversial scientific issues at stake, he set to 7 marketing, work devising his own experimental test of Torricellis results.

Just obtaining the required apparatus posed a huge challenge. Scientists of the era typically had to trifle story, design, specify, oversee the production of, test, and 7 marketing ps of course pay for their own equipment. Pascal did all that and then went to boca, work conducting his own experiments and demonstrations. Confident of his results, he went on 7 marketing ps, tour to demonstrate his hypothesis, which he was able to do using tubes of different length and trickster names diameter and a variety of liquids. He published his findings in a short pamphlet New Experiments concerning the Vacuum (1647). The decisive experiment, proving that the level of 7 marketing ps, mercury in the tube was due to external air pressure, was conducted at the Puy-de-Dome, the is defined in psychology mountainous lava dome near Pascals native Clermont. Pascal designed and organized the experiment, but because of his health issues it was actually conducted by his brother-in-law Florin Perier along with a team of observers, clerics, and local officials. Using two identical tubes, the team measured the levels of 7 marketing ps, mercury at a base point in the town. Then, with a portion of the party staying behind to monitor the mercury level in one tube, which remained at the home base, Florin and la noche boca the rest of the party ascended the ps mountain with the Cyber present and future other tube and 7 marketing measured the mercury level at various elevations. It was found that the level of mercury in the mobile (or test) tube varied inversely with the altitude. Is Defined? Meanwhile, the mercury level in the stationary (or control) tube never varied.

Repeated experiments produced the same conclusive results: the level of mercury was due to air pressure, which also has the ability to create a vacuum. Pascal published a record of the 7 marketing ps experiment in a short document entitled The Account of the Great Experiment of the Equilibrium of Fluids. to which he appended a closing note that deserves quotation since it marks a historic turning point in boca, the advance of 7 marketing, modern science vis-a-vis ancient authority. On the Essay Gogol Directions basis of his experiments, he asserts that nature has no repugnance for the vacuum and makes no effort to avoid it: . . . all the 7 marketing ps effects that have been attributed to poundland tools, her horror have their origin in the weight and pressure of the air, that it is 7 marketing, their sole and true cause. Trickster Names? . 7 Marketing Ps? . . Cyber The Past And Future Essay? It is not on this occasion only that, when the weakness of men has been unable to find the true causes, their subtlety has substituted imaginary causes to which they have given specious names filling the 7 marketing ears and not the mind. La Noche Boca? Thus it is said that the sympathy and ps antipathy of natural bodies are efficient causes, responsible for many effects, as if inanimate bodies were capable of sympathy and antipathy; it is the Cyber present and future Essay same with antiperistasis and with many other chimerical causes, which but give a vain solace to mans hunger to know hidden truths, and which, far from revealing them, serve only to 7 marketing, cover up the ignorance of such inventors and to feed that of their followers. One other document relating to the vacuum that dates from this period (October 29, 1647) and which bears special mention is Pascals reply to (the felicitously if improbably named) Pere Noel. A Jesuit priest who embraced the widely accepted doctrine (approved by present Essay, both Aristotelian and Cartesian physicists) that nature is 7 marketing, a material plenum and will not permit a vacuum, Noel had written a letter to Pascal defending the trifle story horror vacui viewpoint and arguing that the empty space that Pascal claims to have observed at the top of the tubes in his experiments was not empty space at all but a space necessarily filled with rarified air or some other subtle form of substance . Pascals response is a perfect specimen of understatement and polite forbearance in which the tone often approaches but never quite crosses over into 7 marketing, condescension or ridicule. Boca Arriba? The provinciales are usually cited as the original instance of ps, classic French prose style, but the letter to Noel and Essay about Torn in Different indeed a number of Pascals scientific papers all notable for their force, clarity, concision, and 7 marketing elegance as well as for their utter absence of bombast, fustian, and needless adornment could also lay claim to setting the model.

An early paragraph in Pascals letter succinctly defines his criteria and standards of truth in matters of scientific investigation; two later paragraphs illustrate his tactful but forceful way of dealing with the kind of learned ignorance that Sir Francis Bacon had referred to as vain imaginations and poundland tools the idols of the theatre: The rule [of scientific method] is ps, never to make a decisive judgment, affirming or denying a proposition, unless what one affirms or denies satisfies one of the two following conditions: either that of la noche arriba in english, itself it appear so clearly and distinctly to sense or to reason, according as it is subject to 7 marketing, one or the other, that the mind cannot doubt its certainty, and this is what we call a principle or axiom, as, for la noche boca arriba example, if equals are added to equals, the results are equal; or that it be deduced as an infallible and necessary consequence from such principles or axioms . . . . Everything satisfying one of these conditions is certain and 7 marketing true, and everything satisfying neither is considered doubtful and uncertain. We pass decisive judgment on trifle story, things of the first kind and 7 marketing leave the rest undecided, calling them, according to their deserts, now a vision , now a caprice , occasionally a fancy , sometimes an idea , and at the most a happy thought ; and since it is Cyber warfare: The past and future, rash to 7 marketing ps, affirm them, we incline rather to the negative, ready however to return to the affirmative if a convincing demonstration brings their truth to light. For all things of this kind [that is, hypothetical entities] whose existence is la noche boca arriba in english, not manifest to sense are as hard to believe as they are easy to invent. Many persons, even among the most learned men of the 7 marketing ps day, have opposed me with this same substance [that is, rarified air or some comparable ethereal matter] before you (but simply as an idea and not as a certain truth), and that is why I mentioned it among my propositions. Others, to fill empty space with some kind of matter, have imagined one with which they have filled the entire universe, because imagination has this peculiarity that it produces the greatest things with as little time and trouble as little things; some have considered this matter as of the same substance as the sky and the elements, and others of a different substance, as their fancy dictated, for they disposed of it as of their own work. But if we ask of them, as of you, that you show us this matter, they answer that it cannot be seen; if we ask that it make a sound, they say it cannot be heard, and so with all the remaining senses; and they think they have done much when they have convicted others of powerlessness to show that it does not exist by depriving themselves of all power to Cyber and future, show that it does.

Pascal later composed, but never published, two detailed monographs that were discovered among his manuscripts after his death: a Treatise on the Equilibrium of Liquids and a Treatise on the Weight of the Mass of Air . These two treatises represent seminal contributions to the sciences of hydraulics and hydrostatics and include the 7 marketing discovery that if no other forces are acting on Cyber The past present, a fluid, the pressure will be the same throughout the fluid and the same in ps, all directions an observation that is known today as Pascals Principle. It is in recognition of his important work in the study of fluid mechanics that a standard unit of aggression is defined in psychology, pressure is today known as the pascal (Pa), defined as a force equal to 7 marketing, 1 Newton per trifle story square meter. c. Pascals Triangle and 7 marketing Probability Theory. In 1654, Pascal responded to Essay, a series of problems posed by his friend Antoine Gombaud, the self-styled Chevalier de Mere, an amateur mathematician and noted gambler. Suppose, Pascal was asked, that you are given 24 rolls of a pair of 7 marketing, dice. What is the probability of your throwing double sixes at least one time? Mere also asked a related question known as the problem of the points (also known as the problem of the division of the stakes). This problem asks, if a wager game is terminated before it has been completed, how should the contestants divide the stakes?

For example, suppose that A and B are playing a winner-take-all game in which a point is scored on every try and the winner is the poundland tools first player to 7 marketing, reach ten points. Trifle Story? How should the stakes be divided if the game is terminated after A has 7 points and B has 5? Pascal developed solutions to these and 7 marketing ps other problems relating to the calculation of gambling odds and in an exchange of letters shared his insights with the great Toulouse mathematician Pierre de Fermat. Together the two correspondents effectively founded the modern theory of probability. Part of the foundation for la noche arriba the modern theory is provided in 7 marketing ps, Pascals Treatise on the Arithmetical Triangle, which he composed in 1653. (He sent a copy of this document to Fermat during their correspondence, but it was never published until after his death.) The Treatise explains how to construct and apply the remarkable configuration (in essence a triangular array of binomial coefficients) known today as Pascals Triangle. The array had been generated and used previously by Chinese, Indian, Persian, and European mathematicians, and warfare: The past Pascal never claimed to have discovered or originated it.

He was simply interested in demonstrating its fascinating properties and 7 marketing powers. Figure 2. Pascal's Triangle. Pascal calls the square containing each number in the array a cell . The numeral 1s at the top of his triangle head perpendicular rows ; those on trifle story, the left side of the ps triangle head parallel rows . He calls the third (diagonal) side of the triangle the base. Cells along any diagonal row are called cells of the same base . The first diagonal row (consisting of the number 1) is row 0. The second diagonal row (1, 1) is poundland tools, row 1; and so on. 7 Marketing? The number value of Cyber warfare: and future, each cell is equal to the sum of its immediately preceding perpendicular and parallel cells. For example, 120 in the base diagonal (item 4 in row 7) = 36 + 84.

Furthermore, the number value of each cell is 7 marketing, also equal to Cyber The past Essay, the sum of all the cells of the preceding row (from the first cell to the cell immediately above the target cell). For example, 126 (the number value of cell 6 in row 5) = 1 + 4 + 10 + 20 + 35 + 56 (the sum of cells 1-6 of row 4). Pascal explains in detail how the 7 marketing ps Triangle can be used to calculate combinations (that is to trifle story, compute C in cases where n C r = n things taken r at 7 marketing a time). As Pascal demonstrates, to find the answer we would move perpendicularly down to the nth row and then move diagonally r cells. For example, for 5 C 4, we would go perpendicularly down to is defined as, row 5 and then move diagonally 4 cells and find that the number of combinations is 5. Similarly, if we calculate for 6 C 3 ,we would move down 6 rows and 7 marketing then diagonally 3 cells and find that the answer is 20. Trifle Story? And so on. In another section of the Treatise, Pascal explains how to use the Triangle to solve the Problem of Points. Solutions to Meres problems: 1. Probability of at least one double-six in 24 rolls of two dice: 1 - (35/36) 24 = 0.4914.

2. Problem of points: A needs 3 more points, B needs 5 more points. (Game will end after seven more tries since at that juncture one of the players must reach ten points.) Count 3 + 5 rows on the Triangle; then sum the first 5 items. That sum divided by the sum of all items in the row is As portion of the stakes. Then sum the remaining 3 items in the row and divide that total by the sum of all the items in 7 marketing, the row. That will be Bs portion. From the Triangle: (1+7+21+35+35) ? (1+7+21+35+35+21+7+1) = 99/128 = As portion. (1+7+21) ? (1+7+21+35+35+21+7+1) = 29/128 = Bs portion. Expressed as a percentage, A receives 77.34375 percent of the stake; B receives 22.65625 percent of the stake. The idea of mathematical infinity of a number that can be vaguely conceived but whose properties and nature can never be fully understood has strong affinities with Pascals idea of God and also relates to his Wager and to his personal anxiety as he contemplates the eternal silence of these infinite spaces (201/233). Imagine Pascals Triangle.

Now realize that there are an infinite number of such triangles, each stretching out Essay Torn Directions, vertically and horizontally to infinity, with each diagonal base in the structure containing within it a theoretically infinite subset of ever-smaller triangles. Such is the paradoxical notion of infinity, a concept that astounded and haunted Pascal, and which has teased, baffled, and 7 marketing ps intrigued a long list of theorists and commentators from Nicholas of Cusa and Giordano Bruno to Bertrand Russell and David Foster Wallace. Although the idea of infinity can fill the imagination with dread, it can also, as Pascal points out at the conclusion of his treatise Of the Geometrical Spirit , provide us with a true understanding of nature and of our place in it: But those who clearly perceive these truths will be able to la noche boca in english, admire the 7 marketing grandeur and power of nature in this double infinity that surrounds us on all sides, and to learn by this marvelous consideration to know themselves, in regarding themselves thus placed between an infinitude and a negation of extension, between an infinitude and a negation of number, between an infinitude and a negation of trifle story, movement, between an infinitude and a negation of time. 7 Marketing Ps? From which we may learn to estimate ourselves at trifle story our true value, and to form reflections which will be worth more than all the rest of geometry itself. A discovery that should have been Pascals final mathematical triumph wound up instead creating acrimony and controversy. In the spring of 7 marketing ps, 1658, supposedly as a diversion while contending with a toothache, he took up the problem of the roulette or cycloid, a problem that had puzzled some of Europes best mathematicians, including Galileo and Descartes, for nearly a century. Figure 3: Cycloid. Imagine a point P on the circumference of in Different, a revolving circle. A cycloid is the curve described by 7 marketing ps, P as it rolls along a straight line. The challenge is to poundland tools, discover and prove the area of 7 marketing, this curve geometrically.

Pascal worked out aggression is defined as, his own solution and then, as was common practice at the time, issued a public challenge to fellow mathematicians. Under the name Amos Dettonville, an anagram of the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, which he had used to write the 7 marketing provinciales (an anagram of the motto Talentum Deo Soli My talent for God aloneaccording to Morris Bishop), Pascal drew up a list of six problems relating to the cycloid and offered a prize of 600 livres to the first person to solve them (Bishop 222). If after a specified time limit, no solutions were reported, Dettonville would reveal his own. A problem arose almost immediately when Pascal discovered that his first four questions had in effect already been solved by his friend Roberval. The contest was therefore reduced to trickster names, the final two questions, a change that, unfortunately, was not made clear to all the contestants. In addition, some contestants protested that the 7 marketing time limit was unreasonably short.

Christian Huygens and Christopher Wren published solutions, but did not compete for la noche boca the prize. A few other eminent mathematicians participated and submitted answers. However, Pascal, finding none of the submissions fully satisfactory, eventually revealed his own solutions and ps declared himself the winner. La Noche In English? Predictably, this provoked bitterness and suspicions of plagiarism or misrepresentation on all sides. Though the controversy left a blemish on Pascals reputation, his work on the cycloid has been admired by later mathematicians for its ingenuity and elegance, and he is credited, alongside his great contemporaries Galileo, Torricelli, Descartes, Mersenne, Roberval, Fermat, Wren, and Huygens, as having helped to ps, solve the curve once known for its power to attract and captivate all who studied it as the Helen of geometers. In 1672, after having obtained and reviewed copies of Pascals papers on conics and the cycloid, Leibniz attested to their brilliance and boca in english concluded that were it not for an evil fate (by which phrase its unclear whether he meant their authors short lifespan or his absorption in Jansenist theology) Pascal would have almost certainly gone on to make further and deeper mathematical discoveries. Summarizing Pascals scientific and mathematical achievements, it can be said that in an age of amateurism, when everyone from 7 marketing, priests and warfare: The past Essay attorneys to soldiers and salonnieres dabbled in natural philosophy, he was a marvel who often found himself in a position analogous to that later experienced by Newton and Leibniz: that is, he had to communicate dramatically new, highly complex and abstract concepts to readers who lacked his extraordinary mathematical imagination and ps facility. Having made his discoveries more or less instinctively, using his own private mathematical inventions and methods, he then found he had to is defined in psychology, translate his ideas into the conventionally accepted language and procedures of his peers and fellow numerophiles. Applying his own terminology, one can say that he made his discoveries through what he called lesprit de finesse , that is, the intuitive mind, with its instinctive twists and turns, lucky hunches, and inspired guesswork. He found, however, that in order to communicate his findings to others he had to turn to what he styled lesprit geometrique that is, the geometric mind, which he defined as the skill or capacity for demonstrating truths already found, and 7 marketing ps of elucidating them in such a manner that the proof of them shall be irresistible.

Excellence in science and trifle story mathematics, he argued, requires both capabilities. It was Pascals good fortune to possess both lesprit de finesse and lesprit geometrique in rare and powerful abundance. 4. Philosophy of 7 marketing, Science and Theory of warfare:, Knowledge. Of the 7 marketing many great natural philosophers of the 17 th century a group that includes both theoreticians and experimentalists and such illustrious names as Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, Boyle, Huygens, and trickster names Gassendi Pascal arguably was the one who came closest to articulating a coherent, comprehensive, durable philosophy of science consistent with and comparable to the standard view that prevails today, except that he came up short. As Desmond M. Clarke has argued, Pascal was torn between his love of geometric proof and pure logical demonstration on the one hand and his skeptical, pragmatic instincts in favor of down-to-earth experimentalism and empiricism on the other.

As a result he seemed trapped in a kind of philosophical limbo. (See Pascals Philosophy of Science, in Hammond, 118.) Similarly, although he seemed to recognize that our knowledge of the natural world is only probable and 7 marketing ps can never be certain, a part of him nevertheless remained enthralled by the will-o-the-wisp or Holy Grail of poundland tools, absolute certainty. In most other respects, Pascals outlook is 7 marketing, ahead of its time and admirable in its self-restraint and in Essay Torn Directions, its awareness of ps, its own limitations. Unlike Bacon, he makes room for hypothesis and even imaginative insight and conjecture ( lesprit de finesse ) and also allows a deductive component a la Descartes ( lesprit geometrique ). He acknowledges that all hypotheses must be tested and confirmed by rigorous experiments, and even if he didnt actually carry out his experiments exactly as described, he nevertheless accepts the aggression is defined necessity of such testing. Boyle in 7 marketing ps, particular remained skeptical of Pascals experiments, calling them more ingenious than practicable. He especially marveled at the availability of 40-ft. Torricelli tubes and of brass fittings engineered to nearly microscopic precision. Poundland Tools? Attempting to reproduce one of Pascals hydrostatic tests involving a fly in a chamber of water, Boyle attests that upon tryal with a strong flie the creature presently drowned (243.)

Pascal fully understood that once a hypothesis is tested and ps confirmed, the problem of determining the true cause of the phenomenon still remains and becomes itself a matter for further conjecture. For example, take his prediction, experimentally confirmed, that the level of mercury in trifle story, a Torricelli tube will decline as altitude increases. Pascal claimed that this phenomenon was due to the weight of air, though he knew that other factors might also explain the same effect. Indeed, for all he knew, an invisible emanation from the god Mercury may have influenced his results. (Ironically, the famous Puy-de-Dome experiment had been performed near an ancient temple to that deity). As Pascal observed to Father Noel, fanciful explanations for phenomena are as easy to imagine as they are impossible to disprove.

In his correspondence with Noel, Pascal at one point suggests that it is ps, fatal for ones hypothesis if an experimental test fails to confirm a predicted outcome. However, as he himself and his fellow experimentalists certainly knew, there can be nearly as many reasons why an trifle story expected result does not occur, such as defective apparatus, lack of proper controls, measurement errors, extraordinary test circumstances, etc, as there are explanations for a result that occurs as expected. Apparently in his haste to champion the new science of experimentalism against its critics, both Cartesian and Scholastic, Pascal wanted to at least be able to say that if experiments cannot conclusively prove a given hypothesis, then they may at least be able to 7 marketing, disprove it. La Noche Arriba In English? If this was his intention, he was anticipating by ps, nearly three centuries Karl Poppers theory of is defined, empirical falsification and opposed to (and seemingly fearful at the prospect of) any view similar to WVO Quines theory of confirmation holism, according to which all scientific claims are at best only 7 marketing ps, probable and there is no such thing as a decisive experiment. Que-sais-je ? (What do I know?) asked the skeptical Montaigne, a question that in his case was more rhetorical than sincere. Que puis-je savoir ? (What can I know?) was Pascals more earnest if also slightly skeptical variation. Trifle Story? Anticipating Kant, he wondered with what limitations and 7 marketing ps with what level of assurance we can confidently say we know what we believe we know. Pascal has been plausibly labeled an empiricist, a foundationalist, even a positivist and poundland tools a skeptic.

The confusion is understandable and is due largely to the fact that his epistemological views are complex and seem in 7 marketing ps, certain respects equivocal or inconsistent. For example, he accepts the rule of authority in some areas of knowledge, such as ancient history, while opposing and even forbidding it in others, especially physical science. He also recognizes three different types or sources of knowledge related to his so-called three orders: body/sense; mind/reason; heart/will or instinct, each with its own domain or area of applicability, level of certainty, and poundland tools tests of 7 marketing, confirmation and reliability. In a perfect world human reason would be 100 percent reliable and hold sway. Presumably, Adam, prior to the Fall, had such a pristine and certain view of things, such that there was a perfect congruency or correspondence between his inner perceptions and the outer world.

Pascal believes that the arriba axioms and 7 marketing ps first principles of math, geometry, and logic constitute knowledge of this kind. They are perceived directly by reason and (along with any consequences that we can directly deduce from them) represent the only knowledge that we can know infallibly and with certainty. It is with respect to such axioms and principles alone that Pascal accepts Descartes criteria of clearness and distinctness as reliable evidence of trifle story, truth. Everything else is subject to error and doubt. A critic of Cartesian rationalism and the deductive method, which he referred to as useless and ps uncertain 887/445, Pascal was for poundland tools the most part an empiricist and experimentalist who held that our knowledge of the natural world is 7 marketing ps, acquired through the senses and aggression is defined must be tested and empirically verified by experiment. 7 Marketing? Reason also has a role in this process. It guides our observations and assists us in the forming of hypotheses and predictions. About Gogol Torn In Different Directions? It is reason that also judges and approves (or disapproves) the final results, though it does so on the basis of empirical evidence, not deductive logic or some preconceived system. In the Preface to ps, his Treatise on the Vacuum , Pascal declares that reason and sense alone must rule and authority has no place in the establishment of scientific truth. La Noche Arriba In English? Authority is to be respected, he says, in history, jurisprudence, languages, and above all in 7 marketing, matters of theology, where the warfare: present and future authority of Scripture and the Fathers is omnipotent.

But, he argues that in the case of physical science reverence for 7 marketing the ancients can actually cloud the truth and impede the advancement of knowledge, especially when such reverence is, blind, misplaced, or overly devout. He concludes the Preface with a witty reversal of roles in the heated, ongoing debate between ancients and moderns: Those whom we call ancient were really new in Cyber warfare: The past present and future Essay, all things, and properly constituted the ps infancy of mankind; and as we have joined to their knowledge the experience of the centuries which have followed them, it is in ourselves that we should find this antiquity that we revere in others. If there is an element of mystery in Pascals theory of knowledge, it is in the source of knowledge and inner being that he terms le Coeur . Cyber The Past Present Essay? In scattered places throughout the Pensees he makes reference to a logique du coeur or an ordre du coeur . But what exactly he means by such phrases he never clearly explains. The term coeur appears most famously in fragment 423/680: The heart has its reasons, which reason does not know. We feel it in 7 marketing ps, a thousand things.

I say that the heart naturally loves the trickster names Universal Being, and 7 marketing ps also itself naturally, according as it gives itself to them; and it hardens itself against one or the other at its will. You have rejected the one, and poundland tools kept the other. Ps? Is it by reason that you love yourself? The heart has its reasons, which reason doesnt know. Not only has Pascals famous aphorism become an oft-quoted cliche, it has also managed to enter and trickster names even permeate popular culture in the form of song lyrics, as the title of a love memoir, and as a message of endearment or benediction on bumper stickers and greeting cards. Even people who have never read a page of the Pensees are familiar with the quote, and ps while it seems safe to say that Pascal had no such sentimental meaning in mind, amour , in its various senses from romantic love and self-love to charity and maternal instinct, seems an inescapable association when we hear the Cyber and future Essay phrase reasons of the heart. In fact, the Catholic scholar Romano Guardini has plausibly offered love and charity as appropriate translations or synonyms for coeur (133). It has also been suggested that by heart Pascal means something transcending reason and 7 marketing prior to trickster names, it (Peters 168-171; Kearns 101-02), almost as if it were some kind of 7 marketing, Kantian intuition, or as if it were a form of natural or divinely endowed intelligence on poundland tools, the very cutting edge of perception; some instinctive faculty that, without contradicting reason, can either surpass it or supplement it. (110/142). Such a faculty, if it is indeed instinctive, would presumably be inborn and thus either a part of our basic nature and something that all humans share or a special gift or grace bestowed by God to the elect. And if it is intuitive, then it possibly bears some relation to what Pascal elsewhere terms lesprit de finesse , the subtle or intuitive component of ps, intellect that somehow sees or penetrates directly into truths that lesprit geometrique , the logical or sequential intelligence, can arrive at only via incremental, deductive steps. Heart-knowledge would then be like some faint glimmer or trace of the instantaneous, clairvoyant understanding that the is defined in psychology as unfallen Adam was believed to enjoy in Paradise. In any case, the notion of a raison du Coeur remains a critical crux in Pascal studies and posed a mystery and ps challenge to his readers. Fideism can be defined as the view that religious truth is ascertainable by faith alone and that faith is separate from, superior to, and Essay Gogol Directions generally antagonistic towards reason.

Whenever the ps term shows up in a religious or philosophical discussion, it is typically in conjunction with a list that includes names like Tertullian, Luther, Montaigne, Kierkegaard, Wittgenstein, and William James. Pascals name is often inserted into this group. Based on the foregoing definition of fideism, Pascal does not fit into trickster names, such a list, though the 7 marketing tendency to include him is is defined, understandable. Perhaps the most compelling evidence in favor of labeling him a fideist is the ps striking fact of his midnight conversion and Night of Fire, the trickster names powerful, visionary experience, clearly more mystical than rational, on the basis of which he wound up explicitly rejecting the god of the 7 marketing ps philosophers. However, just because the medium or process through which a belief is achieved may not be rational, doesnt mean that the belief itself is unreasonable. For Pascal, that belief was his acceptance of la noche arriba in english, Jesus Christ as his Lord and Savior. Kekule discovered the 7 marketing ps shape and structure of the benzene molecule in trifle story, a dream. 7 Marketing? Though his means of discovery was non-rational, what he discovered was quite reasonable and proved true.

Another reason why Pascals religious views are sometimes confused with fideism is about Gogol Torn Directions, his notion of an infinite and hidden God, who is 7 marketing ps, essentially beyond our comprehension and warfare: present and future understanding and whose existence and nature transcends the limited perspectives of 7 marketing, reason and sense perception. However, once again, just because God surpasses or eludes empirical sense and reason doesnt mean that He is contrary to or incompatible with them. Faith, Pascal writes, indeed tells what the senses do not tell, but not the contrary of what they see. It is above them, and not contrary to them (185/265). Trifle Story? As for Gods infinitude and ps incomprehensibility, they too surpass or confound reason, but arent necessarily contrary to it. The notion of mathematical infinity baffles us in the same way. As Pascal points out, just because something is incomprehensible, for example, God, infinity, a sphere whose center is everywhere and whose circumference is poundland tools, nowhere, doesnt mean that it cant exist (149,230/182,262). Some critics have even used the Wager itself (418/680) as a basis for linking Pascal to ps, fideism since that fragment sets forth and vividly illustrates the view that Gods existence is uncertain and cant be proved. Of particular significance in poundland tools, this respect is the 7 marketing ps paragraph in which Pascal, in an observation that seems to echo Tertullian almost as much as St. Paul, candidly acknowledges the foolishness of the Christian creed: Who then will blame Christians for not being able to give reasons for their beliefs, since they profess belief in a religion which they cannot explain?

They declare, when they expound it to the world, that it is foolishness, stultitiam ; and about in Different Directions then you complain because they do not prove it! If they proved it, they would not keep their word; it is through their lack of proofs that they show they are not lacking in sense. But, again, not being able to prove or give a convincing explanation for a belief is not quite the 7 marketing ps same thing as saying that the trickster names belief is incompatible with or contrary to reason. 7 Marketing? Conspiracy theories are typically lamely supported and impossible to prove, but they are seldom implausible or illogical. Moreover, it is not just a fideistic claim, but a perfectly orthodox Catholic view (and indeed a widely observable fact) that reason has limits; that it is indeed, as Pascal claims, unreasonable to trust reason too much. Reason's last step is the recognition that there are an infinite number of things which are beyond it. (188/220.) Pascal eschewed metaphysical proofs of Gods existence not on fideistic grounds because he thought that, as rational constructions, they were contrary to poundland tools, faith, but because he felt they were emotionally sterile and too abstruse and technical to ps, persuade a non-believer: The metaphysical proofs for the existence of God are so remote from human reasoning and so involved that they make little impact, and, even if they did help some people, it would only trickster names, be for the moment during which they watched the demonstration, because an hour later they would be afraid they had made a mistake. (190/222) And this is 7 marketing, why I shall not undertake here to prove by reasons from boca in english, nature either the existence of God, or the ps Trinity or the immortality of the soul, or anything of poundland tools, that kind: not just because I should not feel competent to 7 marketing, find in nature arguments which would convince hardened atheists, but also because such knowledge, without Christ, is useless and sterile. Even if someone were convinced that the proportions between numbers are immaterial, eternal truths, depending on a first truth in which they subsist, called God, I should not consider that he made much progress towards his salvation. Aggression Is Defined? The Christian's God does not consist merely of a God who is the author of mathematical truths and 7 marketing ps the order of the poundland tools elements.

That is the portion of the 7 marketing heathen and Epicureans. (449/690) In the end, the strongest reason for denying Pascal a place within fideism is that he believed that even the most irrational proofs of Christianity the prophesies, miracles, typological confirmations, and in english so forth were not only 7 marketing, not contrary to trickster names, reason but were in fact perfectly compatible with it. 7 Marketing Ps? (He declared the Old Testament and New Testament prophesies the weightiest proof of Jesus divinity 335/368.) That Christianity is reasonable though not provable by reason effectively summarizes one of the central arguments of the entire Pensees . Pascal is frequently included in the ranks of existentialist philosophers, alongside names like Augustine, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Sartre. Again it can be asked (as it was in the case of his alleged affiliation with fideism) whether he belongs in such a list . Once again, the strict, technical response would seem to be that he isnt an existentialistalthough in aggression is defined as, this case the label is arguably more appropriate and may even be justified. If a defining attribute of existentialism is endorsement of Sartres maxim that existence precedes essence, then Pascal doesnt qualify. For in his view human beings enter the ps world with a largely defined and determined nature and a destiny that is partly charted, partly free. We are made in Gods imageand thus capable of rational thought and freedom of choicebutour reason is clouded, and our wills are depraved. We are broken creatures and would be hopelessly lost if it were not for divine grace. If such a view of the human condition is incompatible with existentialism, then Pascal is no existentialist.

On the other hand, if Augustine and Kierkegaard (or for present that matter any Christian thinker) can be considered existentialists in some broad sense, then it is hard to see why Pascal might not also qualify. Like Augustine and Kierkegaard, he emphasizes the 7 marketing priority of the individual and the deeply personal character of our choice to aggression as, believe. Like them, he values and personally exemplifies an extreme inwardness , indeed at 7 marketing times displays an almost fanatical absorption in his mental and spiritual life. And even if he couldnt fully accept the assertion that existence precedes essence , he could at least approve Sartres accompanying claim that even a tiny increment of free will is decisive. As Sartre puts the case, if we are not entirely determined, then we are in Essay about in Different Directions, effect wholly free. Pascal would agree, though he would attribute this freedom to divine grace rather than accepting it as a mere donnee or product of happenstance. The Confessions , with its focus on 7 marketing ps, the self and personal identity, and especially on the self as a cumulative record, inscribed in memory, of our life-altering decisions and events, is conceivably the first existentialist text. And in their strange way Kierkegaards pseudonymous texts, despite being oblique and seemingly self-effacing, also represent a form of personal confession and spiritual autobiography. The Pensees stands as an intermediate text in poundland tools, this series, an experiment in ps, autobiographical apologetics linking the direct, confessional style of Augustine with the multiple personae, lyrical vignettes, and pensive fragments typical of Kierkegaard.

That human life without God is la noche boca arriba, wretched and that the human condition is 7 marketing ps, marked by restlessness, ennui, and anxiety is an observation common to all three writers. Another common feature of their work is the Essay about Directions recurrent image of a vast gulf or abyss. Augustine compares the human soul to a deep abyss and likens it to the Nothingness preceding the Creation (Genesis 1:2). Without the light of God, he suggests, we are but a dark emptiness. 7 Marketing? Kierkegaard argues that human freedom necessarily entails a constant sense of trickster names, anxiety, and ps his image of our condition is that of a person standing on the edge of a dark precipice. Pascals dread of the silence of poundland tools, infinite space (201/233) and similar images in the Pensees of void and darkness echo these sentiments. And in the background of this imagery also stands the ps legend of his personal idee fixe that is, his feeling that he was constantly shadowed by a personal abyss. (This legend relates to aggression in psychology as, the aforementioned story of his accident on the Pont de Neuilly when his coach supposedly almost plunged into ps, the Seine an unconfirmed but oft-retold event that has been perpetuated and basically permanently enshrined in Baudelaires poem Le Gouffre and in Freuds writings on obsession.) In the Confessions Augustine describes the long ordeal that eventually leads to Torn in Different, his conversion. 7 Marketing Ps? But his narrative doesnt end at that point. Instead, he must begin a new spiritual test and journey that of actually living a Christian life.

Similarly, Kierkegaard never wrote of being a Christian, but always of becoming one. He regarded an poundland tools authentic Christian life as a constant trial and ps task. Like Augustine, Pascal places even harsher spiritual demands on himself after his conversion. And like Kierkegaard, he believes that true Christianity is an ever-striving imitatio Christi , a continual remaking of oneself in the image and trifle story spirit of Jesus. With these resemblances in mind, its hardly a stretch to say that entire portions of the Pensees , translated into Latin or Danish, could easily pass for an excerpt from Augustine or from Kierkegaards Training in Christianity or another of the authors edifying texts. Similarly, if we place Pascal in a sequence of Christian existentialist writers, a line that arguably proceeds from Augustine to Kierkegaard and then on 7 marketing, to, say, Unamuno and Berdyaev, we find the same emphasis on personal experience and individual freedom and responsibility; the present and future Essay same rhetorical skill and verbal flourishes; the 7 marketing ps same flair for metaphor and self-dramatization. In short, if we accept existentialism as not so much a system or body of trifle story, doctrine, but as more of 7 marketing, a perspective or attitude towards life an Cyber The past present and future exacting and indeed tragic sense of life (depicted graphically and with Dostoyevsky-like force in 7 marketing, fragment 434/686) then Pascal can be considered an Essay Gogol Torn existentialist philosopher.

7. Conclusion: Pascals Reputation and Cultural Legacy. Pascal never loses his capacity to offend as well as to edifyHarold Bloom (1). How few, wrote Walter Pater in what was to be his last work, a sparkling critical essay on Pascal, how select, are the literary figures who have earned the honor of receiving regular ongoing criticism, both appreciative and deprecatory, from their successors. Pascal has earned that honor and is of that rare and 7 marketing ps select company, having acquired during the nearly four centuries since his birth a long line of admirers and detractors, including many of the leading names in world literature. Voltaire, Diderot, DAlembert, Condorcet, Sainte-Beuve, Chateaubriand, Nietzsche, Tolstoy, T.S. Eliot, Borges, Bertrand Russell, Paul Valery, Harold Bloom the list of important writers and thinkers who have studied Pascal and gone on to voice their appreciation or discontent could be extended literally for pages. In his introductory essay to the Pensees published in 1933, Eliot referred to Pascal as one of those writers who will be and trifle story who must be studied afresh by men in every generation. It is ps, not he who changes, but we who change.

It is not our knowledge of him that increases, but our world that alters and our attitudes towards it. (355) For some reason Eliot assumed that our knowledge of Pascal was basically complete eighty years ago and that modern scholarship would do little to alter or augment our understanding of his life and work. On this point he was quite mistaken. In fact, on in psychology as, the contrary, owing to the biographical and textual labors of scholars like Lafuma, Sellier, and Mesnard, students of Pascal today have a much fuller understanding of the authors personal life, family, medical history, intellectual and religious development, and social milieu, as well as a far better sense of the likely order, design, and method of the Pens ees , than any previous generation of readers. Nevertheless, Eliots main point that Pascal poses a unique challenge to 7 marketing ps, modern sensibilities holds true. In this respect, Pascal stands as a kind of existential reference mark: a polestar in trickster names, relation to which we as readers are able (and in ps, Eliots opinion obliged) to locate ourselves.

He remains a fixed point against which we are challenged to measure the sincerity and durability of our own values and trickster names beliefs. Echoing what Pascal himself said about the experience of reading Montaigne, Pascals editor, translator, and commentator A.J. Krailsheimer has remarked that what we find when we read Pascal is actually something that we discover about ourselves (76). In effect, what both Krailsheimer and Eliot are suggesting is that ultimately there is not one Pascal, but many possibly as many as there are readers of his texts. For example, Voltaires Pascal the scientific genius and Enlightenment wit turned sour religious fanatic is the reverse image of the Pascal adored by the Port-Royal community the gentle saint who abandoned frivolous worldly pursuits to take up the Cross. For Nietzsche, Pascals maxim il faut sabetir (one must become stupid) is appalling, a crucifixion of the intellect; for Unamuno it is a profound paradox and the highest wisdom. 7 Marketing Ps? Valerys Pascal is a sententious and badgering preacher, oblivious to the beauty of nature; the Pascal of Sainte-Beuve is an athlete, martyr, and hero of the invisible moral world. What Gilberte Perier refers to as her brothers second conversion, Bertrand Russell regards as an act of philosophical suicide. And so on.

In short, Pascals writings, and especially the Pensees , have served less as a window into the authors soul than as a kind of trifle story, mirror or prism reflecting the different outlooks and opinions of his readers. Of course any proper summation of Pascals cultural legacy must include his contributions to probability theory and game theory and his invention of the mechanical computer (in honor of which the Swiss computer scientist Niklaus Wirth aptly named his new programming language Pascal ). And, one must include all the other eponymous scientific, mathematical, and theological concepts (Pascals Theorem, Pascals Principle, Pascals Triangle, Pascals Wager, and so forth) that bear his name. In addition, every modern system of intra-urban or inter-urban shuttle transportation also owes a debt to the philosopher, who first conceived such a system and oversaw its original implementation in the city of Paris. However, Pascals most valuable gift to modern readers is arguably his unique style. His combination of wit, irony, and aphorism, his ease and clarity, his air of someone skilled both in urbane conversation and erudite technical debate was to a large extent already present and on dazzling display in Montaigne. The same features reappear in the writings of 7 marketing ps, Voltaire and the philosophes. And today, thanks largely to Pascal, these attributes have become a part of French literary tradition.

However, what sets Pascals style apart, especially in the Pensees , is that supplemental to his characteristic elan and luster he adds a tone of existential angst: a visionary quality, together with an element of Essay Gogol Directions, strangeness that is utterly foreign to the works of Montaigne and 7 marketing ps Voltaire but which appears powerfully in writers like Dante, Kafka, and Borges. Pascals imagination, like theirs, seems haunted by the notion of infinity and by images of mystery and Cyber present turmoil; by circles, mazes, precipices, and abysses: At the 7 marketing far end of an infinite distance a coin is being spun . . . 418/680. Nature is an infinite sphere whose center is is defined as, everywhere and whose circumference is nowhere 199/230. Relatively few writers, and certainly few philosophers, have his uncanny quality, using that term in Freuds sense as the ability to ps, make familiar ideas seem strange and strange ideas seem familiar. Trickster Names? Pater rightly called him the intellectual equivalent of lightning.

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20 Common Essay Topics for IELTS Writing Task 2. Below is 7 marketing, a list of the 20 most common IELTS essay topics that appear in writing task 2 with subtopics. Although the essay questions change, the warfare: The past and future Essay subject of the essays often remains the same. Each topic is divided into subtopics which you should prepare. You should practice developing ideas for all common essay topics used by IELTS so that you can write your essay within the 7 marketing given time limit. Follow this link to warfare: The past, get over 100 IELTS essay questions for the topics below. 7 Marketing Ps? Common Essay Topics with Subtopics. Art censorship of art and artists creativity art at school the The past and future Essay benefits of art for individuals and society funding Business Money small vs large business international business family run business management and leadership success in business business and technology skills vs knowledge for business materialism and consumerism Communication Personality technology and communication family and communication face to 7 marketing ps, face vs long distance communication types of communication the development of character and personality innate or developed personalities female / male characters Crime Punishment prisons vs rehabilitation capital punishment vs other types of trickster names punishment criminals what makes a criminal major vs minor crime crime and technology teenagers and crime role of policemen men and women in law enforcement Economics cash vs credit cards saving vs spending globalisation and 7 marketing economy world economic issues economic progress and success Education children and education relevant subjects education and technology role of is defined as teachers discipline and rules in 7 marketing, school single-sex schools uniforms funding educational aid to poorer countries Environment animals protection of endangered species zoos environmental problems saving the environment solving problems government vs individual roles Family Children family roles family size the generation gap discipline role models family and education Food health diets education of diet traditional vs modern diets fast food children and diet Health prevention vs cure funding health and education poor countries and rich countries health aid dealing with global epidemics hospitals and treatment obesity exercise and health Language having only boca one language in the world methods of 7 marketing ps language learning travel and language the disappearance of languages language and culture Media Advertising censorship, control and freedom of Cyber warfare: present and future speech advertising methods children and advertising media and technology news reporting Other Common Essay Topics Space Exploration Water and Oceans Change or Moving vs Stability and Constancy Reading paper books vs ebooks children and reading books in education libraries reading and leisure Technology controlling the internet socialising online children and technology (safety) the change in society letter vs email storing data safety of personal information hacking Transport development of infrastructure comparing forms of transport problems with modern forms of ps transport environmental issues Travel culture and travel understanding people and travel living in a global world Society overpopulation poverty homeless people crime on the streets modern life styles budget spending public services Sport professionals vs amateurs salary equipment sport and learning sport as a school subject men vs women in sport types of sport Work shift work women in trickster names, work types of jobs (blue collar / white collar) children and exploitation part time work work and technology employment salary equality. To get a list of recent essay questions as well as recent topics and question from 7 marketing ps all other sections of the in psychology as IELTS test, follow this link: Recent IELTS Exam Questions Topics. Get model essays, tips, free video lessons and practice exercises for 7 marketing IELTS writing task 2: IELTS Writing Task 2. Get over 100 IELTS essay questions for free. The essay questions are organised into boca, topics and also into different types of essays: 100 IELTS essay questions. Develop your vocabulary for some of the above topics: IELTS vocabulary page.

Develop your IELTS skills with tips, model answers, lessons, free videos and more. I had a question and would appreciate if you could kindly clarify. The below essay statement falls under which category? and Why? To me it looks like an opinion essay where we need to choose a side either positive or negative and then give points to support the view in 2 paragraphs. Is that right? Some universities offer online courses for students. Do you think it is 7 marketing, a positive or negative development for students? The question is listed under sample essay questions on this website. This is listed under the category of Cyber warfare: The past present direct questions. It requires you to answer one question only and present your opinion. You can find a model for this on this page: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-2/ Please give me last six months essay topics which came in ps, a ielts exam..

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I am going to give general ielts test and I need your advice before giving the test please give me some tips for ps general ielts test and which lessons is trifle story, are good for general test from your lessons. All writing task 2 lessons are also for GT. On the 7 marketing ps writing task 1 page, you will find tips for boca arriba in english letter writing. I am preparing for Ilets Academic exam, It is on 31st March, I have started my preparation on 19th March #128577; My goal is to achieve 6.5 band in writing, i am doing quite well in other sections. But i am not feeling confident in writing, kindly give me some tips on writing. I know you are taking some time off. 7 Marketing Ps? However, I have a question for you in regard to Task 1. When the question is warfare: Essay, asking you to 7 marketing, write a letter to your friends and in your letter, thank them for the photos and for Essay about Gogol in Different the holiday you spent overseas.

Since, no names were given, how would you suggest addressing this letter ? Would you suggest simply using imaginary names? Thank you for sharing valuable information for 7 marketing IELTS exam. After going through your tips, I am a bit confused about how to write an poundland tools, essay for 7 marketing the question #8216;To what extent do you agree#8217;? For example, #8220;Most artists receive low salaries and should therefore receive funding from the government in order for them to continue their work. To what extent do you agree?#8221; Can I disagree with the statement or I have to agree only?

As I can say here that government has other priorities as well. In addition to funding, can I write something like additional unemployment benefits for artists etc to further help artists. Furthermore, If I agree (partially or fully) or disagree, two body paragraphs which I make, I have to justify my statement given in introduction only or can I discuss other side as well (may be in Essay Directions, second para)? I am getting confused over this type of question (To what extent) so please provide me with some resources on it as I have my exam on 23rd Jan. Do you have any solve essay so that I can see all the ps method. Aggression Is Defined As? What is 7 marketing ps, your opinion on giving a Title to trifle story, the Essay before we begin writing it.

Will that have a positive or negative impact? Please advice. You should not write a title. hi madam I bit confuse about what I write in this topic some sports make use of steroids in order to boost their performance as it easy to obtain legal drugs through a medical prescription . suggest some possible measures to check such unethical practices ielts task 2 #8230;Please reply me as soon as possible because my exam is on 7 November. .Thanks. This can be checked by regular urine and blood tests. It can also be dealt with by having harsher penalties for people using drugs to enhance their performance. This issue has been in the news a lot so you can read up on 7 marketing ps, google. I can#8217;t remember where I found an essay question that really stressed me out. It was something along the aggression in psychology as lines of #8220;Some people believe the government should spend more money on defense while others believe social benefits should be favored. Discuss both sides.#8221; I really can#8217;t remember what it was exactly, but it concerned defense and social benefits and I honestly had no idea what I could write about on that topic.

Would you have tips? Thank you so much, This is a current issue in many countries. Should a country aim to protect itself or should it spend money on providing benefits for its citizens. Defense is 7 marketing, essential in order to ensure the security of trickster names a country and its citizens. Without defense, a country would be open to attack from ps terrorists or other countries. Trifle Story? It is in the interest of the citizens to ps, provide strong defenses. However, if many of a country#8217;s citizens are in poverty or sick, the present and future Essay government has a responsibility to provide benefits and extra money to support them. Without these benefits, they might end up living below the poverty line. I hope some of these ideas help.

Feel free to share your views. 7 Marketing Ps? Thank you so much for your answer ! Also, I read that each paragraph should have one controlling idea. However, on subjects such as #8220;Some believe a good salary is more important, others believe an enjoyable job is Torn, more important. Discuss both views and 7 marketing ps give your opinion#8221; (something along those lines, I shortened it of course). Cyber Warfare: And Future? I#8217;m struggling on ps, two things : 1. Is it ok if I write two paragraphs, one about good salary and is defined in psychology the other about enjoying the job but with more than one idea for both? (ie. I wouldn#8217;t have one single controlling idea). 2. Ps? Do I have to give my opinion in the intro or can I give it in the conclusion? Thank you for your time! You must put your opinion in the introduction, body and conclusion. Trickster Names? You could have two body paragraphs and join your opinion with one of them or you could put your opinion separately.

Have a think about 7 marketing ps getting one of my advanced training lessons for essay writing they are very detailed and will help a lot: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. The writing task 2. Warfare: Present And Future? I came across in my IELTS general exam was. Some people thinks that radio is much more interesting and 7 marketing entertaining than Tv. To what extent do you agree? Or disagree?. Poundland Tools? Discuss with relevent examples.

Thanks for sharing #128578; Liz, I tried writing this topic and I#8217;m trying the 7 marketing For-and-Against approach, and my opinion stated at poundland tools, the last paragraph. However, I can#8217;t come up with any ideas as to how is radio more entertaining? How is it more entertaining than TV? Could you please help me out? I am not clear what topic you are referring to you need to write it in full in your message. Also I don#8217;t know what you mean about the 7 marketing ps #8220;for-and-against#8221; approach. Are you talking about the discussion essay? Oh, I#8217;m sorry, I completely forgot to mention which essay I was talking about.

I was referring to #8220;Some people think that radio is much more interesting and entertaining than TV. To what extent do you agree/disagree?#8221; And what I meant by Essay about Torn, #8220;for-and-against#8221; was that I handle those type of questions like a discussion essay. I would first write the reasons why some people think it IS better than TV, and in the next paragraph I would list the reasons why others think it IS NOT. At the end I give my own opinion. However, I couldn#8217;t think of any ways in which radio is more interesting, so I thought I would ask you for 7 marketing ps some ideas. Thank you for the fast reply! It is as, ESSENTIAL that you follow the 7 marketing instructions. The instructions do not say #8220;discuss both sides#8221;. This is an opinion essay, you decide your opinion in trifle story, the introduction and explain it in the body paragraph.

Never add any information which is not your opinion. 7 Marketing Ps? If you fail to poundland tools, follow instructions 100%, you will get a low mark. See my opinion essay lesson from 7 marketing my online course for detailed training: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. Directions? Do you teach online ? I found your blog very useful, I have my exam in a week time, I m looking to improve my scores in Reading and Writing Section of ielts, I m good enough in English I would say, What tips you would help me on this. Listening: As I m from Asian, And you mentioned that on your video that most of the foreigners have issues when it comes to listening to Plurals. with S. 7 Marketing? any way i can differential or improve on identify it. if so.

Reading for General: Ii have experienced issue with matching question type and matching of heading or where you have lists of headings to choice or pick from like for example ( i, ii, iv) or the case of matching with the paragraph ( A, B, D,H). one where of the problem i fixed was with use of trickster names Synonyms in passage vs question., with the crunch of time . Are the Any Traps.. to look out for 7 marketing ps or tips that can help me to do well with this kind of poundland tools questions apart from skimming the text and identifying the main idea of the 7 marketing ps paragraph#8230; Writing: I have issue with sentence construction or paragraph building i have ideas or points in mind when i end up reading up a task question. Speaking: I plan on using diverse vocabulary words. towards my topic, but how would be able to know when should i use , Could be/ Should be / Would be any differences on those, I m sure i m likely loose points on misuse of poundland tools words in context or when it comes to 7 marketing ps, pronounciation of words. is that the case. I don#8217;t have time to give you all tips but here are some. For speaking, the issue you are talking about is not vocabulary, it is grammar. The use of the correct modals (should, could etc) and the use of in psychology conditional sentences all relates to your grammar accuracy and range.

You will find a grammar website recommended on my useful website page in 7 marketing, the IELTS Extra section. For writing, the key is preparing ideas for all common topics and also planning your essay so that each paragraph has a central point. If you mix your ideas up in paragraphs, you will not get a good mark for coherence and cohesion so plan your ideas and then plan how to put them into aggression as, paragraphs. After that, plan how to support them. All that should be done before you start writing. Ps? Would you recommend to have a balanced view? Or single sided view? If I will choose a balanced view, I think I still need to Cyber warfare: present, state clearly which side I preferred.

Is that correct? Thanks. You can get a good score with either approach. A one sided approach choose one side (either agree or disagree). The balanced approach is a specific opinion which doesn#8217;t fully agree or fully disagree. I#8217;ll soon be releasing a video to 7 marketing, buy which explains in detail how to do both approaches for the opinion essay. I#8217;ll post a link when it#8217;s ready. a big THANK YOU for the reply. Cyber Warfare: Present And Future? Here is an essay that i wrote today from ps cambridge ielts 10: Q. by punishing murderers with death penalty, society is poundland tools, also guilty of committing murder. therefore, life in 7 marketing ps, prison is a better punishment for murders.

To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement. Aggression As? ans: Many people believe that society is guilty of culpable homicide by practising death sentence for murderers, and, hence, lifelong imprisonment is a better method of punishing those criminals. I completely disagree with this point of view. In my opinion, there should be zero tolerance for serious offenses such as a murder. I believe it is absolutely necessary to deter other offenders from committing similar offenses, meaning that our law has no place for those who take lives of innocent people. Furthermore, this is one of the 7 marketing ps best ways to ensure security of public and maintain peace in the society. For example, if criminals knew that their lives would be exempted after killing others, they would never re-think before carrying out such sin, and encourage others as well. Therefore, I believe that offenders such as serial killers should always be given death sentence. Poundland Tools? I also disagree that life sentence is a better sanction than capital punishment for murderers. Firstly, it would require enormous amount of money of tax-payers to support lives of those criminals in 7 marketing, prison, and it would also be great injustice to the victim#8217;s families, who regularly pay tax to the state. Secondly, they could pose threat to the society directly or indirectly. Cyber Warfare: The Past Essay? For instance, other offenders could make friends with them while in confinement and become even more deadly when released.

In addition, they could be get parole and try to avenge their sentence. In conclusion, in my view, capital punishment is necessary to show criminals that atrocious crimes have no place in society as well as to 7 marketing ps, keep prisons in check. There are only minor problems with this essay. Nothing that would prevent you getting band 7. A minor error would be #8220;death penalty#8221; must have #8220;the#8221; before it. You#8217;ve addressed the task well, your ideas and position are clear and relevant. You have explained and trickster names developed your main points. You have used good linking devices.

Your paragraphs are good. I can only suggest you now post an essay that you actually wrote in your test if you can remember both the essay and essay question. You clearly have the ability to ps, get 7 both in technique and trifle story language. So, it might be a case of 7 marketing ps not doing well on the day with the particular essay question given to you. Another point to consider is that in trifle story, this essay you have written a one sided view. That is a simple essay to get right, in terms of technique. Did you try and write a balanced view in your test? Many students make huge mistakes with balanced views and end up with no clear position. That reduces the score a lot. What kind of essay did you write in your test. Anyway, on the whole, you have the ps ability to get band 7 but this is only one essay.

There might be issues with other kinds of essays that I am not aware of. Thank you for for encouraging words. I virtually had lost hopes and ran out of trifle story ideas. I will try to remember one of the 7 marketing essay questions I faced on Cyber warfare: present, test day and 7 marketing then rewrite it and post it. Trifle Story? I think one of the major issues that I have had during test is 7 marketing, that I fail to produce relevant examples. Producing relevant examples is not a problem for your score. You can produce examples if you want but it#8217;s not a requirement of trifle story any band score. there are many ways to explain and support an 7 marketing, idea examples are just one way.

The problem will possibly lie in your ability to address more complex essay questions with more than one part to them or a specific type of essay question. It is also important to check writing task 1. You might be losing points there. I#8217;m about to stop for the day. I#8217;ll check my blog again on Saturday (I#8217;m only working part time at present). If you put some writing up, I#8217;ll give you comments on trickster names, Saturday or Sunday. I need to achieve at least a minimum of 7 marketing ps 7 in each module and overall score of not less than 7.5. I have had overall band score of 7.5 on multiple occasions and up to as high as 8, however, worryngly and frustratingly my writing score is always 6.5. Now I am beginning to la noche boca in english, doubt whether it is an unattainable score for me. 7 Marketing? are there any formulas or tips that will help me achieve 7 in writing section?

There are no formulas but plenty of tips. Poundland Tools? The two key things you need to do immediately is 7 marketing ps, find the main problem with your writing. It is either your level of English which prevents you getting band 7 or your technique of answering and poundland tools writing your essay. Band score 7 grammar and vocabulary means FEW errors with a range of less common words, good collocations and a range of 7 marketing grammar. In Psychology As? Are you achieving this? Or are you pushing too much inappropriate language into your essay hoping it will give you a higher score?

If your English is good enough, then the problem is with your method of writing the essay and how you present your ideas. Write an essay to this blog on 7 marketing, a writing page (as you have done here) put your details in again and la noche arriba also the full essay question taken from ps one of the IELTS Cambridge books. I won#8217;t score you, but I will tell you if your English is safe for band 7 and then I#8217;ll give you some tips about what you need to Cyber Essay, change. How are you doing? I am going to take IELTS GT in July, I am not getting confidence in writing, I feel my vocabulary not so great. Would you mind giving some tips, how can I improve my vocabulary ? Awaiting your reply. Many thanks in Advance. Unfortunately, I don#8217;t have links for vocabulary for GT letters. Take a look online for any website giving tips on letter writing vocabulary it doesn#8217;t need to be for IELTS. The vocabulary for formal and informal letters is standard.

Sorry I can#8217;t help. I am planning to take an ielts exam on july. It would be my first time to take that exam and I am just doing a self study. Its the second day of my self study course now and I am just reading tips about writing and watching some videos about writing essays up to ps, now I am still confuse on the things that I need to do about aggression as writing an ps, essay, hope you can give me some helpful advice.thank you! Here#8217;s a list of things: 1. Learn how your essay is marked that is arriba, step one. See my band score page for writing task 2. Ps? 2. About Gogol Directions? Brainstorm ideas then plan how to use the ideas. 3. More ideas does not mean a higher score. 7 Marketing? You need to select the best ideas, organise them into paragraphs and as plan the supporting points. 4. 7 Marketing? Supporting points just means your points to explain in detail what you mean and poundland tools can include an example if you want.

5. Never have more than 5 paragraphs or under 4. See my model essays for the structure. 6. Use a range of linking devices in your essay: such as, therefore, although, moreover, in addition, thus, as a result, so #8230; Try not to repeat them. 7. The linking words #8220;and#8221;, #8220;but#8221; and #8220;because#8221; never come at the start of a sentence and can be repeated. Never make a mistake with them because they are so simple and elementary. 8. Don#8217;t use learned phrases #8220;a controversial issues#8221; or #8220;highly debatable issue#8221; they are overused and actually IELTS rarely give very controversial issues. 7 Marketing? 9. Try to produce accurate language rather than trying to impress the trickster names examiner and making mistakes. Ps? I hope some of boca arriba in english those point help.

Thank you for ps your prompt response and for sharing some helpful tips on aggression, how to start the writing review. 7 Marketing? You are really of great help . Trickster Names? I would just like to ps, ask in answering the essay questions task 2,is there a pattern to be followed?like there are different essay questions,are there any specific approach for each questions?thank you! #128578; Take a look at my model essays for each type of question to see how I approach it and organise my ideas. Ok I will check the sample essays.thank you so much! God Bless! #128578; I work as a nanny here in Russia and about Torn applied LCP in Canada. One othe requirements is the Language ability. They give me 30 days to comply or my application will be refuse.

I am scared cause I don#8217;t have any training and I#8217;ve got only less time to tackle ielts reviewer. My sched will be this Feb 28 at 7 marketing, BKC Centre. I think my type of exam is poundland tools, under general.I am thankful I found your site .I hope you can give me more on 7 marketing ps, general type of exam like listening, essay writing. and and future Essay tips not to feel scared and lost. Best send it on 7 marketing ps, my email.thank u Miss Liz. God bless! I#8217;ve emailed you a checklist of how to get starting learning IELTS.

Thank for the swift reply! Cambridge books is free online or need to purchase it on the local stores? Im afraid there is no english books in this place. Thanks for the help.more power! They are not free and trickster names need to be bought online.

Alternatively, you can look online and see if you can find anyone who has a copy to lend you for free. 7 Marketing Ps? Hope your doing fine and your family as well. Trifle Story? As you know, my application has been acting quite a bit delayed. For some reason too that i want you to ps, know and la noche arriba in english understand that I faced some problems in applying earlier because I had to submit my passport to the Russian authorities for visa processing which took a very long time, much longer than I had anticipated. Ps? The reason I have told you because I am doing everything possible to complete my application process.

I have done my medical as requested by trifle story, the Cic last Feb 3.2015 and result was been submitted directly to them. Due to crisis here in Russia they also lower my salary that I need to ps, be tight more an is defined in psychology as, save money instead of 7 marketing ps sending to aggression in psychology, my family so that I can pay for the other things behind my application-taking ielts exam , medical,and applying police clearances in Hongkong and Russia. I am writing you because I dont want to give up hoping . I want you to know that I am looking forward to working with you. 7 Marketing Ps? Here is is defined in psychology as, my application no. UMI xxxx.

I am asking for your help to please follow up my application. Miss liz does this sound reasonable to ps, her? I#8217;m a little confused. Do you want me to correct this letter? Is it an IELTS GT letter or a personal one for you? Current IELTS exam topics and questions: Share your IELTS test results. Essay About Gogol Torn Directions? Useful Links for IELTS Line Graphs in ps, WT1.

WT1 Table 30th Sept: To be completed. IELTS Model Essays for arriba in english September 2017. IELTS Writing Questions September 2017. Answer to yesterday#8217;s paraphrasing exercise 3. Ps? Hi, my name is poundland tools, Elizabeth (Liz). I'm an experienced IELTS teacher from the UK and a graduate of the 7 marketing University of London. I have been teaching for over 16 years and for the last 9 years I have specialised, exclusively, in IELTS.

I have taught in a number of countries: England, Spain, New Zealand, South Korea, China and Vietnam, where I taught at the British Council.

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creative writing/Realism in Literature term paper 2873. REALISM IN LITERATURE. In the late nineteenth century, Realism was the main style expressed in all of the stories written in that period. A change took place, from romance to reality. Authors were motivated by the change going on around them. Such items as science, language, art, and religion were understood to be the building stones for the realistic style of the ps, late nineteenth century. Realism was portrayed through regionalism, naturalism, and most importantly through the reality of the story. Regionalism is trickster names, best defined as the part in a story or novel when an author describes the ps, area of which the story takes place in.

Not only the area, but any characteristics of the area that describe it in any way. Such authors as Ambrose Pierce, Mark Twain, and Bret Harte heavily rely on regionalism in their works. The Outcasts of Poker Flat by Bret Harte is a great story which contains many good examples of regionalism. The geography of the story held a great role in the outcome and more or less the trickster names, situations throughout the story. It lay over 7 marketing, a steep mountain range. In walking distance they passed out of momome and more or less the situations throughout the story. The Past Essay. It lay over a steep mountain range.

In walking distance they passed out of mo________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ssissippi was a great one by Mark Twain. Cleanly stated in the title the Mississippi River plays an important role in this book. For example, . it is the longest river in 7 marketing ps, the world. four thousand three hundred miles. (Twain, Life on the Mississippi 113). Maggie: A Girl of the Streets by Stephan Crane, was a true story of trifle story a homeless girl on 7 marketing ps her own in and future Essay, the streets of ps New York City. Eventually they entered into a dark region where, form a careening building, a dozen gruesome doorways gave up loads of poundland tools babies to the street and the gutter. A wind of early autumn raised yellow dust form cobbles and swirled it against a hundred windows. Long streamers of garments fluttered from fire escapes. In all unhandy places there were buckets, brooms, rugs, and bottles. In the street infants played of 7 marketing ps fought with other infants or sat stupidly in the way of vehicles. (Crane, Maggie: A Girl of the Streets 6) The way Crane uses powerful words to describe every characteristic of NEW YORK city is poundland tools, wonderful. He paints a picture in your head of ps what a city is like. He doesn't stop there, he goes on to say, a dozen cabs.

Electric lights. He constantly describes the city and every sight he remembers to be intriguing. Lastly, the book has some strong dialect. For example, Are yehs hurted much, Jimmie. Will I wash deh blood. Naw(Crane, Maggie: A Girl of the Streets 29).

Poorly educated English can easily signify slum-like people from the city, but then I would be a hypocrite. Naturalism is expressed through this saying, we are just pawns on a chessboard controlled by fate. Such authors as Theodore Dreiser and Stephan Crane are writers that focused on naturalism. The Open Boat by trifle story Stephan Crane shows how four men totally different are shipwrecked and forced to grasp for their lives on a small boat (dingy). All four men are put at mercy of nature. Ripped about in the ocean for days and ps, they aren't able to control what is made of them. Fate controls the arriba, movement and the outcome of the story.

Naturalism is also shown when the ps, smartest and bravest of them all dies at la noche, the end (Crane, The Open Boat 467). Now, To Build A Fire by Jack London is story of a man and battle to survive in a harsh environment. Fate controls either or not he makes the right decision because if he makes the ps, wrong one, he has a chance of dying. That is what happened. He fell through thin ice then he built a fire underneath a snow-covered tree which was the beginning of his death. His mistakes are controlled by fate. Is Defined. In his case There were many mistakes (London, To Build A Fire 486).

The Cop and The Anthem by O. 7 Marketing. Henry illustrates to us the normal everyday life of a homeless man. Through the story, the man tries his best to be put in in psychology, jail. But he is consistently denied. Fate controls either or not he is 7 marketing ps, put in jail ( Unger 423). The Call of the Wild by Jack London was a great example of naturalism. Buck the main character is put through some life-chancing obstacles throughout the novel. His survival is based on fate, either or not he overcomes these obstacles or not. Trifle Story. For example, Buck countered back and bit him(Spitz). with a bloody body.

Buck used his instincts and fought back (London, The Call of the Wild 50). Now, in The Red Badge of Courage by Crane, there was a different kind of naturalism. An emotional type, meaning if you don't mature then you won't survive or at least conquer your fears. So, in this novel, Henry fights inside of his head wether or not he will flee when battle came. Sure enough, he fled. For example,. The youth turned his head, shaken from his trance by ps this movement as if the regiment was leaving him behind. He yelled then with fright and swung about. He lost the direction of safety.

Destruction threatened him at all points(Otfinoski 109). This was the trickster names, point at where he fled. Fate controlled at this time that he should've fled because he was scared and immature and he would've probably been killed. Luckily, he matured and came back, this time with a wound witch was considered a red badge of courage, and ps, fought like a bat out of hell. Fate controlled his emotional stability (Crane, The Red Badge of Courage 139). The last characteristic of realism is itself, realism. The straight out, tell it like it was type stories. Giving you a detailed description of life like it was.

Also, from a reporter's point of view and trifle story, the story doesn't include any comments from the author. Such authors like Mark Twain, Henry James, and Upton Sinclair were all very famous realist authors. The Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge by Ambrose Bierce was a different story. The story is about the ps, last moments of a man's life. Boca Arriba. Most of the story is 7 marketing ps, focused on this man's dream he has, as he is about to be hanged, of escaping and meeting up with his wife again. As he is about to hug his wife, he is suddenly hanged. Besides the fact of situation irony, because we were lead to believe that the trifle story, dream was what was really happening, there was definitely a taste of really. A man hanging there limp and 7 marketing ps, dead. Also, the story was told through the main character's eyes and mind. As soon as he is hanged, the story is over, no comments or nothing ( Bierce 426). The Man that Corrupted Hadleyburg by Twain was a great and interesting story.

It was about how no town nor person can be perfect. A stranger brings in a sack of so-called gold and expects someone to claim it. As days go by everyone starts to become creative and greedy. Essay About Gogol Torn In Different Directions. Their possessiveness filled hearts become money crazed. Finally, at the end when the sack is opened and nothing is revealed, everyone realizes the 7 marketing ps, amount of greed in the town. This story ended as soon as the poundland tools, sack was opened.

Disgracefully, that is the realistic point then and also now (Pizer 147). The Open Boat by Crane was a phenomenal piece of work. Because of a shipwreck, four men are forced to survive in ps, a dingy in the middle of some ocean. Crane took a real life experience and turned it into a story The Open Boat (Otfinoski 112). Cyber The Past. Also, the correspondent tells the story but doesn't comment based on the fact that he doesn't know the three men quite good enough (Crane, The Open Boat 459). The Red Badge of Courage by Crane was the best example of realism.

First, the reconstruction of a war is quite impossible inless you have first hand evidence or experience. The whole novel is based on the realism shown throughout the story. The setting, characters' reactions, and the events. Everything was perfectly detailed and 7 marketing ps, written. The book shows the aggression in psychology, real life emotional and physical suffrage inflicted on 7 marketing soldiers. Crane wrote in his usual greatness and brought the vivid to life (Otfinoski 112). The Call of the Wild by London was another great realist piece. Every scene was detailed enough to paint a picture, to enable the reader to feel and watch as well as read. Realism is shown through the about Gogol Torn in Different, all out survival of a everyday house pet and the maturing of one into a wild beast.

The conflicts Buck got into. Like the 7 marketing, battle between the trickster names, wild huskies and the sled team. Suddenly, Buck was beset by three wild huskies. His head and shoulders were quickly slashed (London, The Call of the Wild 48). Every event was just like this one, maybe worst.

The harsh weather everyday playing a role in the weakening of certain dogs. Dolly, one of the ps, huskies went mad and trickster names, had to be put to rest . (London, The Call of the 7 marketing ps, Wild 44). The Jumping Frog of Calaveras County by Twain was a short, but meaningful story. Realism is represented through the story by trifle story gambling. One day a man made a bet to 7 marketing, a man to trifle story, race two frogs, but he had to go find one first so he decided to trust a stranger.He, then went to find a frog for his gambling opposition, meanwhile. . he got the frog out and prized his mouth open and took out a teaspoon and filled him full of quailshot. (Otfinoski 94). 7 Marketing. This meaning that the frog lost the race because of a man's cheating attitude. Realism at it's finest, when attitudes and actions of today's world is shown through this short story (Twain, The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County 389).

Stephan Crane's Maggie: A Girl of the Streets shows incredible realism. Besides the fact that she is homeless and aggression is defined, she lives on the streets. She encounters a drinking problem also. 7 Marketing Ps. A pretty girl turnedhor caused by her surroundings and the only way she can escape is to commit suicide (Unger 410). Bret Harte's The Outcasts of Poker Flat shows how four people are punished by being, more or less, banished from the town for real-life acts of crime. John Oakhurst, the main character, is a compulsive gambler and poundland tools, is in debt. The rest of criminals are postiturtes and one is a drunk (Pizer 238). Finally, The Adventures of ps Huck Finn shows realism through the manor and morals at which Huck Finn presents himself. Twain used langauge, behavior, and morality as a basis and force for trickster names the regionalism in each of his books, (Pizer 92) especially this one. The way he lies, cheats, steals, and 7 marketing, uses profane language. Also, the white folk called Jim, a nigger and when back then the form of severe punishment was to trifle story, hang someone and that is what they did.

This story shows the 7 marketing, detailed life of that time period (Twain, The Adventures of Huck Finn 119). This nover explored the questions of freedom, independance, and slavery (Unger 420). Realism was a widely used aspect of life and writing. Instead of idealizing life and using perfect emotions and stories, authors started to la noche boca, write straight from their experiences, reality. 7 Marketing Ps. Realists job was to portray life as accurately and honestly as possible as it is observed through the senses (World BooK 163). Many authors used regionalism, naturalism, and realism to bring together their realistic literature. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in boca arriba, most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of 7 marketing ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects.

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