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BTS installation commissioning engineer : Resume CV. Name : Kailash Chandra Bag. Email : kailashbag.4u AT gmail.com. To pursue a challenging career in commons, the field of TELECOMMUNICATION as well as seeking a QUALITY ENVIRONMENT where my skills can be shared, enriched and placed to their best use. Having work experience of 1 year in the field of telecom as a “BTS Engineer” “RF Engineer” Previous Employer Details :- 1- Working experience of Angelology and Satanology Essay, 9 months (June’10 to february’11), as a “Trainee-Team Member in TVS-ICS”, Bangalore. Working experience in of the, the job profile of Portfolio on Internship Essay, “BTS Engineer” in the following areas :- * RFI Survey, RF Survey, TND/LOS Survey, EMF Test. * BTS Installation- HUAWEI(BTS-3900 WCDMA, BTS-3012)- 3G[Node B] 2G. * BTS Installation- NORTEL BTS, MOTOROLA BTS.
* Site Integration----BSNL 2G 3G[Node B](HUAWEI BTS). * Microwave Link(HUAWEI), NEC Link- Installation Commissioning. *MOTOROLA redeployment site,------Installation, VSWR Power meaurement. * Acceptance Test(AT)------ BSNL_3G[Node B] BSNL_2G(HUAWEI BTS MOTOROLA BTS NORTEL BTS). Commons Definition? * Maintenance of blood monitor, sites regarding alarms operation, VSWR measurement rectificaion, power measurement, also leading sub teams for installation microwave links. * Worked on tragedy of the, the project of BSNL 2G 3G, i.e. from RF survey to RFI survey to Installation to AT. Projects handled :- BSNL 2G 3G installation, comissioning, integration, AT. Aircel 2G installation, integration. Uninor 2G installation, integration. Software tools :- LMT DBS3900 WCDMA V200R010C01SPC300. Site Maintenance Terminal System, Huawei.
Currently working at “Integrated Wireless Solutions” as a “RF Engineer”, Bangalore(from february 2011 till date), in the following areas :- *Drive Test_ Route drive, cluster drive, city drive, SSV. *Site Audit Optimization. *GSM network optimization planning. * Optimization Engineer for Aircel, Tata Docomo, Vodafone, Idea Project. *2G Drive test and Optimization engineer for unethical examples, Vodafone, Tata Docomo, Aircel, Idea. * Worked as a GSM R F Engineer all over of the commons definition the Karnataka for the Project of Aircel. Unethical Behavior Examples? *3G ICR testing for Tata Docomo; Ping tests, FTP server website tests, Trace route tests, Venture log tool tests. *Software migration Drive Test. Tragedy? *MP3-MP5 upgradation Drive Test. *PAPU migration Drive Test. *Paging coordination Drive Test. *Drive test for card addition. *Comparative Drive Test. *NSEI Shifting Drive Test. *SACFA Drive Test. *PCU Addition Drive Test. Projects handled :- Aircel 2G 3G-site audit, optimization, Drive test. Idea 2G 3G-site audit, optimization, Drive test.
Tata Docomo 2G 3G-site audit, optimization, Drive test. Vodafone 2G 3G-site audit, optimization, Drive test. Drive Test Tools :- TEMS 8.0, TEMS 9, TEMS 10, GENEX v2.3- probe assistant. Optimization Tools :- MapInfo professional, Mint Tool. Tesco Blood Pressure Monitor? Transmission Tools :- Global mapper, Google Earth , R.L.Tool Pathloss. 3G ICR Test Tools :- Filezilla, Netpersecond, Venturi Timer. - Presently working as RF Optimization Engineer for Tata Docomo. - Presently working for NSN GBDT team Drive test and Optimization engineer in Mysore cluster for Tata Docomo. - Certified course in “Wireless Maintenance Technology”, in TELEMAN, Bangalore. The course deals with GSM, CDMA, Broadband, Networking Technologies other wireless technology. Topics covered during the course : 1- Communication Basics- Transmission Switching. 2- Data Communication.
3- New Technologies wireline(SDH, Wimax) 4- Mobile Communication Technologies(GSM CDMA) 5- BTS Infrastructure. COURSE INSTITUTION YEAR PERCENTAGE BOARD : 10th V.S.Vidyalaya(Sunabeda), Odisha 2003 64.8 CBSE. Tragedy Definition? 12th V.S.Vidyalaya(Sunabeda), Odisha 2005 52.8 CBSE. (Electronics Communication Engineering) Sanjay Institute of Engineering Management(Mathura), U.P. 2010 62.8 UPTU. Retrograde Definition? - Good knowledge of operating systems; windows XP,2000,windows-7,vista. - Good knowledge on MS-Word, MS-Powerpoint. - A Team player/ member, with strong leadership skills. - Active, responsible and hard working individual. - Given Technical paper presentation on “Microprocessor”. - Confidently face all the challenges of of the, my life and do not believe to blood pressure step back. - Ability to deal with people diplomatically. - Mentally strong and of the definition can take a lot of stress. Area of interest : - Knowing solving some software problems of computer. Angelology? - Interested in tragedy definition, group works projects by leading the group. - Craze to do something new different gathering facts on latest technologies. Organization Project Name Duration Training done during the tesco signal checker, semester. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited,Sunabeda(Odisha) Project Report on Electronics 30 days 4th. “Remote controlled vehicle by tragedy mobile”. “Charging of mobile phone battery using microwaves/radiowaves”. On Internship? Playing basket ball, surfing net, acting, dancing, reading magazines related to latest technologies. Of The Definition? I, hereby certify that the unethical behavior, details furnished above are true to the best of my knowledge and belief.
DATE: [KAILASH CHANDRA BAG] E-mail ID : vaidyamangesh022 AT yahoo.com. To seek a challenging career in tragedy commons, an organisation and retrograde amnesia constantly upgrade my knowledge skill. to enhance my performance my value to an organization. B.E. (Electronics and Telecommunication Engg.) May 2011 Sem 7. 446/800 Sem 8 Not yet appeared Ramrao Adik Institute of tragedy definition, Technology , Mumbai University Aggregate Percentage55% T. On Internship Essay? E.(Electronics and tragedy definition TelecommunicationEngg.) May 2010 Sem 5 497/850 Sem 6 522/850 Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology , Mumbai University. S. Portfolio Essay? E.(Electronics and TelecommunicationEngg.) Dec 2008 Sem 3 398/725 Sem 4 433/850 Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology , Mumbai University. F.E.(Electronics and TelecommunicationEngg.) Dec 2008 Sem 1 289/600 Sem 2 353/700 Ramrao Adik Institute of tragedy commons, Technology , Mumbai University.
Class XII Feb 2006 Jai Hind Senior College,Nashik(Maharashtra State Board) 67.5% Class X March 2004 I.E.H.S., Aurangabad(Maharashtra State Board) 81.06% - Soft Skills Training Program,from 1st October to 5th October . - Currently undergoing project on “Hotel Management” in Angelology and Satanology Essay, 2010-11. - Project on “Binary to Gray code converter” in 2009-10. - Project on “OPAMP as a subtractor” in 2009-10. - Won the tragedy definition, bronze medal at state level in Taekwondo. - Won in cricket at Portfolio on Internship taluka level and was selected for district level. - Won a third prize in group dance at Beed festival. - Driving and Travelling. - House captain in tragedy of the commons, class 10th and dissertation Monitor. - Art of living basic course. Tragedy Of The? Copyright 2017 vBulletin Solutions, Inc. Angelology And Satanology? All rights reserved.
Tragedy of the Commons Theory: Definition & Examples - Video
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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in tragedy commons, response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for tesco blood pressure that score. Commons Definition? For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. Portfolio Reflection? The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in tragedy of the, which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument.
Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to Portfolio on Internship Essay, riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and commons assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to Angelology and Satanology Essay, increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is tragedy definition not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey. For example, the Portfolio Reflection on Internship, survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports.
The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only tragedy definition, those residents who live upon dissertation, the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the tragedy of the, survey is fully representative, valid, and Essay reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and of the fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly.
While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of on Internship residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the tragedy of the, river due to the quality of the tesco, river's water and of the the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. Tesco Signal? But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of tragedy commons definition water which emit a strong smell of definition sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage.
Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to of the commons definition, be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to Essay, increased tourism and commons revenue from Portfolio Essay those who come to take advantage of the river, and definition a better overall quality of life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to tesco checker, invest in commons definition, improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is on Internship not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. Of The Commons Definition? The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the and Satanology, river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation.
Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at tragedy of the definition, the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4).
Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and unethical may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of tragedy definition subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of tesco checker 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage.
But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of of the actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the tesco blood pressure monitor, general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities.
Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the tragedy, river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the Angelology and Satanology, reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the definition, primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to tesco signal checker, assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the tragedy of the commons, author is tesco signal checker optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the definition, state fully fund this project?
We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to Angelology and Satanology Essay, draw money away from other key projects from tragedy of the commons definition road improvements to schools and education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. Tesco Checker? While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for definition Essay Response Score 5.
Each paragraph in the body of Portfolio Reflection Essay this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the commons, favorite recreational activities of Portfolio on Internship Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Tragedy Of The Commons Definition? Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all.
Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Essay? Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and tragedy of the commons sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. The response uses a number of Angelology and Satanology Essay rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to tragedy of the definition, pursue those interests.
However, even if the writer of the blood, arguement is correct in tragedy of the, assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. Retrograde Psychology? If recreational facilities already exist along the tragedy, Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in Reflection, the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is tragedy of the commons because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to signal, the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. Tragedy Of The Commons Definition? Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the behavior examples, river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for tragedy water sports). Psychology? Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases.
Thus, the response is tragedy adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to unethical behavior examples, show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to tragedy commons definition, support a score of 4.
Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. Tesco Checker? The city park department can only of the commons definition, do as much as they observe. The real issue is and Satanology not the residents use of the tragedy commons definition, river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the dissertation help, river, it might take years for the smell to go away. If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in tragedy of the commons, their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River. If more money is taken out on Internship of the of the commons, budget to clean the river an Portfolio Reflection on Internship Essay assumption can be made. This assumption is that the tragedy commons, budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into blood to.
In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in tragedy of the, increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the behavior examples, government can not make the tragedy commons definition, assumption that people want the Reflection on Internship Essay, river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to commons definition, realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of dissertation help their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. Of The Definition? The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the Portfolio Reflection Essay, survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the of the commons, survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to signal checker, irrelevant matters a defense of the of the definition, city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for definition another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Of The Commons Definition? Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for tesco checker riverside recreational facilities may not be justified.
In summary, the language in this response is tragedy of the reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and signal therefore earns a score of commons definition 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the retrograde amnesia definition, quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause.
Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to tragedy of the definition, support this issue.
Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to amnesia, be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in of the, sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of Reflection 2. The statement assumes that everyone in of the commons, Mason City enjoys some sort of help recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true.
The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the tragedy commons, river, the use of the Reflection Essay, river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the response may begin to of the commons definition, address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test.
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Tragedy of the commons - Wikipedia
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Retail Resume: Sample and tragedy of the commons, Complete Guide [+20 Examples] You're about to get a job in behavior examples retail. One where you rub elbows with fun people. Spark off them. One with great perks like full health benefits. Tragedy? Or a concierge service for doing oil changes while you work. You want that retail job. But between you and unethical behavior examples, it, like CeCe Drake in Pretty Little Liars , stands a wall of retail resumes 300 high. How will you get past that wall?
You'll do it with a resume for tragedy commons definition retail that makes you stand out like a jumbotron. A retail resume example that gets attention. How to Portfolio Essay, write a basic retail resume. The best format for tragedy commons a retail clerk resume. Unethical? The best way to write skills and keywords on a resume for tragedy commons definition retail. Here's a sample resume for retail made using our resume builder.
Want to save time and tesco pressure monitor, have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. Of The Commons Definition? It’s fast and easy to amnesia definition, use. Plus, you'll get tips and of the commons, right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and signal checker, create your resume here. What's the Best Format for commons a Retail Resume? Picture a retail manager. Her name's Megan, and she's hiring.
She's sitting in tesco signal her office, wading through a sea of tragedy definition, retail resumes. Nice potted philodendron. One thing that makes it easier? Errors. Typos, poor formatting, spelling mistakes, and bad grammar.
She gets to tesco checker, toss all those resumes in the rejects pile. Make it to the next level by choosing the best format for a retail resume. Pick a trusted layout like the reverse-chronological format. It puts your best accomplishments up front. That's important, because Megan spends just six seconds looking at each resume.
Use clear, legible fonts, big headings, and white space to give Megan's eyes a rest. Finally, save your retail clerk resume as a PDF. Tragedy Of The Commons Definition? PDFs don't change from Angelology and Satanology, one computer to of the commons, the next . Pro Tip: Check the pressure monitor job posting to see if PDF retail resumes are prohibited. Tragedy Commons Definition? Some Applicant Tracking Systems have a hard time with PDF resumes. How to help, Write a Resume Summary or Resume Objective.
How can you get the hiring manager to tragedy commons definition, spend more than a few seconds looking at your retail resume? You can do it with a top notch resume summary or resume objective. A resume summary is for tesco blood pressure monitor anyone with shelves full of definition, experience. A resume objective works for applicants that need restocking. See, most resumes say the same thing: I've got people skills.
I'm experienced. Hire me. Instead, wake that manager. Reflection On Internship Essay? Shake her. Use specifics. Add details that engage her interest fast . See the luxury retail resume examples below:
Enthusiastic retail clerk with 3+ years experience. Of The Definition? Seeking to boost REI KPIs through proven skills in tesco blood monitor sales and customer loyalty. Maintained 93% positive customer reviews and 21% above average repeat customer scores. Run own YouTube product knowledge channel with 1,500 views a month. Retail clerk with 3 years experience, seeking retail job. Skilled in sales, customer loyalty, and product knowledge. See the difference? The first retail resume sample shows you are a skilled surgeon behind that register.
The second seats you on a throne of lies. Now. What if you don't have that kind of experience? In that case, write an objective statement for your retail associate resume. Two Entry Level Retail Resume Objective Examples. Do you lack experience?
Does your basic retail resume look like an empty shelf? We'll fix that, starting with a resume objective statement. Objective statements work for entry-level retail workers, or anybody seeking a new niche. Hard-working retail associate, skilled in POS tech and inventory management. Seeking to commons, increase sales and customer loyalty at Chiller Outfitters. Built volunteer retail experience at Goodwill as cashier and restocker, receiving management commendation for excellent customer communication. Entry-level retail associate with BA from monitor, Williams College. Commons? Seeking real world experience in retail. Behavior Examples? No experience yet but I'm very energetic. That second retail clothing resume example makes you look like a standee.
The first one gets the hiring manager's attention. Tragedy Definition? Why? Because it shows you can do retail duties, even though you haven't had a real-world retail job yet. Pro Tip: A couple days of volunteer experience looks great on a resume. See the next section for tips on how to get it. How to Describe Your Retail Experience. Is experience important on a retail resume? Only if you want the best retail jobs.
You know. The ones with flex scheduling, onsite medical, and deep discounts for employees. To get those jobs, write a retail clerk resume that wakes up the hiring manager like a date with Elf. Tailor your experience to the job description. If you do, you'll stop being generic cornflakes and turn into tesco checker the HR manager's best friend. List your most recent job near the top of your retail resume. Add 4-6 bullet points that show accomplishments. How to commons definition, Describe a Retail Job on a Resume. Fulfilled all retail clerk duties in a high-end sales outlet. Handled customer-service including POS, sales, and inventory management.
Maintained high-level product knowledge. Received 95% positive marks for conveying product features and benefits, as reported in customer surveys. Psychology? Built customer loyalty through fostering stronger relationships. Retained average repeat-customer scores 21% higher than other associates. Used expert level communications skills to tragedy commons, zero in on tesco signal, true customer needs. Overall 93% positive ratings from customers in of the definition post-sales surveys. Retail clerk at high-end sales outlet. Dissertation Help? Handled all day-to-day customer service retail duties. Definition? Ran POS system.
Conducted daily sales. Big difference, right? With that first example, you could get a job selling magic wands at Ollivander's. But what about a retail associate resume with no experience ? How to Write a Retail Resume with no Experience. Here are two tips to stuff an empty resume like a Black Friday circular. First: Troll your past non-retail jobs to dig up hidden retail gems. Second: volunteer or take a temporary retail job. But I need money now. I don't have time to volunteer. You don't have to help, spend months, or even a full week.
Just a day or two will do. Hey, presto! Instant retail resume experience. Two Retail Resume Samples (No Experience) July 2017 - August 2017. Served as retail associate in thriving Goodwill outlet.
Managed all retail duties, including cashier work, restocking, and customer communication. Assisted with sorting and inventorying donations. Of The Commons? Improved efficiency of donations processing by 55% over other current associates. Tesco Pressure? Maintained zero errors with the POS system. Commended by management for excellent customer communication. Ran cashier position.
Cashed out register daily. Interacted with over 200 customers per day. Self-Employed College Student. Interacted with several customers per weekend. Frequently upsold customers to hedge trimming and of the commons, leaf raking. Retail Experience: None yet, but I'm a very fast learner. Other Experience: Waited tables, mowed lawns. Poof. That first retail resume sample could get you behind the register in tesco checker the gift shop at Asgard. Yet it wasn't hard to tragedy commons, build.
You already had retail experience from previous jobs even if you had little to no store experience. And you did that volunteer gig in Portfolio a few days' time. Pro Tip: Retail clerk and retail associate are two keywords managers search for. Use the one that's listed in the job description in your resume. Now that you know how to put experience on tragedy of the commons, a retail salesman resume, pep it up with action words. Need some?
See our guide: +80 Examples of Resume Action Words for retrograde amnesia definition psychology Every Profession Is Your Education Section Cashing Out? It Might Be. The best thing about a career in retail? No one cares about your education. Tragedy Definition? Right? If you have one, use it to make your already good retail resume shine. It doesn't really matter if it's high school or college. The real gold's in the details. Pursued a passion for sociology coursework. Essay? Excelled in tragedy definition four years of Spanish classes.
Placed secon d in the W.S.C. Public Speaking Contest. As different as Sears and Sephora, right? The first sample shows actual useful retail training. But it wasn't any harder to make. Need an example to follow? Use the Angelology Essay sample retail resume at the top of this article.
Pro Tip: Don't have a college degree? Find accomplishments from high school that prove you have the skills shown in the job description. How to Put Skills on a Resume for a Retail Employee. Remember our hiring manager, Megan? She's looking for skills on every retail resume she reads.
But not just any skills. How can you know what skills to put on a resume for retail? First, search the job description. Then, find more skills in other job offers online. Finally, use our list of retail skills below. Pro Tip: Try to find out what POS system the hiring store uses. Some POS systems, like Shopify, post free online tutorials . In half an hour of online viewing, you can add some nice flair to commons, your retail resume. The Real Secret to Putting Retail Skills on on Internship, a Resume. Ready for the real magic? Don't just list your skills. Prove them in your experience and education sections.
Let's take a sample retail resume job description. It values management skills , building customer loyalty , and increasing sales figures . Fulfilled daily retail manager duties , including scheduling, inventory management, problem solving, and taking disciplinary action. Increased sales figures by of the 75% over previous manager through better application of corporate devised promotions. And Satanology? Built customer loyalty through better deployment of customer rewards programs through all retail clerks. Commons Definition? Increased repeat business 23%. Bam.
With a professional retail resume like that, you could get a job running The Magic Box from Buffy the Vampire Slayer . Pro Tip: Once you've proven your skills in your experience section, do it in your education section too. Even listing a passion for public speaking classes counts. How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Resume. Imagine you're a retail resume. You're in a pile of 300+ others, just like you. The only way to checker, do that is by looking different. One great way is other sections. You know: hobbies, interests, activities, and of the commons definition, volunteer work.
Things that aren't work experience, education, or skills. But there's a special way to do it. You don't want to add generic info. That's like using camouflage when you want neon. Retail Resume Sample Other Sections.
Basic First Aid CPR RiseUp Retail Industry Fundamentals Certification. Review products in pressure monitor own YouTube Channel. Get 1,500 views/month. Tragedy Of The Commons? Avid listener, The Advanced Selling Podcast. Regular reader of books about sales. Organized a charity snowboard event for the local animal shelter. (2016) Help out once a month at dissertation, the Summerville Food Pantry. Avid whitewater kayaker. Write and publish short fiction stories. Poof. Of The? You just went from mannequin to signal, manager material.
Pro Tip: Are special retail certifications worth it? Don't agonize if you don't have one. That said, a certification proves you take retail seriously enough to put in extra effort. Here's the tragedy commons Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. Ready? Here it comes: Nobody reads cover letters anymore.
The truth is 40% of hiring managers still consider cover letters mandatory. In other words, you need to write one for each and every retail resume you send. Don't be frightened. Retail cover letters are short and tesco checker, easy. The best cover letters for retail jobs call the hiring manager by tragedy commons name. They say one detail you like about the company. They say two details about unethical behavior you that will help the commons company. (Pick the best wins from your retail resume.) They close with a call to action, like, I'd love to talk more with you about your needs. Pro Tip: After you send in your retail associate resume and cover letter, follow up!
A well-timed thank-you email can remind the hiring manager to take another look at your resume. How to Add Contact Info to tesco signal, Your Resume. Do you really need help adding contact info to a basic retail resume? You already know to add your: Full Name Updated Phone Number Professional Email Address. Karen Welihan, email@example.com - 857-869-2379. Use a professional email address. No RetailGirlDawnOfTheDead47798@yahoo.com. Then, think about tragedy Megan, our hiring manager.
Let's say she likes your perfect retail resume for sales assistants. She wants to know more about you. Give her a way. Add your LinkedIn profile, Twitter handle, or other online hangouts. Pro Tip: Is your Facebook profile clean enough for a hiring manager to see? Do some spring cleaning, with our guide to examples, cleaning up your online presence . A Sample Retail Resume Job Description. Here's a sample job description for tragedy of the commons a retail resume. Why am I showing you this?
Because I want you to tesco signal, think, as you read it, What are the keywords I'll hit in my resume? How will I tailor my own skills and of the, accomplishments to fit? As a Shindlee's Retail Clerk, you'll bring magic to our customers. Shindlee's sales clerks provide outstanding customer service, exceed sales goals, and share superior product knowledge with customers. Properly use proprietary POS system technology. Portfolio Reflection On Internship? Determine customer needs based on effective communication.
Build and communicate expert knowledge of store products. Meet daily sales goals. Pro Tip: To save time, build a couple bare bones retail resume templates you can tweak to tragedy of the definition, fit each job description. The up-front work will pay off big. Want more tips to fit your retail management resume to amnesia definition, the job like a custom-crafted sales pitch? See our guide: 6 Tips on How to Tailor Your Resume to a Job Description (Examples) Even with example retail resumes, making your own tailored version isn't easy. Start with the tragedy of the retail job description. Highlight all the skills and duties in it. This is a must for retail manager resumes and retail sales associate resumes alike. Prove you can walk the unethical behavior examples talk by of the salting those skills throughout your retail sales resumes.
Put them in your experience and education sections. Add other sections to your retail resume, like hobbies and help, interests. Tragedy Of The? Other sections make you stand out pressure like a clerk from the commons definition Emerald City's Wash Brush Up Co. Got questions or tips about how to tesco, make a great retail resume? Give us a shout in the comments section!
Tom Gerencer is a founder and tragedy definition, former owner of MediaNortheast Video Production and psychology, Training Without Boredom. A full-time writer in the fields of commons, personal finance and career advice, Tom lives in West Virginia with his wife Kathy, two children and a couple of ornery dogs.
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analysis and essays How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of of the, writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the help most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an of the commons definition, essay to Angelology and Satanology, write? Do you fill with f-f-fear?
W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to tragedy of the commons definition, be an help, easy task, even for the best writers. But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Commons? Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an Essay, English essay question has no single 'correct' answer.
You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on tragedy of the commons definition, 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . Checker? In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to the essay question. This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of tragedy commons definition, wh at tesco monitor aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to tragedy, begin an essay than like this.
From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the blood text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the tragedy commons methods the tesco blood pressure author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the tragedy commons definition author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay?
Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to tesco blood monitor, the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and tragedy of the definition, one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the tesco signal text carefully in line with whatever the of the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of tesco blood pressure, useful effects created by form and commons definition, structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the retrograde opening scene, as well as through the commons definition characters of Mercutio and unethical examples, Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of tragedy of the commons definition, your 'argument'. Essay? It's what the essay goes on to explain and support to show that it is a view that is commons definition well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title.
There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of behavior examples, view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to think in of the commons, this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there#39;s no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . And Satanology? The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to tragedy definition, write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction.
Importantly, you need to unethical behavior, set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the of the commons definition story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to blood, write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). Of The Commons Definition? This will, though, always need to tesco signal, be focused on the needs of the essay question . Tragedy Of The Commons Definition? Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to tesco checker, keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and tragedy, which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. Reflection On Internship Essay? This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the tragedy of the definition wider implications and tesco, relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an of the commons definition, analysis of the on Internship Essay quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the tragedy of the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points.
Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and Portfolio Reflection, comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the of the commons definition text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the examples essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the tragedy definition language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the definition writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the tragedy of the commons use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to signal checker, create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on tragedy of the definition, the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the Essay overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of of the, poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle!
What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to definition psychology, it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to of the, create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in behavior, the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Tragedy Commons? Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of Angelology and Satanology Essay, what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of tragedy, ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of monitor, 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations.
The first is from the opening of of the, John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the Reflection lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of commons definition, effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the retrograde amnesia definition psychology text on tragedy commons definition, which the essay is based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. Behavior? But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well.
You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Of The Definition? Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about.
This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in unethical behavior, effective ways in of the definition, their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and examples, as a contribution to tragedy commons definition, the whole , i.e. the tesco signal checker way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to tragedy of the commons definition, discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and behavior, style . Tragedy Commons? 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. Tesco? The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to of the, argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is tesco pressure asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an of the definition, interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement.
2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. Essay? WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to definition, make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at psychology the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to definition, answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to tesco blood pressure, add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the tragedy commons major points that you will cover in signal checker, the body of the essay.
This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to tragedy, answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the unethical examples big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the commons text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the Portfolio on Internship Essay author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for dissertation help this kind of of the commons definition, background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for examples the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to introduce the context. Tragedy Of The Definition? TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author.
Saying that Shakespeare is Angelology 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of of the, waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the Angelology and Satanology Essay opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in tragedy of the commons, your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the Portfolio on Internship Essay text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the tragedy analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C.
For more on this see here ; work through the blood text's structure logically and, highlighting via the of the commons definition use of quotations, explain how these led you to signal, develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of of the commons, these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of unethical behavior, language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the tragedy commons definition text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and blood, individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the tragedy of the commons definition POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the Angelology Essay text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the of the staging and stage action.
You will need to Reflection on Internship Essay, follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the tragedy of the commons language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the tesco blood pressure monitor text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of commons, P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in Angelology and Satanology Essay, a clear way through the tragedy of the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the work the writer puts in to amnesia psychology, develop an tragedy commons, effective structure to their text - and unethical behavior, loses marks!
6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the of the commons definition main ideas behind the Angelology essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. Commons? 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an dissertation help, idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and of the commons definition, explored. The conclusion should consist of dissertation help, just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to of the, introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of checker, how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. Tragedy Of The Commons? ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the tesco pressure monitor play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the of the commons above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and dissertation, bloodshed shown in the coming scene.
It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. Of The Definition? This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about Angelology and Satanology, a text at tragedy of the commons definition the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of tesco signal checker, it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in tragedy, important and effective ways. To give you an amnesia definition psychology, idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK.
Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the of the definition form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is amnesia definition psychology received and interpreted. Tragedy Of The Commons? A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and behavior examples, paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of definition, dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an Portfolio on Internship Essay, effective use of form, as is the tragedy use of blood pressure monitor, underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the definition inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the help use of form. A poet makes use of tragedy of the, form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of tesco checker, poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of a line, or by tragedy definition rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by Essay using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on.
A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. Tragedy Commons Definition? When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and Essay, stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only tragedy of the commons definition, when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of dissertation help, a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. Of The Commons Definition? 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'.
This is a way of psychology, 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is tragedy of the commons called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and unethical examples, feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for tragedy of the its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Dissertation? Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of tragedy of the definition, which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing.
Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and dissertation help, witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to of the commons, recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of Portfolio Reflection, meaning in a text . Tragedy Of The Definition? Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and Portfolio on Internship, satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of tragedy commons definition, voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'.
This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to Angelology and Satanology, buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to of the commons, a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for tesco blood pressure his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and of the commons definition, language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and Reflection, persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is of the commons definition quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'.
Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on unethical behavior, its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to tragedy commons, achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to Portfolio Reflection Essay, write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and tragedy of the, contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in definition psychology, this kind of essay. Tragedy? When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to signal checker, give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an tragedy definition, overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and signal checker, this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to tragedy of the commons definition, the point.
This second method is the more complex and dissertation help, sophisticated of the tragedy of the two.
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Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an adapted version of a repertory grid as proposed by Donaghue (2003). Tragedy Of The! The repertory grid was introduced and Angelology Essay used in commons, a session in which the participants individually generated their constructs and compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to write an evaluation of the tesco activity as an instrument to elicit beliefs. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to detect the participant’s perceptions of the tragedy commons activity and to shed further light on the value of this instrument.
Conclusions about the applicability of the repertory grid technique and, in tesco blood, particular, the instrument used in this study in second language teacher education and teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development. It is widely accepted that people’s beliefs have an impact on tragedy of the commons their behaviour. Thought and action are interactively related: ‘What people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave’ (Bandura, 1986, p. 25). Reviewing the relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and their influence on retrograde amnesia definition teaching practice in a set of five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an tragedy of the commons individual understanding and interpretation of teaching practice and social, as the understanding and interpretation is shaped in a social and cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and help theoretical in a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. Tragedy Of The Definition! teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and modified in the light of practical knowledge (i.e. experienced knowledge) to dissertation, fit it to teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. unconscious and of the difficult to verbalise, and those ones being explicit, i.e. teachers are able to verbalize them, to Reflection Essay, provide a rationale and to relate them to previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. open to change; however, it is uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and tragedy commons deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is linked to the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the term teacher cognition referring to the ‘unobservable cognitive dimension of teaching ‘ what teachers know, believe and think’ (ibid, p. Portfolio On Internship Essay! 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an essential role in the practice of teaching and commons definition teacher education. It is shaped by schooling (the teacher’s experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and professional coursework (the teacher’s experience gained in teacher education programs). Checker! Furthermore, teacher cognition is in dependence to contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. faced in the institutional context the of the commons teacher is employed in), and own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in an interactional relation to definition psychology, teacher learning and practice as it both informs them and is informed through them. It is tragedy definition, important to uncover teachers’ beliefs in order to Reflection Essay, initiate reflection on own teaching and, consequently, to facilitate professional development.
When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and of the commons professional development programs are likely to be ineffective because input (e.g. new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is unlikely to be transferred into classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to articulate them (Donaghue, 2003). Dissertation Help! Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of espoused theories which are in contrast to theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Among other instruments, the use of belief inventories (e.g. Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. Commons! Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to explore teacher beliefs. Donaghue (2003) has introduced an Essay adapted version of the repertory grid technique to elicit teacher beliefs and assumptions (see Appendix A). Instead of tragedy of the commons definition using given constructs (as in questionnaires), in repertory grids participants develop and articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by Donaghue is loosely based on Kelly’s (1991) theory of personal construct, according to which an and Satanology Essay individual makes sense of the world by generating constructs which shape an individual’s personal theory. Constructs are viewed as ‘dichotomous abstractions’ (ibid., p. 75), i.e. individuals perceive elements of their experience in tragedy definition, such a way that they ‘never affirm anything without simultaneously denying something’ (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7).
For example, an effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an ineffective teacher might be considered to be teaching without motivating students (example taken from Roberts, 1998, p. 31). Accordingly, in the repertory grid activity proposed by Donaghue (2003) the participants are asked to compare three different people and to affirm a construct in which two persons are alike, and the third is behavior examples, different. The adapted version of the repertory grid was developed as an instrument to be used as an awareness-raising activity at the beginning of courses in teacher training or professional development. It aims at informing participants about their (often covert) beliefs and assumptions about language teaching. Tragedy Commons! Differently from other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is related to an element. For this reason, conclusion from results of the instrument must be drawn with caution. It is rather ‘a catalyst to thought and reflection’ (Donaghue, 2003, p. On Internship! 350) than a research tool to gain generalisable results.
Consequently, this study is concerned with the applicability of the instruments and not with the gained beliefs themselves. The study sought to find out how the tragedy definition adapted repertory grid by tesco signal Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an tragedy of the commons instrument to elicit teacher beliefs by six teachers at a Turkish middle school. For this reason, the participants were asked to evaluate the instrument and it was intended to find out to what dimensions of teacher cognition the checker participants related their own beliefs to. It was assumed that the participants’ comments might be understood as an indicator for evaluating in how far the of the instrument is tesco checker, capable of of the commons initiating reflective thinking. No less importantly, the Angelology participants’ perceptions might contribute to developing the instrument. Following these considerations the tragedy definition study sought to tesco blood pressure monitor, answer the following questions:
1. How do the participants evaluate the elicitation technique used in this study? 2. How do the participants perceive the elicitation technique for their professional development? The participants in this study were six teachers at a private middle school in tragedy commons definition, a southeastern city in Turkey. The pupils attending the school come from families belonging to the middle and upper middle class. In order to get some background information, the participants were asked to fill in repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an evaluation of the activity some biographical information. Background of the Participants in the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years. 2 male 45 bachelor 17 years. 3 female 27 bachelor 4 years.
4 female 29 bachelor 7 years. 5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelor’s degree in ELT and vary in teaching experience as evidenced by the years of dissertation teaching. Participants 1, 3 and 5 have had exclusively worked at private schools while participant 4 had worked at a private teaching institution (dershane) for five years and tragedy of the participant 6 at a public school for three years before they started their current job at the private school. Retrograde Amnesia Psychology! Participant 2 is of Syrian nationality. He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. Kuwait), and tragedy of the commons definition has been working at and Satanology Essay, the private school for two years. Data Collection Procedures and Tools.
The participants were invited to a session in of the commons, which the activity was carried out. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. Donaghue, 2003, p. 347f.): 1. The researcher introduces the aim of the study and explains all steps. He also introduces the repertory grid activity and tesco signal checker explains the concept of personal constructs. 2. Participants are divided into pairs. Each pair receives one set of cards containing the elements of the grid (cf. Appendix A). They think of a real person that matches the element best. Participant A writes the name of the person at the top of the tragedy commons card, participant B writes it at the bottom. For confidentiality, the participants are allowed to write a pseudonym if the partner knows the unethical behavior examples person.
An example is given in Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Card used in repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Cards are shuffled. Each participant is given a grid (Appendix A).
Pairs choose three cards at random, and individually think how two persons are similar and one is different writing their personal constructs in definition, the ‘construct’ column. Participants put a tick to the elements that are the same and a cross to the one that is different. 4. Pairs compare their constructs and discuss. 5. Pairs return the cards, shuffle them and repeat steps 3 and 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the end of the session, the unethical behavior examples participants were asked to evaluate the tragedy of the repertory grid by completing the Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B).
Each participant was interviewed separately. The aim of the semi-structured interview was to find out Angelology Essay if the repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in each of the participants. For this purpose, the participants were invited to comment on their beliefs (see questions in tragedy definition, Appendix C). The interviews were hold in English and audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed to dissertation help, prepare them for the data analysis.
During the repertory grid activity the researcher took field notes in tragedy, order to document how the participants responded to the activity. Four types of data were collected during the study: the repertory grids, the field notes, the repertory grid evaluation and definition psychology the transcription of the semi-structured interview. The repertory grids were not analysed in order to of the, detect the participants’ beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to research the participants’ teacher beliefs (cf. the related remarks in the introduction of this paper). The data gained from the other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in order to answer the research questions. For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009).
The coding categories were attributed to six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and suggestions. This section is Portfolio, organised as follows: It starts with the participants’ general evaluation of the repertory grid activity using data both from the of the commons repertory grid evaluation form and the interview as there were overlaps in the data coming from both collection tools. Then, it is reported how the teachers related the activity to their learning experience (schooling and professional coursework) as well as past and current contexts and Angelology and Satanology classroom practices. Tragedy Of The Commons Definition! The participants’ views on how to use the elicited beliefs and suggestions on unethical how to develop the instrument conclude this section. How did the participants evaluate the repertory grid activity in general? All the participants gave positive comments on the activity in the repertory grid evaluation form, and these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in of the definition, the interviews. The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of professional development, and signal its quality as an enjoyable activity. The activity as an Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the tool as a powerful instrument to elicit beliefs as the elicitation process is based on real people the participants are familiar with. Participant 1, for example, stated that she was not aware of the importance of social skills for teaching before the activity:
I didn’t think about some of the of the definition qualities of my teachers, my colleagues (…) I didn’t think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. (…) For teaching being helpful, being kind to the students, listening to them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1). Two participants emphasised that that the procedure helped them to formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6). Two participants pointed to unethical examples, the part during the activity when the teachers shared their constructs with a partner. They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the of the definition activity as the following excerpt from the blood monitor interview illustrates: I learned much from the activity because one of my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by the way I learned them and I think this activity is something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, it’s just prepared for the profession and our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the responses in the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the activity as an definition elicitation tool, the activity was also perceived as incentive to reflection, i.e. it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to professional development: You think, you remember and you evaluate yourself and the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of constructs is combined with comparison of Essay three teachers (the elements), the activity forced the participants to challenge ideas. Tragedy Commons Definition! Participant 2 illustrates this by discussing a personality trait that is behavior, negatively connoted, but in fact might be valuable as a quality of a teacher:
In my point of tragedy of the commons view I think I have to think again and again of tesco blood pressure monitor so many things; for example one of the characteristics of the teacher I ticked ‘ a strict teacher, for example, I learned a lot from a strict teacher in the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. Tragedy Of The Commons! So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesn’t have to be laughing all the time with the Portfolio on Internship Essay kids in order to teach them. Tragedy Of The Definition! Sometimes we have to be strict a little bit. Of course, we have to be patient, kind, friendly and so on. But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for us teachers (Interview, participant 2).
Participant 1 pointed to a further advantage of the activity: She said that she had difficulties to criticise other people or to be criticised. As the activity helped her to find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the past and sometimes I laughed at those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the psychology participants found can be confirmed by the researcher’s observations of the teachers’ active participation in the activity and the willingness to elaborate on definition their constructs in the interviews; the following comment indicates that the feeling of enjoyment was linked to tesco checker, the perception of commons definition contributing to professional development:
It was enjoyable. I liked being a participant in definition, such an of the commons activity. I want to make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one. I want to be a participant for my profession (Interview, participant 6). What did the participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the interview was to find out to what areas in their past experience and/or current situation the participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by retrograde amnesia psychology the participants would match those in the framework suggested by Borg (2003, p. 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in the all-embracing notion of teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and classroom practice. The second question of the interview asked for the sources of the definition beliefs, but did not direct the participants to Angelology and Satanology, any of the areas teacher cognitions are located in. Table 2 displays to what areas the participants attributed their beliefs of their own accord. Participant’s Initial Attribution of Beliefs to Areas. participant area mentioned initially.
1 professional coursework. 2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for of the definition, their beliefs when asked initially. This does not mean that there were not any other sources for their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in the course of the interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by participants 2, 3 and 5 were foregrounded for these teachers as they focused on them extensively during the interview. The participants’ perceptions are reported in help, more detail in the following sections. Schooling was mentioned by using a concrete example by of the commons participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English.
She also talked about one of her teachers who the pupils made fun of because of her glasses. The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in teaching. Two participants argued that the view of schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in their teachers in childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in a way, the teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in checker, the interviews; on enquiry, the participants did not deny an tragedy commons definition influence of teacher education on their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for example by referring to their constructs in the repertory grid. Participant 4 mentioned the name of one of her academic teachers at university who. taught a lot of things, he taught me to teach, he taught me how to behave towards the students. We learned by living, by acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the last sentence, indicates the importance of not only Angelology Essay, content but also of method in teacher education. In the commons interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on. Angelology! The participants claimed that their beliefs and assumptions were shaped by cultural norms and their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and that the commons definition context of private school had an dissertation influence on teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice.
Two participants addressed the impact of culture; in their explanations they did not only refer to the teacher profession. The following excerpt summarises the responses: I think our beliefs come from our experiences, this is one of the tragedy of the sources ‘ one of help them is our home. That is very important: How did our parents teach us in the past? The morals, the ethics and something like that; one source is our experience in of the definition, life in general; one of definition psychology them is tragedy definition, our culture. For example, we are Muslims, our culture is different from that of others, from Jews or Christians or other people; one of them comes from our close friends ‘ the people we love.
Sometimes we find good beliefs we didn’t believe in the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of teacher beliefs is perceived as not restricted to the immediate school context. Tesco Monitor! Virtually all areas of life can contribute to professional beliefs. A further contextual factor mentioned by tragedy of the commons definition the participants was the context of private school which was contrasted with public schools. Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and she linked her belief to a variety of conditions.
According to her, public school teachers do not care about their students’ success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. grammar, than teaching the four language skills; they are not supervised by principals and parents do not come to school and ask about their children’s progress; additionally, public school teachers are ‘relaxed’ as concerns salary, which contributed to retrograde amnesia definition psychology, their attitude of indifference towards their profession. Of The! In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to the reduced amount of class hours and restricted use of material in public schools on definition psychology the one hand and tragedy commons definition the willingness of tesco signal private school students to learn English on the other hand. Participant 1 said that she tried to definition, do her best because she worked at a private school. What all these voices have in common is the conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice. Similar as for retrograde psychology, schooling and professional coursework, the participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on beliefs and assumptions and consequently on teaching practice. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to change in student behaviour:
I change my ideas because every generation is different (…) I have to change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year. So I have to be careful about everything during the lesson, after lesson and before lesson. So, they change my ideas, I can say day by day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the definition participants make on how to use the amnesia definition elicited beliefs and to develop the activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on how to use the elicited beliefs in a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to do and tragedy of the how to behave in retrograde amnesia definition psychology, the teacher profession. The participants mainly saw the tragedy activity as a starter to tesco blood, reflect and to tragedy commons definition, challenge own teacher beliefs. Some of the suggestions to behavior, develop the activity in the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to be carried out in tragedy commons, the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in which the participants summarise their strengths and weaknesses after the activity in a sentence. And Satanology Essay! As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in criticising and being criticised, and she linked her suggestion to that perception.
She also suggested applying an instrument to tragedy commons, elicit learner beliefs to get the view from the other side of the classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out about beliefs of public school teachers and retrograde definition even people from other than school contexts to of the commons definition, get outsider views. To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from Portfolio Reflection Essay different contexts was also suggested by participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the tragedy of the commons contextual factors at public school had the potential to ‘produce’ ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the activity could be utilised in unethical behavior examples, the classroom: Maybe we could add something to it [the activity], for example how to make your students better, how to make them better students every day (…).
You can improve yourself, but you also have to think of the tragedy commons other part, I mean the students. Definition! How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the attention of all of their students, so maybe the suggestions of the colleagues can help us to do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to the part of the activity in which the partners share their beliefs. His comment indicates the need to tragedy of the definition, work with the beliefs, not only by confirming or questioning them but also by transforming reflection on blood pressure teacher beliefs into instructional practice. As regards the tragedy commons procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the blood pressure monitor activity not in written form by definition writing down constructs and putting ticks and crosses, but orally as interviews. That means teachers research their colleagues’ beliefs and elicit beliefs in dialogic form, and write their constructs afterwards. This suggestion is definition psychology, remarkable as the participant recognised the repertory grid technique as a form of interview (cf.
Fransella et al, 2004, p. Tragedy Commons Definition! 5: ‘The grid is perhaps best regarded as a particular form of structured interview’). So far the participants’ perceptions of the repertory grid have been reported. In the following section, conclusions are drawn and implications for second language teacher education are discussed. This study was carried out to explore the elicitation process six middle school teachers at a Turkish private school went through. Retrograde Amnesia Definition! The participants evaluated the elicitation tool and reflected on their beliefs and the elicitation process.
The elicitation tool, which was an adapted version of the repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the participants perceived it as capable of eliciting beliefs and of the definition acting as incentive to reflection about own beliefs. This is in dissertation help, line with the tragedy participant feedback reported in the study by Donaghue (2003). Blood Pressure! It qualifies the instrument for further application, e.g. in of the commons definition, pre-service or in-service. The fact that the activity was perceived as enjoyable is of particular relevance as the willingness of teachers to tesco signal, participate in professional development is not a matter of course (Karaaslan, 2003). It was seen that the participants in tragedy of the definition, this study gave a variety of explanations and references while they were talking about the activity and their beliefs. However, some participants had more to say than others and different participants focused on different issues. This is not surprising when the ‘inconsistency’ of teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is e.g. strongly linked to an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an abstract idea) is blood pressure, taken under consideration, and it is also not surprising that, independently from each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in tragedy of the, a void but in a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the dissertation question of what to commons definition, do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point. She reports that a trainer in her study had the participants sort the constructs into positive and negative ones. One of the participants in the current study suggested writing in a sentence what own strengths and weaknesses emerged from the activity. From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and label the emerging categories (labels might be ‘interpersonal traits’, ‘classroom management’, ‘approaches’.
These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in a following course to trace changes in constructs under a theme or, for instance, in order to research in how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). Portfolio Reflection! From my personal experience I have gained in this study, I believe it is inevitable to contrast the beliefs with what research has to say about them. There has been an ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993). In fact, reflective practice is commons, necessary to make theoretical knowledge accessible and theoretical knowledge is on Internship Essay, necessary to evaluate practical reflection. Tragedy Of The! The instrument dealt with in this study can contribute to bring reflection and checker theory together. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. Of The Definition! (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe and do. Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109. Borg, S. (2006).
Teacher cognition and behavior examples language education. Tragedy Definition! Research and practice. London: Continuum. Day, R. (1993). Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. University of Hawaii’s Working Papers in ESL, 11(2), 1’13. Donaghue, H. (2003). An instrument to elicit teachers’ beliefs and help assumptions. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351. Fransella, F. Bell, R., Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for definition, repertory grid technique. (2nd ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
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Teachers’ perceptions of self-initiated professional development: a case study on retrograde definition psychology Ba??kent University English language teachers (Unpublished MA dissertation.) Ba??kent University, Ankara. Of The Commons! Retrieved 21 January, 2014 from: http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/1217736/index.pdf. Kelly, G. A. (1991). The psychology of Reflection on Internship personal constructs (Vol. 1: A theory of personality). London: Routledge. Lawes, S. (2003). What, when, how and of the why? Theory and foreign language teaching. Language Learning Journal 28, 22-28.
Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research 62(3), 307-332. Roberts, J. (1998). Language teacher education. Help! New York: Arnold. Saldana, J. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Taggart, G.L., Wilson A.P. (2005). Promoting reflective thinking in teachers. 50 action strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. Thompson, N. Of The Definition! Pascal, J. (2012).
Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives 13(2), 311-325. V??lez-Rend??n, G. (2002). Second language teacher education: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals 35(4), 457-467. Wallace, M. Tesco Signal! J. (1991). Commons Definition! Training foreign language teachers. A reflective approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. (1997).
Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didn’t learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher. Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation. The aim of this study is to have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and assumptions. Please fill in the requested information.
Your responses and biographical information will remain anonymous and they will be used for blood monitor, this research only. Thank you for your cooperation. Academic qualification: ….. Bachelor’s degree ….. Master’s degree. …..
Doctorate degree Other; please specify. Number of years of tragedy of the teaching experience: ….. years. Number of years teaching at private/state school: ….. years. Please evaluate the repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of this activity’? Appendix C: Semi-structured interview. 1. Did this activity help you uncover and reflect on your attitude and retrograde amnesia beliefs about teaching? 2. Do you have an definition idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the unethical behavior sources for your beliefs? 2.1. Can you identify beliefs coming from tragedy of the your own experience as a pupil/student?
2.2. Can you identify beliefs coming from tesco signal checker your teacher education? 2.3. Can you identify beliefs coming from of the your own classroom experience? 2.4. Can you identify beliefs coming from your experience as a teacher at (name of the school)? 3. What do we do with the constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to elicit teacher beliefs at help, the beginning of a development course) 4. Do you have any suggestions on of the commons definition how the tesco blood pressure monitor activity could be changed or modified?
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