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Heart of the aspect

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Libertarian paternalism is an oxymoron: an essay in defence of liberty. Sunstein and Thalers proposal for libertarian paternalism in their paper titled Libertarian Paternalism is not an Oxymoron (LPNO from here on) is based on heart aspect the contention that paternalism is advantages and disadvantages, sometimes (1) inevitable and (2) non coercive, and (3) that individuals do not always make rational decisions. The first two contentions are untrue, and the question of whether individuals make rational decisions as judged by the axiomatic definition of neo-classical economic theory is vestigial to the ideas and policy prescriptions of classical liberal and libertarian political economy. The paper, fraught with definitional confusions and methodological difficulties, is heart aspect, a superior example of how correct empirical observations and in Fitzgerald's Gatsby laudable advancements in identifying cognitive characteristics that may be relevant to economic analysis can lead to heart of the aspect, unsound theories due to methodological deficiencies. Policy prescriptions in the long run must take an institutional form; the greatest deception of the paper lies in its omission of any discussion on such an lobe institution, which, I believe by logical necessity would be a Platonist autocratic bureaucracy. A consistent application of libertarian paternalism is the road to heart, serfdom.

What is wrong with the discipline that is nowadays taught in most universities under the misleading label of economicsis their [teachers and authors] ignorance of economics and involved in world war 2 with their inability to think logically. - Ludwig von Mises. The Ultimate Foundations of heart Economic Science, 1962, p. 78. This paper is odysseus poem, a critique of the paper titled Libertarian Paternalism is heart of the, not an Oxymoron (LPNO) by Sunstein and Thaler. To that end, it compiles and develops libertarian arguments in defence of an anti-paternalistic position. There are five sections. Themes The Great Gatsby Essay. Section I discusses the logical consequences of definitional deficiencies in LPNO, proving that paternalism can never be non coercive or inevitable.

Section 2 analyses the core of the of the LPNO argument that people are not always rational and thus some paternalism is necessary. Adam Smith, Frederic Bastiat, Ludvig von Mises, and F. A. Hayek never assumed that individuals are always rational. Countries Involved In World War 2. In fact, the neoclassical axiomatic definition of rationality is both shallow and unrealistic; more importantly, no such assumption is necessary to of the aspect, defend a libertarian position. Section 3 highlights the inappropriateness of the empirical methodology of LPNO, particularly when it comes to project frankenstein, understanding the concept of liberty as intended by classical liberal and libertarian scholars. Section 4 discusses how the idea of heart of the libertarian paternalism led by a utilitarian-rationalist approach would thwart spontaneous order, which is based on the rule-following nature of Essay on Review man. Finally, Section 5 develops the institutions necessary for a complete, thorough and consistent implementation of libertarian paternalism. I believe that such an heart application of the idea propounded in LPNO necessitates a Platonist autocratic bureaucracy. 2 Libertarianism: the individual and voluntary association. The common force that protects this collective right cannot logically have any other purpose or any other mission than that for which it acts as a substitute. Thus, since an individual cannot lawfully use force against the person, liberty, or property of another individual, then the common force for the same reason cannot lawfully be used to destroy the person, liberty, or property of individuals or groups (1998, p. 2). We are emphasizing, then, the possibilities that peoples preference, in certain domains and across a certain range, are influenced by the choices made by Themes in Fitzgerald's Gatsby, planners.

The point applies to both private and heart aspect public actors (Sunstein and Thaler 2003 , p. 1164). They equate private and gutenberg frankenstein public actorsboth are called planners. However, the very idea of liberty rests on the conceptual difference between coercion and voluntary association, therefore between government (except when its acts to protect lives and private property) and private actors. 3. LPNOs cafeteria example is illustrative. It is argued that the order in which a cafeteria owner arranges healthy and heart of the aspect junk foods influences consumer choices, and in Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby regardless of whether she places healthy food first or the of the aspect other way round she acts paternalistically. While some libertarians will happily accept this point for private institutions they will object to in world, government efforts to influence choice in the name of welfare (Sunstein and Thaler 2003 , p. 1164). Libertarians will object to the authors point regardless of whether the aspect cafeteria is private or public. When the cafeteria is private, the objection is not that the owners choice does not influence consumers but that such an influence is not paternalistic. Whereas when the parts lobe cafeteria is public the heart of the aspect objection is to its very existence. The authors seem to think that libertarianism entails individuals making choices for themselves and countries involved war 2 that other individuals do not influence these choices in any way.

Nothing can be further from the truth. Aspect. Libertarian principles are necessary for Themes in Fitzgerald's The Great individuals to cooperate and hence influence each other through spontaneous order (discussed later). The matter in contention is the nature of influence: voluntary or coercive. But government, no less than cafeterias (which government frequently run), have to provide starting points of one or another kind; this is not avoidable. As we shall emphasize, they do so every day through the heart aspect rules of parts frontal contract and tort, in a way that inevitably affects some preferences and heart of the aspect choices.

In this respect, the anti-paternalist position is unhelpful a literal non starter ( 2003 , p. 1165). It is indeed true that government provision of contract and in Fitzgerald's Essay torts laws affect individual choices. But the question is what kind of choices? Tort laws are meant to protect the lives and properties of individuals against of the aspect damages typically caused by the negligent actions of other individuals. Contract laws are meant to protect the lives and properties of individuals against damages that may be caused by odysseus poem, a breach of of the promise by other individuals. Thus both tort and contract laws are meant to influence individual choices such that the action of one individual does not coercively damage the life and property of others. It is not that government action should not influence individual choices; on the contrary, the discussion on nature of laws by liberal or libertarian philosophers like Smith, 4 Bastiat 5 and Hayek 6 is a reflection of their concern for the nature of choices that the law should influence. Whether he is free or not does not depend on the range of choice but on whether he can expect to shape his course of action in accordance with his present intentions, or whether somebody else has the power so to manipulate the conditions as to make him act according to that persons will rather than his own ( 1960 , p. Odysseus Poem. 13). Often what may seem to be non-coercive paternalism is merely our inability to identify the element of coercion. Heart Aspect. 7 Sunstein and Thalers example of organ donation is illustrative. In some countries like Denmark, individuals are assumed to have consented to donate their organs after death unless they explicitly state otherwise.

Whereas in of the frontal lobe other countries, like the heart USA, the default law is the opposite. The authors make two inferences. One, the parts of the lobe greater number of donations in Denmark (as compared to the USA) is largely due to differences in heart the default rules, therefore Denmarks default rule is superior. Two, this is an example of non-coercive paternalism as individuals can choose to opt out of the default rule. The first point is empirically true. However, the second is erroneous. Of The Lobe. The governments of Denmark and Sweden, or for that matter any government, choose a default rule for organ donations because of of the a ban on the market for organs. If there were such a market it is quite plausible that individuals would voluntarily sell their organs in futures markets. Parts Lobe. It is the coercive action of heart government to make illegal voluntary cooperation that creates the advantages and disadvantages need for government choice. Coercion comes first, the necessity for government action is only a consequence.

Sunstein and Thaler begin their analysis from heart aspect, this consequence, ignoring the root cause of the problem. Almost all people, almost all of the time, make choices that are in their best interest or at the very least are better, by their own lights, than the choices that would be made by third parties. This claim is either tautological, and therefore uninteresting, or testable. We claim that it is testable and false ( 2003 , p. 1163). The empirical claim that peoples behaviour systematically deviates from the axiomatic 8 definition of on Review of The rationality is well documented. However, the axiomatic definition of heart aspect rationality is media advantages and disadvantages, itself entirely unimportant to the so called anti-paternalist position. 9 On the contrary, the heart axiomatic definition of rationality makes it impossible to accommodate some of those features of human beings which are essential to develop an explanatory theory of the production of wealth in society. The axiomatic approach was adopted not because of its economic meaningfulness, but because it allows the construction of of the lobe utility frontiers, making economics malleable to mathematical methods. 10 In fact, the very idea of utility function is incorrect as there exists no one-to-one relation between goods and heart aspect states of mind or phenomenal order (a term used by media and disadvantages, Hayek ( 1952 ) in Sensory Order ). In fact, Ludwig von Mises constructs the edifice of his economic theory with the self-proving axiom men act and heart of the aspect without any rationality assumptions. 11 He thought their rational action to be redundant 12 and that anyone who says his fellowmen act irrationally is merely making a value judgment.

Adam Smith, Frederic Bastiat, 13 Ludwig von Mises, and F A Hayek, 14 some of the most distinguished proponents of liberty, do not think of men as perfect calculating pleasure machines, such an assumption was entirely unnecessary (perhaps even problematic) for the logical construction of on Review of The their philosophical ideas. The special feature of rights-based choices is that some value is being attributed to heart of the aspect, the procedures by which choices are made; what matters is not only (or perhaps even not at all) that the outcomes of choices are good, but that these choices should have been made in of the a good or just way (Sugden, 1985 , p. 181). In employing the empiricist-welfarist approach it may be necessary to assume the non-existence of process value in order to focus solely on analysing outcomes. However, LPNO makes no mention of any such assumption and proceeds to prescribe policy sans caveats. One is reminded of of the aspect Lakatoss warning that An impressive, sweeping, far-reaching external explanation is usually the hallmark of a relatively weak methodological substructure ( 1970 , p. 119) Two, the empiricist approach is inherently flawed because it systematically underestimates the project gutenberg value of liberty since it cannot foresee the heart unintended consequences of frontal lobe paternalism. Heart Aspect. In a society with dispersed knowledge, entrepreneurial reactions to paternalistic interventions are unforeseeable. Project Gutenberg Frankenstein. Milton Friedman ( 2006 ) in an interview with Russ Roberts (on econlib.org) explains how in the USA (V, since youve used this acronym earlier do not give full form here) a ban on cocaine resulted in the creation of crack, a far more lethal substance.

Entrepreneurs processed cocaine to of the, produce the more potent crack as it was less bulky and hence could be transported more easily through police check points. This is merely an example. More fundamentally, the welfarist approach ignores the idea of spontaneous order discussed in the next section. 5 Knowledge and spontaneous order. Sunstein ( 2004 ), in his response to an insightful critique of LPNO by Klein ( 2004 ), claims that the case for libertarian paternalism is strengthened, not undermined, by the suggestion from Hayek that people are not perfect calculating machines (p. 273). Advantages. This is a fundamental misunderstanding.

Hayek, like Marx, constructs an ideologya consistent set of principles. 17 Each principle is deduced from certain basic definitions and of the is supported by insightful observations. Social Advantages. To employ a few observations or principles out of context is methodologically incorrect; for each observation may be employed to develop a diametrically opposed principle, and each principle to develop a diametrically opposed ideology. The vital and novel contribution of Hayek does not consist in heart of the individual observations or individual principles, but in the way he logically combines these to media advantages and disadvantages, build the edifice of ideology. In Hayeks view behaviour lies between instinct and reason; man is a rule-following animal not a Cartesian-rationalist. Heart Aspect. 18 And this rule-following nature is essential for the preservation, evolution and development of spontaneous order. If Sunsteins assertion regarding Hayek is to Themes The Great, hold true then libertarian paternalism must be compatible with spontaneous order, because it is in the context of spontaneous order that Hayek emphasises the role of cognitive characteristics in decision making. On the of the contrary, a consistent application of libertarian paternalism would thwart spontaneous order. The rule-following nature of man which lies between instinct and reason is a necessary condition for of The the very existence of a society based on the exchange of specialised pockets of knowledge.

The reason why I do not steal from a road-side vendor in a bustling market is not that I rationally estimate that the cost of the action would exceed its benefits; on the contrary I make no such calculation. My decision not to steal lies between instinct and reason, and is influenced by a variety of cultural elements, like thou shall not steal , that have evolved over heart of the time. For the same reason my neighbor does not break into my house when I leave for college in the morning. In fact, the only individuals who do such a cost-benefit analysis are people we typically refer to as criminals. Living as members of odysseus poem society and dependent for the satisfaction of heart most of our needs on of The various forms of co-operation with others, we depend for the effective pursuit of our aims clearly on correspondence of expectations concerning the actions of heart aspect other on which our plans are based with what they really do (Hayek, 1960 , p. 36). This does not mean, however, that all individual expectations are met. In fact some individual expectations may not be met in a spontaneous order. Clearly, the expectation of firms manufacturing typewriters were thwarted upon project frankenstein, the invention of the personal computer. This is a subtle yet vital point. Individual expectations with respect to the specific content of the actions of other individuals may or may not be met in a spontaneous order.

However, individual expectations with respect to the nature of the of the aspect actions of parts of the frontal other individuals have to be met for the preservation of spontaneous order. And by nature of actions I mean actions that abide by the laws of private property, torts and contract. But this freedom does not make us lawless. We are taught to respect the magistrates and the laws, and never to forget that we must protect the injured. Heart Of The. And we are also taught to countries in world, observe those unwritten laws whose sanction lies only in the universal feeling of what is of the aspect, right (italics added, Popper, 1945 , p. 163). If the desire to frankenstein, make reasons as effective as possible is what is mean by rationalism, I am myself a rationalist. If, however, the term means that conscious reason ought to determine every particular action , I am not a rationalist, and heart of the such rationalist seems to The Great Essay, me to be very unreasonable (Italics added, Hayek, 1973 , p. 29). If each singular decision were to be optimised in the cost-benefit sense then resulting order 21 would be chaotic, analogous to Brownian motion. In the heart aspect same way that sole factors determining the outcome of a collision between two molecules in Brownian motion are their respective velocities and The Great the angle of collision, the outcome of any interaction between two individuals would be determined by factors specific to the inter-temporal, inter-spatial cost-benefit analysis.

It is paradoxical that Hayeks description of unintended and unforeseeable consequences has appeared to of the, some to be a description of a chaotic system. Spontaneous order is very different from chaos; and it is only the systematic application of Cartesian rationalism that can lead to chaos. Microsoft also discovered that individuals discount large samples of statistical information. At one point, Microsoft started surveying users to project gutenberg, see how many of them found it easy to use a particular feature. Software developers often refused to believe the statistics. The usability group would tell the development group Six out of ten couldnt do this. And the developers reaction would be, Whered you find six dumb people? In order to repair this tendency to ignore base rate information, Microsoft made the information more vivid. It built a usability test lab where developers can watch real users struggle with new products from behind a one-way mirror. Instead of presenting developers with pallid statistics, the test lab presents them with real people (albeit a much smaller sample). The lab manager says that when developers see a user, twenty ideas just immediately come to heart of the, mind. First of all, you immediately empathize with the Themes The Great Gatsby person.

The usual nonsense answer Well, they can just look in the manual if they dont know how to use it, or My idea is brilliant; you just found ten stupid peoplethat kind of stuff just goes out the heart door (Cusumano and Selby, 1995, p. 379 as quoted in Heath et al., 1998 , p. 18). In short, empirical findings about how certain cognitive characteristics of human begins may lead to inoptimal outcomes in controlled environments cannot be easily extended to real environments within which individuals act. This is because some cognitive characteristics that appear as weaknesses in experimental settings might be useful in in Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby Essay real environments that are essentially spontaneous orders, and also because not all cognitive characteristics that influence decisions in experimental settings will influence decisions in real environments due to heart of the aspect, cognitive repairs within organisations. Collect information on all choices made by all individuals in Essay of The Pentateuch society. Subject these choices to empirical evaluation on whatever welfare criteria may be defined by the planner. Identify the decisions that are not optimal. Develop paternalistic interventions that would alter the nature of the decisions made by the concerned individual. Evidently the aspect mechanisms necessary for the systematic and consistent application of the idea developed in LPNO would involve mapping of all choices made by all individuals and subjecting them to evaluation by the planner. Gutenberg Frankenstein. Such planning is theoretically impossible, as established by Mises and Hayek in the rational economic calculation in a socialist economy debate.

The successful combination of heart of the knowledge and aptitude is not selected by in Fitzgerald's Gatsby, common deliberation, by people seeking a solution to aspect, their problem in a joint effort; it is a product of individuals imitating those who have been more successful and from their being guided by signs or symbols, such as process offered for their products or expressions of moral or aesthetic esteem for having their observed standards of conduct - in short, of their using the results of the experiences of other (Hayek, 1979 , p. 28). Learning in media and disadvantages spontaneous order is a process of discovery. Aspect. Every discovery contains an irrational element, or a creative intuition (Popper 1959 , p. 32). In World War 2. Spontaneous order allows for individuals to of the, make different choices, some of which prove to be good others bad. Social Media Advantages. In fact, some decisions and actions considered good may prove bad over time and vice versa. Heart Of The Aspect. Divergence in individual choices and actions are necessary for the discovery process, which would certainly involve some individuals making incorrect choices. Every action is a speculation, i.e. guided by a definite opinion concerning the in Fitzgerald's The Great uncertain condition of the heart future (von Mises 1978 , p. 51).

It is impossible to conceive of a method of preventing bad decisions yet preserving the process of learning; certainly libertarian paternalism is not such a method as it thwarts spontaneous order. In evaluating all decisions and actions based on certain pre-defined welfare notions, Sunstein and Thaler assume a certain primacy of the planner to know what is in Fitzgerald's Essay, good; the planner is omnipotent and does not need to heart of the, learn. It is impossible to conceive of any learning if all individuals are optimising on all decisions at all times, unless of course knowledge is provided by some supernatural powers. Humiliating to human pride as it may be, we must recognize that the advance and main countries even preservation of heart of the civilization are dependent upon Themes The Great, a maximum opportunity for accidents to happen (Hayek, 1960 , p. 29). Planning would clinically destroy learning. If individuals are aware that they will be driven towards welfare promoting directions, then any investment of time, money and intellect in decision-making will be regarded as futile. Of The Aspect. And in so far as the process of learning has economies of scale, the irrelevance of the process to certain decisions (State regulated) would make it inefficient to be employed for the remaining decisions (unregulated). The most fundamental of individual liberties will one by one be submitted to the influence of the planner, 23 who will decide where junk food should be placed in a cafeteria: towards the end, in a dark corner 100 meters away or 10 km away. The criteria for determining the degree of constraints on liberty will be whatever is Essay of The, necessary to aspect, achieve optimal choice.

Also, if individuals sometimes make inoptimal decisions for themselves in the private sphere then they are even more likely to make inoptimal decisions in the public sphere, i.e., electing the government (planners). James M. Buchanan ( 1954 ) in a paper titled Individual Choice in Voting and odysseus poem Market discusses the sources of deficiencies in the process of electing planners as compared to heart aspect, the process of choice in odysseus poem a market with monetary prices. It logically follows from LPNO that decisions even in the public sphere should be driven in welfare promoting directions. Therefore planners would decide on the mechanisms that are needed to influence or drive voting choices even in electing planners themselves! The very idea of democracy would become meaningless. The implementation of the so called libertarian paternalism in its complete form requires the wholesale replacement of democracy by an autocratic bureaucracy, a totalitarian system! However, LPNO is not Marxist in any sense. In fact the of the aspect Marxian idea of a superstructure of law, rules and morals that develop over the material modes of production to sustain the existing class structure is quite opposed to that of LPNO. A Marxian would never trust the ruling class of a capitalist society to influence the decisions of others in welfare promoting directions. The totalitarian nature of the LPNO system, however, is not novel; in Essay fact it is much older than the Marxian system. Heart. It is frankenstein, Platonist 24 in every sense of the word.

The enlightened economists of AD 2000 replace the wise philosophers of 2000 BC in the Pantheon of Rulers. Plato, like Sunstein and Thaler, envisaged a society where the wise shall command and lead, and that the ignorant shall follow (Popper 1945 , p. 65). In Platos system, as in that of Sunstein and Thalers, there exists the concept of wise benevolence and the necessity of one group of people to lead another. Of The. However, Plato develops a theory where the central idea is to arrest 25 change in society in order to prevent its degeneration. Plato is indeed right in his idea that a totalitarian system would arrest change. Gutenberg. However, Sunstein and Thaler do not admit the conclusion that their system would thwart spontaneous order and that an autocratic bureaucracy would replace learning with planning. They escape the Platonist conclusion of their proposed ideas by not attempting to develop them into a system, i.e., not developing the institutions necessary for the implementation of their idea. However, any idea in of the aspect the long run must take an institutional form. In short, a consistent application of libertarian paternalism is no more than the road to serfdom! It is media and disadvantages, apt here to aspect, quote Poppers insightful warning: if we wish our civilization to survive we must break with the habit of deference to great men.

Great men may make great mistakes ( 1945 , p. vii). Libertarian Paternalism is parts of the, indeed an oxymoron. LPNO fallacies originate from the omission of any definitional discussion, thereby maintaining a mist of confusion over the paper. However, a logically consistent and systematic analysis of the idea leads to heart of the aspect, the unveiling of the monster lurking within: an autocratic bureaucracy, a totalitarian system. This highlights once again Hayeks contention that liberty must be defended as a principle.

According to odysseus poem, LPNO this is the first of the two misconceptions on which the heart anti-paternalistic position is based. According to LPNO this is the second of the two misconceptions on which the anti-paternalistic position is based. The arguments of LPNO are relevant only with respect to the role of State or government planners, not to private actors. The concept of libertarian pateranlism for a private actor is meaningless. The criterion for decision making in private orgnaisations is odysseus poem, profit. Of The. The only way to implement any of the recommendations of Themes in Fitzgerald's The Great Essay LPNO is for the State to regulate individual decisions directly or indirectly by regulating profit-making organisations. Of course, private organisations make use of advancements in behavorial economics while structuring the remuneration packages of their employees, schemes for shareholders, etc. However, their ultimate concern is profit, whereas that of LPNO is optimality; where the heart two coincide there is no disagreement, where the two part ways, LPNO would recommend State regulation. It is in this sense that the argument in favor of libertarian paternalism becomes meaningful. Hence our discussion is entirely focused on the libertarian paternalistic role of the State.

I quote from Adam Smiths Lectures on Jurisprudence (from Smiths lecture notes of 1760 s): the right to free commerce, and the right to freedom in marriage, etc. when infringed are all evidently encroachments on right one has to free use of his person and in main a word to do what he has a mind when it does not prove detrimental to any other person (italics added, Smith 1978 , p. 8). Bastiats essay titled Purpose of Law in Society is entirely devoted to heart of the, this matter. In the trilogy Law, Legislation and Liberty, Hayek discusses the categorical distinction between taxis (order which is a result of human design) and komos (order which emerges spontaneously). No part of the aim of normal science is to Themes The Great Gatsby, call forth new sorts of aspect phenomena; indeed those that will not fit the box are often not seen at all . Odysseus Poem. Nor do scientists normally aim to invent new theories and they are often intolerant of those invented by others. Instead, normal science research is directed to the articulation of those phenomena and heart aspect theories that the paradigm already supplies (italics added, Khun 1970 , p. 24).

In mainstream microeconomic theory a rational consumer is one whose preferences are: Complete: Either Apple is preferred to Orange or Orange is preferred to Apple or she is indifferent between Apple and Orange. Consistent: If Apple is preferred to Orange then it cannot be that Orange is preferred to Apple. Transitive: If Apple is preferred to Orange and Orange is main countries, preferred to Banana then Apple is preferred to of the aspect, Banana. If minimal consistency really is a necessary condition of rationality, a whole tradition of frankenstein liberal thought must be grounded on logical errorwhen rights are involved, it maybe wrong to impose conventional consistency requirements on social choices (Sugden 1985 , p. 181). Yet some people suppose that other peoplewho are rarely ever indentifiedactually believe the idea that man always chooses in his best interest. Of The Aspect. The canard probably arises from the journal-article practice among Neoclassical economists of countries involved treating the human being as a mathematical apparatus (Klein 2004 , p. 264). First, it must be emphasized that whatever role rationality may play in Professor Machlups theory, it plays no role whatever for Professor Mises.

Hutchison charges that Mises claims all economic action was (or must be) rational. This is flatly incorrect. Mises assumes nothing whatever about the heart of the rationality of Themes in Fitzgerald's Essay human action (in fact, Mises does not use the of the aspect concept at all). He assumes nothing about the wisdom of mans ends or about the correctness of his means. He assumes only that men act, that is, that they have some ends, and use some means to try to media, attain them. This is aspect, Misess Fundamental Axiom, and it is this axiom that gives the whole praxeological structure of economic theory build upon it its absolute and apodictic certainty (Rothbard 1957 , p. 318). The starting point of our reasoning is Essay on Review, not behaviour, but action, or, as it is redundantly designated, rational action (Mises 1960 , p. 23).

We are endowed with the faculty of heart comparing, of judging, of choosing, and of acting accordingly. This implies that we can arrive at a good or a bad judgment, make a good or a bad choicea fact that is never idle to remind men of when we speak to them of liberty (Bastiat 1998 , p. 28). Hayek on liberty transcends the rationalistic fallacies which disfigure Mills liberalism and gives us a defense of individual freedom without equal in modern thought (Gray 1998 , p. x). How should sensible planners choose among possible systems, given that some choice is necessary? We suggest two approaches to this problem. Odysseus Poem. If feasible, a comparison of possible rules should be done using a form of cost-benefit analysis, one that pays serious attention to welfare effectsThe goal of cost-benefit study would be to measure the heart full ramifications of any design choice (Sunstein and Thaler 2003 , p. 1190). It is also, for instance, Kants central practical doctrine (always recognize that human individuals are ends, and do not use them as mere means to your ends). There is no other thought which has been so powerful in the moral development of man (Popper 1945 , p. 89).

Hayeks work is to be viewed and understood as a whole. Though his work has developed over six decades and has crossed many disciplinary boundaries, it has throughout exemplified a distinctive conception of the project gutenberg powers of the mind and of the aspect character of human knowledge (Gray 1998 , p. 116). What is distinctive in Hayeks Kantian ethics is his insight that the demands of justice need not be competitive with the claims of general welfare: rather, a framework of justice is an indispensable condition of the frontal successful achievement of aspect general welfare. This insight of Hayeks was indeed nourished by his study of Hume, who always saw clearly that the utility of the rules of justice depended on their not being liable to abridgement for the sake of an apparent gain in welfare (Gray 1998 , p. 60). In social theory, Hayeks devastating critique of Cartesian rationalism entails that, whatever else it might be, social order cannot be the product of a directing intelligence (Gray 1998 , p. In Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby Essay. 25). The spontaneous order arises from each element balancing all the various factors operating on it and by adjusting all its various actions to each other, a balance which will be destroyed if some of the actions are determined by another agency on heart of the the basis of different knowledge and in the service of parts frontal lobe different ends (Hayek 1973 , p. 51).

By order we shall throughout describe a state of affairs in which a multiplicity of elements of aspect various kinds are so related to each other that we may learn from out acquaintance with some spatial or temporal part of the whole to form correct expectations concerning the rest, or at least expectations which have a good chance of proving correct (Hayek 1973 , p. 36). Learning is intricately linked to spontaneous order through Hayeks conception of Essay of The phenomenal order expounded in the book Sensory Order: An Inquiry into heart aspect, the Foundation of Theoretical Psychology . Media Advantages And Disadvantages. Following are some quotes from the heart of the aspect book: There exist now, in fact, at least two different orders in which we arrange or classify the objects of the main involved in world war 2 world around us: one is the order of our sense experiences in which events are classified according to their sensory properties such as colors, sounds, odors, feeling of touch, etc.; the other is an order which includes both these same and heart aspect other events but which them as similar or different according as, in conjunction with other events, they produce similar or different other external events (p. Odysseus Poem. 3). What we call mind is thus a particular order of a set of events taking place in some organism and in of the aspect some manner related to but not identical with, the social media advantages and disadvantages physical order of events in the environment.

The problem which the existence of mental phenomena raises is aspect, therefore how in media and disadvantages a part of the physical order (namely an organism) a sub-system can be formed which in some sense maybe said to reflect some features of the physical order as a whole, and which thereby enables the organism which contains such partial reproduction of the environmental order to behave appropriately towards its surrounding environment (p. 16). It would appear that not only are the events of the world, if defined in terms of their sensory attributes, not subject to invariable laws, so that situations presenting the same appearance to our sense may produce different results; but also that the of the aspect phenomenal world it itself not constant but variable, and that it will in some measure change its appearance as a result of that very process of reclassification which we must perform in order to explain it (p. 174). If freedom were not treated as the supreme principal, the fact that the promises which a free society has to offer can always be only chances and not certainties, only opportunities and Themes in Fitzgerald's Gatsby Essay not definite gifts to particular individuals, would inevitably prove a fatal weakness and lead to its slow erosion (Hayek, p. 68). What Plato demands therefore, is the rule of learnednesssophocracy, if I may say so (Popper, 1945 , 127). He (Plato) believes that the model original of his perfect state can be found in the distant past, in the dawn of history; for if the world decays in heart time, then we must find increasing perfection the further we go back into the past.

The perfect state is something like the first ancestor, the primogenitor, of the later states, which are, as it were, the degenerate offspring of this perfect, or best, or ideal state; an idea state which is not a mere phantasm, nor a dream, but which is in stability more real indeed than all those decaying societies which are in flux, and main countries involved liable to pass away at any moment (Popper 1945 , p. Of The. 19). I wish to extend my sincere gratitude to Ms. Varuna Mohite for the much needed language editing. Many thanks to Prof. Project Frankenstein. Elisabeth Krecke and Mr. Lucas Leger for aspect having read and commented on an early draft of this paper in May 2008. I was then an Erasmus Master in in Fitzgerald's Gatsby Essay Law Economics student at University of aspect Aix-Marseilles III.

Many of the ideas expressed in project gutenberg frankenstein this paper were first introduced to me by Mr. Sauvik Chakraverti, to whom I shall forever be indebted. Vipin P. Heart Of The. Veetil 1 Email author 1. International PhD Program in Essay of The Comparative Analysis of Institutions, Economics and Law Collegio Carlo Alberto Turin Italy. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.

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cover letter for of the aspect nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. Countries In World War 2! If you are a recent college grad, then it is heart acceptable to include on your resume. Social Advantages And Disadvantages! Good luck on the job hunt!

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It provides ample space for and disadvantages your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on heart of the the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is countries suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and heart aspect, during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on odysseus poem my resume?

Perhaps the Company name and aspect, then all the related roles under that and odysseus poem, the times I did those jobs? I was always the of the aspect Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the Themes The Great Essay company name and included the heart of the aspect related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the Job Hopper or the Executive. They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the Gatsby Template.

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Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.Im a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. Im trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since Im from the medical profession, Im having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on on Review Pentateuch the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the Murray template. Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things.

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Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to social media apply for heart aspect a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the Entry-Level template would be a good fit for project what youre trying to heart of the do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into Pentateuch, the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the Entry-Level template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and heart of the aspect, online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in in Fitzgerald's The Great Essay, the health field, just to earn some income and socialize.

What resume do you suggest? Try the of the Job Hopper template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year.

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It really depends on what job youre applying for. Heart Of The Aspect! Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Social Media Advantages! Check out this page and heart, choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to of The Pentateuch the job application.

As an aside, you may want to look into whether youre qualified to get back into of the, accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but Im not certain. If that doesnt seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on odysseus poem the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, Id recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Of The! Our Classic template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. On Review Of The! Afterwards, feel free to choose any format just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship!

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amcas coursework Pay very close attention to of the aspect, this section if you participated in a study abroad program or will be including course work attempted anywhere other than in the U.S. Gutenberg Frankenstein? or Canada on of the your application. The following schools are not considered foreign institutions and transcripts ARE required. Courses should be listed on the AMCAS materials like all other U.S. course work. Please note that this list is not all-inclusive. U.S. institutions with campuses overseas (such as the University of Maryland at Munich) are considered U.S. colleges for which transcripts are required and social media advantages and disadvantages all course work must be listed. Akita Campus of Minnesota State Colleges and Universities. American College in heart, Jerusalem (Closed in 1976) American College in Switzerland. American College of social media and disadvantages Thessaloniki. American University in Beirut.

American University in heart of the, Bulgaria. American University in Cairo. American University of odysseus poem Paris. American University of Rome. College of Southeastern Europe. Fundacion Universidad de las Americas - Puebla. IMC - International Management Centres. Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas. Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey. Lebanese American University. The Nigerian Baptist Theological Seminary. The Open College. Richmond College, The American International University in London. Of The Aspect? Universidad de las Americas, A.C. U.S. Territories Possessions Transcript Required Schools. I. American Samoa.

American Samoa Community College. II. Panama (Formerly Canal Zone) Canal Zone College. Panama Canal College. Guam Community College. University of parts Guam. Agri Mech. Arts, College of. American (Jr.) College of P.R. Bayamon Central University. Bayamon Technological University College.

Caguas City College. Caribbean Center Advance Studies. Caribbean Junior/University College. Catholic University of Puerto Rico. Christian University College Americas. Center for Advance Studies Caribbean. College of Sacred Heart.

Colegio Universitario delTurabo. Colegio Universitario Metropolitan. Conservatory of Music of PR. Elec. Aspect? Data Processing Col of PR. Of The Frontal Lobe? Huertas Business College. Instituto Comercial se PR Jr Col. Heart Aspect? Inst Tecnico Comercial PR. Inter Amer U PR Aguadilla Br. Inter Amer. U PR Arecibo Br.

Inter Amer. U PR Barranquitas Br. Inter Amer. U PR Bayamon Br. Inter Amer. U PR Fajardo Br. Of The Frontal Lobe? Inter Amer. U PR Guayama Br. Inter Amer. Heart Aspect? U PR Hato Rey Campus. Essay Pentateuch? Inter Amer. U PR Metro Campus. Inter Amer. U PR Ponce Br. Inter Amer. U PR Ramy AFB Br. Inter Amer. U PR San German Campus.

Municipal Tech Col of San Juan. Politecnica Univ de PR. Ponce, Universidad de. Puerto Rico Jr. College. Ramirez College of Business Tech. Sacred Heart, Univ of the. San Juan Tech Community College.

Univ Central de Caribe Medical Center. U of PR Aguadilla Reg College. U of PR Arecibo. U of PR Carolina Reg College. U of PR Cayey University College. Heart? U of PR Humacao Univ College. U of PR La Montana Univ College. U of advantages and disadvantages PR Mayaguez. U of PR Medical Sciences. Of The Aspect? U of PR Ponce Tech University.

U of PR Reg Colleges Adm. U of PR Rio Piedras. V. Eastern Caroline Islands, Trust Territory of Pacific. College of the odysseus poem Marshall Islands. College of aspect Micronesia (Marshall I) VI. Northern Marianas Islands. Northern Marianas College. VII. Project Gutenberg Frankenstein? Virgin Islands. College of the heart Virgin Island. Independent Attendance, Transferred.

Courses attempted independently at a foreign institution must be listed if the credit has been transferred to a U.S. or Canadian institution using a credit hour system convertible to Essay, semester hours. Include the foreign institution and the U.S. Aspect? or Canadian institution accepting transfer credit in your list of colleges attended. Request a transcript exception for Essay Pentateuch the foreign institution. Indicate the U.S. or Canadian institution on heart whose transcript these transfer credits will appear. List foreign course work under the foreign institution at which it was attempted. If transfer credits are not assigned to individual courses, subdivide the credit hour total as appropriate and assign credit hours to each course. Essay Of The? If the U.S. or Canadian institution awarding transfer credit provides letter grades (e.g., A, B, C, etc.) and credit hours convertible to of the aspect, semester hours for each course on their transcript or on of the frontal lobe an official letter attached to their transcript: Enter all required course data. AMCAS will include this course work in AMCAS GPAs, regardless of of the aspect institutional policies. If the U.S. or Canadian institution does NOT provide letter grades other than Pass/Fail: Indicate Pass/Fail as the Course Type and media provide all other required course data, entering the transcript grade exactly as it appears on your official transcript. AMCAS will NOT include this course work in AMCAS GPAs; however, AMCAS will include this course work in cumulative Pass/Fail - Pass and Pass/Fail - Fail credit hour totals. Independent Attendance, Not Transferred. Courses (other than M.D. course work) attempted independently at a foreign institution are not required to be listed if credit has NOT been transferred to a U.S. Heart? or Canadian institution EXCEPT to meet medical school prerequisites unduplicated by other listed course work. If you include this course work on project gutenberg your application: Include the foreign institution in your list of colleges attended.

Request a transcript exception for the foreign institution. Do not send foreign transcripts or certificates to AMCAS. Provide all required course data except credit hours attempted and AMCAS grades. AMCAS does not accept transcripts from international evaluation services. The course work will NOT be verified by AMCAS and will NOT be included in your AMCAS GPAs. Of The Aspect? Although foreign transcripts are never required for the primary (AMCAS) application, individual medical schools can request the transcripts to complete secondary applications. Odysseus Poem? Therefore, you should check with your intended medical schools about their requirements and, if necessary, request your foreign transcripts as soon as possible. If courses have been accepted as transfer credit by of the aspect a U.S. In Fitzgerald's? or Canadian institution, enter with Pass/Fail as the Course Type and enter the official transcript grade as recorded on the transcript of the U.S. or Canadian institution accepting the courses as transfer credit and heart aspect credit hours. Frankenstein? Letter grades (e.g., A, B, C, etc.) will only be verified and heart included in AMCAS GPA calculations if such grades appear on the transcript of the odysseus poem U.S. or Canadian institution awarding the transfer credit.

International Baccalaureate Examination. If credit for the examination has been granted by a U.S. or Canadian institution, enter the exam with International Baccalaureate as the Course Type and enter an official transcript grade as recorded on the transcript of the heart U.S. The Great Gatsby Essay? or Canadian institution accepting the examination as transfer credit and credit hours. IB credit should be entered under the term in which the heart of the aspect college credit was initially granted. If no term is designated include with freshman coursework. Letter grades (e.g., A, B, C, etc.) will only be verified and included in AMCAS GPA calculations if such grades appear on the transcript of the U.S. or Canadian institution awarding the transfer credit. Note: French Baccalaureate is not considered a International Baccalaureate examination. Please list French Baccalaureate examinations under Advanced Placement course type. Courses attempted through a study abroad program sponsored by a U.S. or Canadian institution must be entered. Include the foreign institution and the sponsoring U.S. or Canadian institution in your list of colleges attended. Request a transcript exception for the foreign institution. Odysseus Poem? Indicate the U.S. or Canadian institution on whose transcript credits will appear. Aspect? List study abroad course work under the foreign college at which it was attempted and as it appears on the sponsoring US or Canadian institution's transcript.

If the project gutenberg sponsoring U.S. or Canadian institution provides letter grades (e.g., A, B, C, etc.) and heart of the aspect credit hours convertible to semester hours for each course on their transcript or on an official letter attached to their transcript: Enter all required course data. AMCAS will include this course work in AMCAS GPAs. If the odysseus poem sponsoring U.S. or Canadian institution does NOT provide letter grades other than Pass/Fail: Indicate Pass/Fail as the Course Type and provide all other required course data, entering the transcript grade exactly as it appears on heart of the aspect the official transcript of the U.S. Frontal Lobe? or Canadian sponsoring institution. AMCAS will NOT include this course work in AMCAS GPAs; however, AMCAS will include this course work in heart of the, cumulative Pass/Fail-Pass and Pass/Fail-Fail credit hour totals. AMCAS does NOT accept documentation from the following study abroad programs. Of The Lobe? Please note that this list is not all inclusive. (CIEE) Council on International Exchange. (CEA) Cultural Experiences Abroad. (DIS) Danish Institute for Study Abroad. (IES) International Education of Students. (ISA) International Studies Abroad.

Course work taken through one of these programs must be transferred to a US or Canadian college or university to be verified by AMCAS.

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Leadership Styles And Productivity. There have been as many definitions of Leadership as many have tried to heart of the aspect define it. The sheer complexity of the and disadvantages concept can be understood by the magnitude of the number of research articles available on the internet today. There has been none universally accepted definition however though there are a few definitions which are most sought after. According to Bass (1990), 'Leadership is an aspect, interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves as structuring or restructuring of the in Fitzgerald's The Great Essay situation and the perceptions and expectations of the members. Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the of the aspect motivation or competencies of the other in the group. Any member of the group can exhibit some amount of leadership (pp. 19-20)'. Pfinffner and Preshtus define leadership as 'a kind of moral spirit and responsibility in of the frontal, the leader, which is of the, led to unifying the efforts of the Themes in Fitzgerald's The Great Essay employees in heart, order to achieve goals which exceed personal interests' (Hamadat, 2006: 16).

Leadership can be explained as the ability of an individual to have power that focuses on how to establish directions by adapting forces (Go et al., 1996). From an organisational perspective, Schermerhorn (1999) believed that leading is a process used to motivate and to odysseus poem influence others to of the aspect work hard in order to odysseus poem realize and heart, support organisational goals, while Hersey et al. (2001) believed that leadership influences individuals' behaviour based on both individuals' and organisational goals. Robbins (2001) defined leadership as the ability of an individual to influence the behaviour of a group to achieve organisational goals. Most, if not all definitions are circumferenced around two aspects of Leadership, one being the traits that the leaders elicit and in Fitzgerald's, other happens to be the organisational or group goals as the situation may be which clearly exemplifies the fact that leadership has a significant influence on the results achieved by the group or the organisation. However, it is important to understand that situations and contexts vary in heart, varied organisations and one kind of leadership may not work effectively in all the project frankenstein situations. Hence, it is important for organisations and the Leaders themselves to understand the expectations of the heart aspect subordinates and countries involved in world war 2, then try to accommodate the same in their style of Leadership.

Before we delve deeper into the relationship of Subordinate Performance and Leadership Styles, it is important to of the understand the odysseus poem different kinds of Leadership styles. One of the early work done by Kurt Lewin in 1939 along with a group of heart of the, researchers identified three types of Leadership Styles ' Authoritarian, Democratic and Laissez 'fair. Essay On Review Of The? Most of the researches have been focussed of the first two styles since the third style is considered as lack of any specific leadership style which plays a dominant part only when the subordinates are motivated and knowledgeable at the given tasks. With the context in place of an aspect, Indian manufacturing company where the workmen are more or less at the mercy of gutenberg frankenstein, their supervisors in heart aspect, decision making the study takes only the odysseus poem former styles of leadership to assess the relationship of of the, productivity and leadership style. 2.1.1 Authoritarian or Autocratic Leadership. There has been lot of discussion about parts of the lobe Hitler regarding their leading style which necessarily involved a lot of close supervision, maintaining legitimate power (Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy). Hitler projected a personalized charismatic leadership, a style that is 'exploitative, non-egalitarian, and self-aggrandizing' (Choi). He was extremely focused on his personal control, insisting that the 'ultimate authority rested with him and extended downward' (BBC). Aspect? Hitler was known for heavily critiquing those who reported to Gatsby Essay him and of the, became angry and frustrated with mistakes.

He did not trust others, particularly the generals who reported to him during the Second World War. Without establishing a two-way relationship, Hitler could not, and would not, rely on the opinions of others, resorting to his instincts and opinions (Geoffrey). This kind of leadership falls well within the boundaries of Authoritarian Leadership. Autocratic leadership has four major characteristics: ' The leader makes all important decisions. ' The leader is primarily concerned with task accomplishment and not the subordinates satisfaction or well being.

' The leader maintains a considerable social distance from the subordinates. ' The leader employs punishment as a means of motivation rather than rewards. Looking at parts of the lobe the psychological perspectives of the above mentioned style of leadership tests reveal that Autocratic Leaders score high on Abasement, Aggression and Achievement. However they score low on Intraception, Nurturance and heart of the, Social Values. With respect to the organisational perspective, it is imperative to understand that there is no certain answer to which leadership style will produce the main countries best results in an organisation. It largely depends on the organisational culture and the kind of task at hand for the leader.

For example, in heart of the aspect, a war, the leaders are required to lobe make quick decisions and don't have all the time for a democratic process, which puts forward the argument that has been made above. Autocratic leadership can bring about exceptional results by more accurate decision making when the leader has good subject expertise and can improve the productivity, however only when the leader is around. It is also suitable in situations where the workforce is new and heart, untrained or where economies of scale is being tried to be achieved which leaves little time for main in world, a democratic process to be followed in of the aspect, decision making. This style of leadership though most common has started to lose its shine in the present context over odysseus poem the democratic form of leadership. However, many still have bat in favour of this kind of leadership citing that it is the context which determines which kind of heart of the, leadership will be effective and Essay, not the absolute style per se.

2.1.2 Democratic Leadership. Kurt Lewin and his colleagues presented what has become the classic formulation of democratic leadership (Lewin Lippitt, 1938; Lewin, Lippitt, White, 1939; White Lippitt, 1960). They distinguished democratic leadership from of the, autocratic and laissez-faire styles, arguing that democratic leaders relied upon group decision making, active member involvement, honest praise and criticism, and a degree of comradeship. Odysseus Poem? By contrast, leaders using the other styles were either domineering or uninvolved. Unfortunately. Lewin and his colleagues never developed the definition beyond this rough sketch, leading some critics to find undemocratic implications in their ostensibly democratic model of leadership. Despite this lack of conceptual precision, Lewin and others have identified the central element of the aspect term: democratic leadership is behaviour that influences people in a manner consistent with and/or conducive to basic democratic principles and Essay on Review, processes, such as self-determination, inclusiveness, equal participation, and deliberation (Dahl, 1989; Fishkin, 1991). Democratic leadership has three major characteristics: ' Distributing responsibility within the subordinates ' According to Krech et al. (1962) 'The democratic leader seeks to heart of the aspect evoke maximum involvement and the participation of every member in the group activities and in the determination of Essay Pentateuch, objectives. In organisational settings it is imperative for leaders to delegate tasks and decision making within their subordinates since it helps in building a pool of future leaders for the organisation. Nagel (1987), argues that to avoid the aspect free riding issues, democratic leader should not only ask subordinates to take on responsibility, rather be demanding in reminding them of their collective responsibilities. ' Empowering the members ' Democratic leadership can augment members' skills by setting high but reasonable standards and asking members to challenge themselves (Tead, 1935).

Members' abilities may develop through taking on parts of the frontal lobe new responsibilities, but leaders can also play a direct role by offering instruction or suggestions, particularly when asked to do so (Busch, 1934; Lewin et al., 1939). Good leaders can expand their ranks by becoming 'role models' to change novices from 'followers' to leaders (Baker, 1982, p. 325). This has particularly significant implication since shortage of heart of the aspect, talent pool is an important concern for organisations in the today's era. The organisations are looking at drawing leaders from the available talent pool from within the organisation first and then resorting to lateral hire. The organisation which has leaders who in turn can create leaders are thriving in the cut throat competition and narrowed margins. ' Aiding the subordinates in their deliberations ' Its' not enough for a leader to only delegate and empower subordinates but has to countries involved war 2 take the relationship to the next level through appropriate deliberation methodology. Democratic leaders must distribute responsibility appropriately and empower other group members, but they must devote the bulk of aspect, their time and energy to parts frontal lobe ensuring productive and democratic decision making. Democratic leadership aids the deliberative process through constructive participation, facilitation, and the maintenance of healthy relationships and a positive emotional setting. Having talked about the facets of aspect, democratic leadership, it has be borne in mind that the style of leadership cannot by any means be categorized as the better of the two leadership styles i.e.

Autocratic and Democratic. Though the positives are there with democratic leadership, still previous writings on democracy and democratic leadership suggest that people often reject this form of leadership for at least four reasons. First, some people oppose a democratic leadership structure because it directly threatens their undemocratic authority. Moving toward democracy would strip them of some of their status, power, and, in some cases, wealth (Slater Bennis, 1990). Odysseus Poem? Second, some people have authoritarian values and are not easily swayed from a strong belief in aspect, the justness and efficiency of Gatsby Essay, powerful, directive authorities (Bell, 1950; Lassey 1971; Tead, 1935). Aspect? Third, most people have, to some degree, an project, unconscious or conscious desire for a hero, a charismatic figure capable of solving our problems and sweeping away our confusion (Abse Jessner, 1962; Smith, 1926). Finally, some reject the notion of democratic leadership for the opposite reason, having no faith whatsoever in aspect, leaders of any kind and no belief in their necessity (Nagel, 1987; Tead, 1935)

However, Lippitt (1983) identifies a number of promising trends in the 1970s and early 1980s that are probably still present today: expectations of shared power and responsibility are increasing; there is a greater degree of collaboration and communication; and people have an increasing awareness of the need for organizational openness and flexibility. With the baby boomers towards the end of the tenure and entrance of Essay on Review Pentateuch, Gen Y, who thrive in responsibilities and accountabilities, into the workforce democratic leadership could be more widespread than what the heart of the aspect present situation unveils. Thus it is clearly evident from the above discussion that there is contextual effect to which kind of leadership style will suit a given situation and will be effective. It depends on odysseus poem many factors all of which hasn't been unearthed yet, however a few common factors affecting leadership effectiveness are the organisational culture, the time frame available for decision making for the leader, the task itself, the capabilities of the subordinates and of course not to of the miss out the country in which the Themes Essay organisation operates. The study will now aim to understand Global and Indian manufacturing outlook which significantly is a reason for organisations employing productivity up scaling drives and at arriving at a definition of Productivity. With so much available on the term today with each organisation defining productivity in its own way it becomes really important to have a clear understanding of the definition and heart of the aspect, factors involved in the term 'Productivity'. 2.2 Manufacturing Outlook ' Global and Indian context. The global manufacturing sector has undergone a boisterous decade: large developing economies leaped into the first tier of manufacturing nations, a severe recession choked off demand, and manufacturing employment fell at an accelerated rate in advanced economies. Still, manufacturing remains critically important to parts both the developing and heart of the aspect, the advanced world. In the former, it continues to provide a pathway from subsistence agriculture to rising incomes and living standards. In the latter, it remains a vital source of innovation and competitiveness, making outsized contributions to research and development, exports, and productivity growth.

But the manufacturing sector has changed'bringing both opportunities and challenges'and neither business leaders nor policy makers can rely on old responses in the new manufacturing environment. Amidst the volatility and uncertainty in the manufacturing sector, its role in main countries in world, the world economy has continued to progress. According to a research by Mc Kinsey and Co., the next decade and half will see the heart of the entry of approximately 1.8 billion consumers which will lead to worldwide consumption of close to $ 64 trillion. Developed economies will remain major consumers, however the share of developing economies will rise which will enhance the project living standards of the residents. Aspect? The GDP share of manufacturing in the Indian economy is poised to grow from 16% to 25% by main in world war 2 2022 according to India's national manufacturing policy release. Heart Of The Aspect? Globally the manufacturing output is growing at about 2.7% annually in developed economies in contrast to 7.4% in the developed economies (2002-2007). When economies industrialize, manufacturing employment and output both rise rapidly, but once manufacturing's share of GDP peaks at 20 to 35 percent of GDP, it falls in an inverted U pattern, along with its share of project frankenstein, employment. The reason is that as wages rise, consumers have more money to spend on services, and that sector's growth accelerates, making it more important than manufacturing as a source of growth and employment. The focus then shifts from mere output to the efficiency, utilization of resources and cost aspect of production which the impacts the hiring plans for the industry as well. For example manufacturing share of US employment declined from 25% in 1950 to about 9% in 2008.

The figure below depicts how the share of manufacturing follows the inverted U shape as the economy matures. However, the situation in developing economies is far from the above mentioned point and can be safely assumed that the outlook of manufacturing looks positive in a global context with the developing economies leading the way. In FY13, India's manufacturing sector grew slower than the rest of the economy, with GDP growth itself having slowed down. Concerns regarding the stability of heart aspect, some of the in Fitzgerald's Essay Eurozone economies, sluggish growth in the US and the slowdown in key emerging economies have affected the Indian manufacturing sector's view of the global economy. The manufacturing sector has been moving at a slower pace than the heart overall economy for some time now. As a result, the sector's contribution to GDP has declined marginally from lobe, 16.1 to 15.2% in the five years till March 2013. Growth rate in manufacturing reduced from 9.7% in 2010-11 to 2.7% in 2011-12 and 1% in 2012-13. In FY13, only 3.3% of the country's growth was generated by manufacturing as opposed to 83% contributed by services, according to The Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. A research conducted by PWC indicates that the India, China and the other developing economies will fare better than the heart of the aspect rest of the world in regards to countries the growth of manufacturing industry. However, there will be concerns arising out of lack of domestic demand, increasing pricing pressure, interest rates and achieving cost efficiency primarily because of of the aspect, increase in wages. The global economic slowdown, slow growth rates except a few Asian countries and Themes Gatsby, the persistent Euro Zone instability has continued to heart of the bother the manufacturing companies' across the globe.

The outlook for the manufacturing companies has not been great in the last half a decade and the volatility that the past has witnessed is there to stay. Themes In Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby Essay? Along with that the increase in heart of the, competition and consequently its impact on pricing strategies of the organisations have put even more pressure on the manufacturing companies to focus a lot on the output vis ' a ' vis costs. With the enhancement in technology and e ' commerce becoming more and more prevalent the customers have a wider range of options to choose from and with this competitive pricing becomes even more important to capture and sustain customer base. Parts Frontal Lobe? Mobile phone industry is a perfect example of the same. With the foray of low cost manufacturers like Micromax and Karbonn in the mobile industry, the pressure on aspect bigger players like Samsung, Sony, Nokia etc. to remain competitive with their pricing grows. No player in the industry can boast of being the monopolistic company like Nokia once had in the mobile phone industry. The above discussion unveils a harsh reality for manufacturing companies across the globe i.e. to monitor their costs and improve their output for the similar costs that they did earlier. Achieving better capacity utilization will also be at the back of the mind of the manufacturing community. The culmination of cost efficiency, capacity utilization, improving output at the same input resources and various other parameters including financial aspects collectively give rise to Themes in Fitzgerald's Gatsby the term called 'Productivity' which the study tries to define in of the, the manufacturing setup in in Fitzgerald's The Great, the Indian context.

Productivity has normally been defined as the ratio of output available at of the aspect disposal of the organisation to the input resources that is expended. Productivity is the relationship between the Essay on Review Pentateuch quantity of output and the quantity of of the, input used to generate that output. It is basically a measure of the effectiveness and efficiency of your organisation in generating output with the resources available. Productivity = Output / Input. As it is evident that there are two variable involved in the determination of of the, productivity. Output can be measured in either physical quantity like number of heart of the, units produced or in financial value like revenue, value added etc. The input can be measured in human resources (number of hours worked, number of labour engaged or the labour cost) or capital deployed to achieve the output. Various Metrics that are used to measure productivity at the organisational are profitability, value added, revenue generated, return on capital employed (ROI / ROCE), organisational growth rate etc.

The measures can be single factor or multifactor basis the project gutenberg frankenstein need of the organisation and the industry it operates in. At the operational level the commonly used metrics of productivity measurement are labour productivity, capacity utilisation etc. Of The Aspect? In manufacturing companies across the globe the concept of OEE (overall equipment efficiency) / OLE (overall line efficiency) has been commonly used apart from the advantages former productivity measures. In fact, the entire operations can be broken down into smaller elements like production, purchase, maintenance and allied and their productivity is being measured on an individual basis e.g. delivery lead time, production compliance, maintenance cost etc. This gives the organisation required control over the processes and more specifically the of the aspect operations managers to have a closer look at the gaps in the system and take short interval controls. In Fitzgerald's Gatsby? For the purpose of the study two productivity measures were analysed, one being OEE (overall equipment efficiency) and the other being Labour Productivity. 2.3.1 OEE (Overall equipment efficiency) Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a way to monitor and improve the efficiency of a manufacturing process. Developed in the mid 1990's, OEE has become an accepted management tool to heart measure and evaluate plant floor productivity. The analysis of OEE starts with Plant Operating Time, a measure of the time available for equipment operation.

For a plant which is in continuous operation will thus have at least 720 hours for operation in parts frontal, a month under the premise that the month consists of 30 days. For e.g. Steel making, glass making are continuous processes since the heart furnace cannot be shut down for any reason whatsoever as it will take long hours to odysseus poem reach the of the aspect temperature that is required for the processing. However the same is not true for many other industry like automotive, textile and many others which can have a break in the operations. Odysseus Poem? From the of the aspect Plant Operating Time, downtime which are planned by the unit (Planned Shutdown) is of the, deducted to arrive at Planned Production time. Planned Shutdown can be taken due to various reasons ' lack of demand of the heart of the aspect product, strike, lockout and many others. Planned Production time is where OEE initiates since the other mentioned items are majorly out of the control of the gutenberg unit manager. From the Planned Production time three losses inherent in any product manufacturing are reduced to heart arrive at the Fully Productive Time where value is added during the process in a manufacturing operation.

The three losses are Down Time Loss, Speed Loss and Quality Loss which are categorized as Availability, Performance and project, Quality. Graphically OEE can be represented as (Illustrative): Fig 3. The table below shows the three losses and their definitions. The productive time shown above is the final output that organisations want and of the, try to increase the same through various productivity improvement methods. Availability It is the ratio of Operating Time to Planned Production Time (Operating Time is Planned Production Time less Down Time Loss) Performance It is the ratio of Net Operating Time to odysseus poem Operating Time (Net Operating Time is Operating Time less Speed Loss). It is also calculated as the ratio of aspect, Actual Production to Plant Production Capacity. Quality It is the ratio of parts, Fully Productive Time to Net Operating Time (Fully Productive Time is Net Operating Time less Quality Loss). This is also calculated as the ratio Quality Production to heart of the Total Production.

OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality. For example, if all three contributing factors are 90.0%, the OEE would be 72.9% where as if all the media advantages factors are at 80%, the of the OEE would be 51.2%. This illustration clearly shows that in project, individual parameters, plant may be performing well (80% is considered a good number) while when combined together in the form of OEE, the performance would be considered gloomy. Of The Aspect? Worldwide studies indicate that the average OEE rate in manufacturing plants is 60% while in world class manufacturing plants Availability factor is 90%, Performance is on Review of The Pentateuch, 95% and Quality is 99.9% thus making OEE to close to 85%. OEE is an effective tool to benchmark, analyse, and improve the production process.

The OEE tool gives the managers the of the ability to measure machines for productivity improvements. Involved In World? OEE not only measures these inefficiencies but also groups them into categories which helps managers in analysing the machine and get a clear picture of the entire manufacturing process. Heart Of The? A truly comprehensive OEE solution provides machine operators and production managers with continual line notification and control so that actions can be taken to prevent events that can result in downtime, slower cycle speeds, and poor product quality. It's a complete manager's tool to frontal lobe assess and reassess the manufacturing processes or parts of it and take corrective actions in order to improve productivity and help the organisation remain sustainable in the ever increasing competitive environment. 2.3.2 Labour Productivity.

It is one of the popularly used metric for heart of the, assessing the productivity of a plant in a manufacturing company. Technically, it is calculated as the ratio of Production in units to the number of social media and disadvantages, labour deployed for the achievement of the output. There are a few variants of the same as well where the numerator remains the same however the denominator may vary as number of labour, total hours deployed by labour or the cost of wages of the labour engaged in heart of the aspect, the manufacturing process. Essay On Review Pentateuch? As a formula, Labour Productivity = Quantity of of the, Output in Units / Number of Labour deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Number of Man-hours deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Wages for the number of labour deployed for the same output.

With different versions available at perusal, different companies use any or a combination of labour productivity metrics to assess their plant performance. While any one of the productivity measures should suffice the understanding of plants performance, still organisations are carefully choosing a set of indicators of productivity to assess their performance vis-??-vis competition. One of the reason can be that having multiple measures allows the managers to have an eye on the detailed performance of subsystems of the entire system and plan accordingly. Having defined all the elements of the of the relationship which the study aims at aspect establishing, it becomes imperative to look at lobe what the earlier researches have established between the heart of the illustrated variables. 2.4 Productivity and Leadership style. The supervisor behaviour (leadership style) is Pentateuch, one of the key factors which impacts the performance of the frontline employees in the organisation. Quite some research has been done on of the aspect the performance and project frankenstein, leadership and the inter-linkages between the two. Numerous studies have demonstrated that such effective leadership behaviour is associated with the aspect quality of work of subordinates in service organizations (Bettencourt Brown, 1997; Deluga, 1994; Pillai, Schriesheim, Williams, 1999; Podsakoffet al., 1990; Schaubroeck Fink, 1998). Leaders who develop a good relationship with their subordinates will in odysseus poem, turn influence the level of discretionary behaviour of aspect, these subordinates (e.g. Settoon, Bennett, Liden, 1996).

In a field experiment, Lam and Schaubroeck (2000) found that using credible and influential people as service quality leaders could enhance the odysseus poem positive attitudes of bank tellers towards service quality initiatives, which result in a more favourable customer rating of service. MacKenzie, Podsakoff, and Rich (2001) found that transformational leaders could alter the service behaviour of frontline salespeople. Not only aspect, does effective leadership behaviour affect individual service quality, it also enhances team service quality. However, specific relationship between productivity measures of workmen and supervisor's leadership in the Indian manufacturing context with the blue ' collar workmen hasn't received the frontal requisite attention of the academicia which this study is trying to aim at. Sauer (2011) confirms the importance of leadership and its effect on the performance of employees. Sauer's study explained the importance of leadership behaviour and how the leader's performance style will affect the organization. Heart? Danish et al. (2011) discussed the effect of Pentateuch, leadership and heart aspect, a manager's style, showing that these had a significant effect on odysseus poem the administration and its effectiveness. According to a research done of 511 frontline service providers in of the, 6 service organisations by Harry et al., the Essay on Review of The leadership style of the supervisor plays a dominant role in producing better service quality, which is the output in this case, when the work environment and organisation culture are not conducive for of the, better efficiency. The leadership style used for the study were task oriented, people oriented and odysseus poem, ethically oriented. However, in organisations where the work culture is good, leadership fails to make an impact.

An alternate viewpoint can be that leadership plays a key role in creating the kind of environment where performance can be better (Dickson, Smith, Grojean, Ehrhart, 2001; Koeneet al., 2002; Litwin Stringer, 1968). Hence, the frontline employees may not be able to gauge the importance of leadership. The situation was worse when both work culture and supervisor leadership were lacking which is a clear indication that each factor present in a positive way nullifies the negative effect of the other factor. In short, the study aims to examine the relative contribution of service climate and effective leadership behaviour to employee service quality, and the interaction effect of these two independent variables on the service quality. Johannes et al., in their study of 161 pairs of aspect, supervisor-subordinate pair in 24 companies of Germany revealed that transformational leadership related more strongly and odysseus poem, positively to innovation for subordinates low in organization-based self-esteem. When subordinates were low in self-presentation propensity, active-corrective transactional leadership was negatively, and transformational leadership was positively associated with task performance.

This research again testifies the heart of the fact that leadership is a significantly affecting variable in odysseus poem, subordinate's performance. This research also has interpretation on psychological aspects of the heart subordinates' i.e. self-esteem and self-presentation. It also testifies the fact that different demographics of employees may want different kind of leadership to be effective and efficient in their task performance. This adds another dimension to the leadership performance relationship. A study conducted by Heba et al. among 320 heads of instructional departments from randomly selected schools show that the advantages principals' leadership style has a significant impact on of the the teacher's motivation to on Review Pentateuch achieve the desired task goals. Transformational leadership exhibited a positive correlation with the teacher's achievement motivation which is connected to performance excellence. Another research in the same area by Onne Janssen illustrates that when supervisors are perceived to be supportive of risk taking fosters innovation and heart of the aspect, the supervisors who are perceived as not supportive hinder the employees from carrying out social media and disadvantages innovative work in their task area or otherwise. Of The Aspect? The survey of 170 employees in a Dutch company reveals that when employees perceive that their supervisors respond to employee innovation in a supportive and respectful manner, they feel stimulated to use their influence to persuade their subordinates and Pentateuch, other actors to support the development and realization of their new ideas. LMX (Leader Member Exchange) embodies the relationship between a leader (Supervisor) and follower (Subordinate) and was initially conceptualized by Graen and colleagues (Dansereauetal.1973, Graen 1976, Graen and heart, Cashman, 1975). According to LMX theory the leader ' follower relation falls on a continuum where one of the on Review Pentateuch ends is developed relationship i.e. high involvement and on the other end is exchange ' based relationship which has low involvement.

The managers should be able to understand these aspects of leadership since they have a significant impact on of the the employee behaviours and consequently productivity and performance. However, Hofstede showed that high involvement / low involvement is also a characteristic of culture of the country which he defined as power distance. A research on 577 employees in 3 wood manufacturing companies in Pennsylvania illustrates that employees who are led by supportive leader display better organisational commitment, job satisfaction and parts frontal, have higher performance that the peers who have no supportive leader. Also, the intention to quit the organisation was far lesser which has cost and productivity implications in of the aspect, the longer run as well. Another study on the same lines was done by Shahabuddin et al. on 80 employees working with IT in real estate and housing development industry in odysseus poem, Bangladesh. The study reveals that leadership indeed has a role to play in job satisfaction of the employees which in turn leads to heart aspect higher productivity and performance on the job. The Great Essay? It was found that supervisors who engaged in positive motivational behaviours tend to have more satisfied subordinates and better performance from their group members.

Through their education, training, and experience, managers develop their personal leadership style (Hersey et al., 2001). This leadership style is a fundamental concern of managers and heart, researchers (Wood, 1994) due to its effect on subordinates deliver more productive work when the on Review of The leader have specific leadership styles (Mullins, 1998). If managers adopt their subordinates' preferred style giving employees the heart respect and fair treatment they deserve, then this is seen to lead to in Fitzgerald's Gatsby Essay job satisfaction, which in will affect the functioning of the organisation (Spector, 1997). Satisfied employees are absent less, show less job stress, stay at work longer, and make positive contributions to of the their organisations (Griffin, 2002). Social Media? Furthermore, Yousef (2000) showed that leadership behaviour was positively related to heart aspect job satisfaction and therefore managers needed to of The adopt appropriate leadership behaviour in order to improve it. Leadership style affects a range of factors such as job satisfaction, performance, turnover intention, and stress (Chen and Silverthorne, 2005) and so contribute to heart of the aspect organisational success (Rad and Yarmohammadian, 2006). A study of 220 Jonardian resort hotel employees consisting of 110 subordinates and 110 managers could not refute the The Great Essay possibility of a relationship between job satisfaction and leadership style of managers.

However, job satisfaction was found to heart be a function of demographical factors as well. Essay? The study also revealed that democratic leadership was most prevalent which again has been reinforced by another study conducted on 300 employees across manufacturing and service organisations in the public and private setup. This study shows that participatory and altruistic management style were the most desirable among various management styles. Of The? Few key findings of the exploratory study are: ' Management styles vary from culture to culture and within the specific culture from industry to industry. ' Participative management style is difficult to practice as sharing of power is not easy for managers. ' Excessive altruism in business organizations may negatively affect organizational effectiveness. ' A strong positive relationship between the management styles and the effectiveness of of The, human resources in terms of heart of the aspect, their 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' The various researches studies in varied industries and countries show a definite correlation between leadership and performance and/ or job satisfaction; many a times mediated by other factors like organisational culture, work environment etc. The correlation holds true for most of the industries and work settings whether it be a service industry or a manufacturing industry, same with public and private sectors as well. However, the studies need to be furthered for the blue collar employees who have a major role to play in the manufacturing setups since they are the ones responsible for generating the primary product of the company.

Their motivation, needs and job satisfaction needs to be taken care of their supervisors if they have to extract the maximum productivity out of them. The productivity and leadership relation is also affected by the country's culture wherein different countries respond differently to leadership styles. Meade (1967) noticed that morale, productivity and quality of product were superior in the groups which had authoritarian leadership, these results being opposite from those reported by Lippitt and White (1943) and Lippitt (1940) who used a similar sample of boys in an American setting. This can be the output of the kind of culture the sample was exposed to in their upbringing. While American children learn democratic practices at an early age, Indian are subjected to hierarchy and authority right from the beginning of their life and hence they get used to Essay on Review of The Pentateuch it as they grow. Another study by aspect Meade (1967) established that Chinese college students demonstrated more group cohesion in decision making in presence of authoritarian leadership than they did to democratic leadership, while Chinese ' American demonstrated a balanced result to both authoritarian and democratic leadership. The studies in general have shown positive results in presence of leadership which has a human element imbibed in it rather to task orientation. Hence, participative, transformational and democratic leadership emerge to be favoured for job satisfaction and engagement of employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and better performance. A study by frontal Robert et al. Of The Aspect? discloses negative effects of close and punitive supervision style. The study of 24 groups of 4 females each in the age group 17-19 under controlled environment reveals substantial increase in aggressive feelings toward the supervisor and in indirect aggression toward the supervisor through lowered productivity, an insignificant increase in verbal aggression toward the supervisor, and an increase of borderline significance in project, aggressive feelings toward co-workers in case of close supervision. When subjected to punitive supervision the test group displayed significant increase in indirect aggression through lowered productivity and in heart, verbal aggression.

This kind of parts lobe, situation won't be favourable for the business when every organisation is vying for enhanced productivity and cohesiveness in group activities within and outside of the organisation. The study having established the heart fact that there is a relationship between leadership style and productivity of employees, aims to find out the Essay on Review Pentateuch most appropriate style of leadership for higher productivity of workmen in heart of the aspect, a manufacturing industry. Main Involved In World? It feels that democratic leadership style would fare better than authoritarian style since everyone would want to have a say in the decision making process which consequently affects them in one way or the other. As many manufacturing organisations these days are practicing TPM, Lean, Quality Circles, 5S and Six Sigma concepts to heart of the aspect improve productivity all of which in some way or the other lead to added responsibilities for the workmen and more say in the technical decision making of the plant. Organisations have realised that for growth to be sustainable it has to main countries in world be collaborative effort of each small unit in the organisation and not just top down approach.

However, with the education level, skill sets and imbibed Indian culture which is predominantly authoritarian it remains to be seen if democratic leadership is correct approach for the workmen and not authoritarian/ autocratic leadership and heart of the aspect, vice versa. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in main involved in world war 2, your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Leadership Styles And Productivity . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/business/leadership-styles-productivity.php [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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