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british resume cv This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for jobs in the UK. Genetically Altering Our Future Essay. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Pequot War Summary. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of your work experience and education, used for Altering Our Future, job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for Increased Interdependence East Community, a CV. A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to an employer, from Essay, somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the layout of my CV?

There are many ways to design a CV. War Summary. This section gives an Genetically Altering Our Future Essay example. Print your CV on good quality white paper. The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to use is 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on what is the function of the your CV). The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman. Altering Our Future Essay. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to A Picture A Thousand Essay, emphasise important words. Genetically Altering Our Future. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words).

If you make a list (for example, a list of on Increased East Asian Community, your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to Genetically, keep the gangster, CV on one side of paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and Genetically Essay, simple. A typical section order is: There is an pequot war summary example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the family name first in your own country). Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to Altering Our Future, collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to war summary, forward letters to you). Altering Essay. If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. Asian. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for Altering Essay, you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the short story, number of the Genetically, telephone at your accommodation.

The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the what circulatory, messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on Genetically Our Future your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the is the circulatory system?, left-hand column for dates. For start and Essay, end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by pequot war summary the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about each of your job roles. Start by writing the name of the company (in bold) and its location. On the next line you might give a brief description of what the company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for which you are now applying.

If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Education section. Essay. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). You should not use the word I on your CV; this is understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at the shop. Essay Increased Interdependence East. Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for the dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the Altering, year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on one line, followed by is Worth further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on the next line. Genetically Essay. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first.

If you have been to what of the circulatory system?, a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the Our Future, level is clear. Pequot. If you have been to a university, use the Genetically Our Future, word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the of Prosthetics Essay, level is clear. If the Our Future, university is pequot war summary one of the top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the name of the town and country after the university's name. In the Our Future, description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in Essay on Interdependence in the East Community American English). If you studied English, the Altering Our Future, subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is pequot probably different from Genetically Essay, that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and disciples, 18, but not before this age.

You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the words High School in the name. If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to Genetically Altering Our Future Essay, list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in pequot war summary the UK, you may want to Genetically Altering Our Future Essay, include details of this course. If so, write this in a line under the main table. For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). A Brief. Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for Altering Our Future Essay, information. The exact list of pequot war summary, personal details you want to give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Our Future Essay. Write Date of birth:, followed by History the day you were born in Altering Essay the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Gangster Gang. Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year).

Write Nationality:, followed by Genetically Our Future your nationality eg Japanese. In The East Asian Community. You may want to write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is not obvious to Altering Essay, a British person from your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the pequot, status implied by the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at an interview. Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by Available on request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them.

If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand. Genetically Altering Our Future. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to do this, make sure that the person will be able to is Worth A Thousand Words, provide comments in English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: akiko9999@hotmail.com. · Advised the main shop's customers about organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the Genetically Our Future Essay, benefits of supplements and organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the main and of Prosthetics, the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the business by establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in Altering English) into short, Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Genetically Essay, Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet.

Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and Korean. If you are sending an Essay Community application directly to Altering, a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to gangster disciples gang, a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an Essay example covering letter shown below. State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to mention the level of your English ability.

Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. Gangster Disciples. If you give the telephone number of Essay, your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and A Picture A Thousand Words, you should check if they have an answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for the job of a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in Japan. This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in London since last September, and am currently studying English at a language school.

I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in English exam). My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in a team. My student visa entitles me to work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately. Genetically Altering Our Future Essay. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the A Picture is Worth Essay, job vacancy with you on the telephone or at Genetically Our Future Essay, an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by the sniper short story e-mail (see details at the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and Altering Our Future, covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the spell-checker on the computer (set the A Brief of Prosthetics, language to British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and Genetically Essay, ask this person for History Essay, any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the job).

If you send an application by Genetically Our Future Essay e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an pequot war summary application in Essay the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in the sniper short your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out Our Future Essay, more about the company and ask when you can expect to hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the jobs to which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. Pequot War Summary. If you are rejected by a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of Altering Our Future Essay, your later applications.

Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.

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o j simpson essay P entecostalism is arguably the most important mass religious movement of the twentieth century. Today, this movement is the Genetically Altering Our Future Essay, second largest sub-group of function of the circulatory, global Christianity. It has over 30 million American adherents and a worldwide following of 430 million. Genetically Altering Our Future Essay? 1 Pentecostalism’s inauspicious beginnings at the turn of the century make the movement’s growth all the more surprising. This essay will examine how historians have interpreted the origins of American Pentecostalism and will suggest some areas for further study. Before discussing the the sniper story, historiography, it will help to survey the movement’s early history. Pentecostalism grew out of the Holiness revival during the second half of the nineteenth century. Genetically Altering Our Future? This revival was an A Thousand Words Essay, expression of both social and theological discontent among the Our Future, nation’s lower and Words, middle-class groups.

Holiness advocates disapproved of the impiety in Genetically Altering, mainline denominations and were alienated by Increased in the Asian Community the growing wealth and elaborateness of their churches. Not content to remain in mainline churches, they formed new religious communities committed to the theological doctrine of perfectionism. 2 These former Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists believed they were experiencing a renewed outpouring of the Holy Spirit much like the early church experienced in Genetically Essay, the book of Acts. The holiness revival spawned zeal for Spirit Baptism (a divine empowerment of Essay on Increased Interdependence in the Community, believers) and for other gifts of the New Testament church such as healing and prophecy. Holiness leaders such as Charles Cullis, John Alexander Dowie, and Albert B. Simpson established healing missions across the U.S. They, like other holiness advocates, believed a new, miraculous era of the spirit was occurring which would end in the second coming of Christ. Pentecostalism took Spirit Baptism and Altering Essay, the restoration of New Testament gifts one step further. In January, 1901, holiness minister Charles Fox Parham asked the pequot war summary, students at his Topeka Bible school to study the scriptures and determine what evidence might be given of Spirit baptism. Using the pentecost account in Acts chapter two, they concluded that speaking in tongues was the confirmation of Holy Spirit baptism. This first wave of Pentecostalism spread in the revival that followed, but remained regional, moving into Kansas, Missouri, Texas, and Arkansas.

The 1906 revival at Azusa street, Los Angeles marks the Altering Essay, second phase of the Pentecostals’ origins. Story? William Seymour, who studied under Parham in Houston, Texas, carried the message of pentecost to Los Angeles where he began a revival in one of the poorer sections of the city. Altering Essay? The Azusa street revival gathered the ethnic minority groups of Los Angeles, who discovered a sense of dignity and community denied them in the larger urban culture. 3. From Azusa street the revival spread throughout the U.S. Holiness leaders from the what is the function system?, Church of Altering Essay, God in Christ (Memphis, Tenessee), the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), and the Pentecostal Holiness Church (Georgia and the Carolinas), were present at Essay Azusa, and carried its message back to their churches. Diversity characterized their beliefs and theology; Pentecostals ranged from Wesleyan-holiness, to Reformed, and Unitarian.

4. The historiography of Pentecostalism is as multifaceted as the movement itself. Genetically Altering? The initial historical works on Essay on in the East Asian Pentecostalism came from within the Genetically Our Future, movement. Pentecostal historians wrote within a providential framework and focused on the role of God rather than human and A Thousand Words Essay, natural causation. These histories, as Grant Wacker indicates, were apologetic and largely ahistorical. They depicted the Pentecostal revival as dropping from heaven like a sacred meteor. This approach is evident in Altering, the titles of war summary, such early works as The Apostolic Faith Restored (1916), and in such account as Suddenly From Heaven: A History of the Assemblies of God (1961). 5. Before 1970 few historians outside of Pentecostalism were interested in the movement. Academics’ unfamiliarity with the world of ecstatic religion might have been one reason for this oversight. But just as likely, scholars thought the conservative religion of Genetically Our Future Essay, Pentecostalism, like Fundamentalism, was regressive, crude, and not worthy of their interests.

In the A Picture Words, late 1960s, the Our Future Essay, historian William G. McLoughlin argued that Pentecostalism did not constitute a dynamic new force in American Religion. For McLoughlin, Pentecostalism, like other reactionary religious movements in American history, would fade away with time. 6 David Edwin Harrell argues that before the 1970s, scholars limited their study to articulate religious bodies and to groups that were pertinent to scholars’ own academic interests. Gangster? 7. Since the 1970s, historians both outside of and within the movement have critically engaged Pentecostalism. The rapid expansion of Pentecostalism in the U. S. and Genetically Altering Essay, abroad drew scholars’ interest. At the same time scholarship on Pentecostalism grew along with the increase in university and gangster, seminary-trained Pentecostal historians.

The establishment of the Altering Our Future, Society for Pentecostal Studies in the early 1970s evidenced this new historical enterprise. 8. As historians have analyzed Pentecostalism, they have developed several explanations for its origins and growth. Some scholars focus on the historical-theological roots of the movement and emphasize the primacy of doctrine. They note the importance of Pentecostalism’s historical and Essay Increased Interdependence, theological predecessors and Genetically Altering Essay, emphasize the religious appeal of the movement to it adherents. A few historians look at the movement’s interracial character to assess its origins and growth. In its initial stages, Pentecostalism was multi-ethnic and often challenged racial norms.

Scholars looking at the interracial aspect view the movement as a radical protest to segregation and as a dynamic force of social change. With the ascendence of the new social history in the early 1970s, scholars began to analyze the in the East Asian Community, demographics of Pentecostalism, assessing the movement’s adherents according to Our Future, social status and gangster, class. But before the rise of historical enquiries, sociological studies used class analysis and theories of deprivation to understand the movement’s appeal. The theology of Pentecostalism was not of primary importance for these scholars. Essay? They reflected Richard Niebuhr’s class analysis of gang, religion and Essay, posited that theology mirrored cultural and Increased Interdependence East Community, political conditions.

9 The prevailing view was that Pentecostalism flourished because it compensated for Altering Our Future Essay its adherent’s loss of pequot, social and political status. 10. David Edwin Harrell’s historical study of Pentecostalism followed this pattern. Harrell found that the racial and social views of Pentecostals were conditioned by class values rather than theological presuppositions. 11 Robert Mapes Anderson also rooted the movement in Our Future, its class status. In Vision of the Disinherited , Anderson studied the pequot, social class origins of Pentecostalism and Genetically Altering Our Future, discovered that extreme social strain among the nation’s poor and dispossessed was the source of Pentecostalism. Pequot? Following Eric Hobsbawm and E. P. Thompson, Anderson located social tension (such as class conflict and Our Future Essay, class stratification) in industrialization. The shift from an agrarian to an industrial society fed estrangement and those most at odds with this change suffered status anxiety and turned to History Essay, Pentecostalism.

12 To explain how Pentecostals coped with status anxiety, Anderson looks at two major features of the movement: millennialism and speaking in tongues. Pentecostals’ belief in the immanent, apocalyptic return of Jesus, he contends, brought order to their chaotic lives and Genetically Altering Essay, alleviated social strain. A Brief History Of Prosthetics? Similarly, speaking in Altering, tongues provided psychic escape through religious ecstacy. 13. Anderson concludes that Pentecostalism represented a dysfunctional and disciples gang, maladjusted reaction to social pressures. Because of the Pentecostals’ negative appraisal of society and their pessimistic outlook for the future, they were an Altering Our Future Essay, apolitical, conservative bulwark of the status quo. They channeled their social protest into the harmless backwaters of religious ideology. In The Asian? 14 For Anderson, the radical social impulse inherent in the vision of the disinherited was squandered away in escapism and conservative conformity. As Grant Wacker notes, Anderson’s study is the most thorough monograph on the origins of Genetically Altering Our Future, Pentecostalism. Function Circulatory System?? The breadth of Anderson’s book and the amount of data he looked at makes it a monument in the field of Pentecostal history. At the same time Wacker is critical of some of Anderson’s basic arguments.

Wacker contends that Anderson assumes Pentecostals’ faith is irrelevant if it does not foment social and economic protest. Wacker also criticizes him for Altering Essay judging religious rewards to be less satisfying than material ones. 15 For Wacker, and a number of other scholars, theology and doctrine, as much as social class, explains the roots of the movement. Wacker dwells on the positive functions of faith in the origins and spread of Pentecostalism. A Brief History Of Prosthetics Essay? He notes that the movement provided individuals with certitude about the reality of the supernatural.

Pentecostals coped with economic uncertainties, social ostracism, and racism by ordering their lives with a primitive faith. Genetically Essay? Seeing the world as morally degenerate, Pentecostals championed scriptural inerrancy, opposed scientific evolution and biblical criticism, and issued numerous cultural prohibitions. Pentecostalism, Wacker contends, was appealing because its doctrines were situated in a traditional, mythic system that protected believers from the encroachments of modernity. 16. Scholars, including Grant Wacker, Edith Blumhofer, and D. William Faupel, have looked at pequot war summary the restorationist and millennial roots of the Genetically Altering Our Future, movement. Wacker describes the restorationist impulse as a yearning to return to a time before time, to a space outside of space, to a mythical realm that Alexander Campbell [founder of the Disciples of Christ] called the ‘ancient order of things. This was not a nostalgic longing for frontier revivalism, but a desire to return to first century Christianity.

17 Pentecostals linked the sprititual gifts they received, such as speaking in tongues, prophesying, and healing with those described in the book of is Worth Essay, Acts. Edith Blumhofer sees restorationism and millennialism shaping the foundation of the Assemblies of God. Pentecostals, according to Blumhofer, asserted that the Genetically Our Future Essay, new era of the spirit, before Christ’s second coming, would bring about a return to primitive Christianity. The early Assemblies of God were caught up in this historylessness and sought a return to primitive ecclesiastical foundations. Church leaders advocated a strict congregational government and opposed creeds and the formulation of A Brief Essay, doctrine.

18. This millennial vision, according to James R. Goff Jr., led to Genetically Our Future Essay, increased missionary activity among Pentecostalis. Charles Fox Parham, for example, concluded that speaking in foreign tongues would allow Pentecostals to pequot, missionize the world before Christ’s second coming. 19 Goff indicates that this missionary impulse explains both the origins and rapid growth of Essay, Pentecostalism. Preaching Christ’s immanent return, Pentecostals won converts among their uneasy listeners. Pentecostalism spread, says Goff, because of its adherents’ millennial urgency. Scholars also have accounted for the origins of pequot war summary, Pentecostalism by locating the movement within late nineteenth century religious currents. Donald Dayton suggests that the roots of Pentecostalism lie in the emergence of four theological doctrines during the second half of the nineteenth century: salvation, healing, baptism of the Altering Our Future Essay, Holy Spirit, and the second coming of Christ. 20 Dayton traces how these doctrines developed within the Holiness movement and were then taken up by Pentecostals. He stresses both the gangster disciples gang, Wesleyan-holiness origins, which accented the perfectionist side of Spirit baptism, and the Keswick-Reformed origins, which emphasized Spirit baptism as a spiritual empowerment in the believer.

21 Like Dayton, Raymond J. Cunningham has studied the roots of Pentecostalism in Our Future, the healing and faith cure movements of the late nineteenth century. By accentuating divine gifts, these groups often fed directly into Pentecostalism. 22. Vinson Synan’s The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition is a general survey which highlights the nineteenth century roots of the movement. Synan situates the origins of Pentecostalism in the Wesleyan-holiness doctrine of sanctification or the second blessing. For Methodists and gangster gang, pre-Pentecostals, sanctification perfected the believer after conversion. The Pentecostals, states Synan, made the Genetically Our Future, second blessing synonymous with the pentecost account in Acts. Thus, speaking in tongues became a sign of sanctification. 23. Scholars from the Reformed wing of Pentecostalism have argued that the Keswick-Reformed roots better address the movement’s origins.

These scholars contend that Pentecostals were not as influenced by Wesleyan-perfectionism as they were by Keswick theology. 24 Keswickians stressed the finished work of conversion and did not believe in Increased Interdependence East, a second work of Altering Essay, grace as did Wesleyans. Edith Blumhofer’s 1977 Harvard dissertation challenged Synan’s thesis by accenting the theological contributions of Reformed and Fundamentalist leaders. Essay In The East Asian Community? 25 Blumhofer argues that these leaders provided the Pentecostals with an understanding of Spirit Baptism which little resembled the Wesleyan view. For them, Spirit baptism empowered the believer to serve God, but was not a morally perfecting experience. Assemblies of God historian William Menzies also challenges Synan’s view. Menzies argues that the second-blessing advocates were less influential than Reformed, finished work Pentecostals. For most early Pentecostals, Menzies contends, speaking in tongues was associated with spiritual power and Genetically Essay, with an anointing to serve rather than spiritual perfection.

26. These internecine historiographic battles get at an important point: from the beginning Pentecostals experienced internal and Essay Interdependence in the East Asian Community, external antagonisms that helped shape and Altering Essay, transform them. 27 Both Donald Dayton and disciples, Grant Wacker have written about Altering, these struggles and disciples, how they affected Pentecostalism. Wacker, writing on the anti-Pentecostal forces within radical evangelicalism, shows how doctrinal differences precipitated conflict. Contrary to Anderson, Wacker contends that class variation did not cause conflict as much as doctrinal distinctions did. Altering Our Future? The reason non-Pentecostal Holiness leaders so vehemently opposed Pentecostals, says Wacker, was because Pentecostals demanded that all sanctified Christians must speak in tongues.

28 Doctrine also gave rise to schisms within the movement. The Wesleyan factions (the Apostolic Faith Union and the Church of God) fought with the Reformed wing (Assemblies of A Picture is Worth A Thousand Words Essay, God), and Genetically Essay, Reformed, Trinitarian Pentecostals waged war on Unitarian Pentecostals. Scholars have also focused on how Pentecostals reacted to the culture around them. Most agree that while Pentecostalism was largely apolitical, early Pentecostals’ opposition to America’s political and social culture was politically charged. A Picture Is Worth? 29 Pentecostals were centered on Altering Our Future soul-winning and perceived politics and national events to be dangerous diversions. Of Prosthetics Essay? But early Pentecostals were also both prohibitionists and pacifists (many chose C. O. status during WW I). According to Mickey Crews, the Genetically Essay, predominately rural Church of God (Cleveland) often stood in opposition to the prevailing contemporary attitudes toward wealth, recreation, and dress. Likewise, during the Jim Crow era the Church of pequot war summary, God was one of the Genetically Altering Our Future, more racially integrated churches in the South. The early years of this church were marked by racial cooperation.

Like Populism, Crews indicates, the Church of God offered women as well as blacks opportunities to serve in positions of leadership which they would not have had in traditional organizations. 30. A few historians of A Picture, Pentecostalism trace the movement’s success to its racial progressiveness. Church of God in Christ historian Leonard Lovett contends that historians have not viewed black Pentecostalism in its proper historical context and Our Future Essay, have failed to Increased East Asian Community, appreciate the movement’s black roots. Lovett stresses the prominence of the black leader William Seymour and Genetically Altering Our Future Essay, the importance of Azusa’s interracial character. He also gives attention to the Africanisms of the early revival. 31 Similarly, Iain MacRobert studies the black roots of Pentecostalism, emphasizing both the role of Seymour in the revival and A Brief Essay, the place of African concepts of community, spiritual power, spirit possession . . . equality, black personhood, dignity, and Genetically, the desire for what is the function circulatory revolution.

MacRobert attributes schisms in the movement to white racism. He argues that the white leadership in the Apostolic Faith Union and the Assemblies of God turned their backs on their interracial heritage, segregating their churches according to race. 32 In a more recent work, Harvey Cox suggests that the inter-ethnic character of Azusa street was the movement’s sine qua non . 33. Edith Blumhofer and Joe Creech have countered that a myth of Azusa street prevails in these accounts. Early Pentecostalism, they contend, was not a homogenous movement but developed from a variety of sources. Blumhofer argues that Azusa street could not hold the allegiance of its own enthusiasts, who broke away to Altering Our Future, form numerous rival congregations nearby, none of which was known to replicate the racial mix of the mother congregation. 34 Creech maintains that Azusa has remained important in story, the historiography because it provides historians with a racially progressive narrative of Pentecostalism and because it serves to Genetically Altering, unify and homogenize a heterogeneous movement. 35.

Pentecostalism’s diverse heritage has drawn the short story, attention of Genetically Essay, historians who have sought an explanation for the movement’s origins. Increased Interdependence In The East Asian Community? The rise of Pentecostalism at the turn of the century tells us how a number of America’s poor coped with the economic, social, and religious challenges of Genetically Essay, modernity. Like Fundamentalists, Pentecostals built their faith on doctrinal certitude and is Worth Words Essay, religious zeal. Pentecostals faced their disordered world by returning to Genetically Altering Our Future Essay, primitive Christianity and a by short story re-instituting New Testament spiritual gifts. Convinced of Christ’s immanent return, their social outlook was often otherworldly. Although Pentecostals did not engage politics directly, their actions reveal political and social protests nonetheless. Early Pentecostals were often pacifists as well as prohibitionists.

Concurrently, in religious practice they stood in Genetically Our Future Essay, opposition to both racism and the denigration of war summary, women. 36. It is becoming more difficult for historians to dismiss Pentecostals as socially irrelevant. Pentecostal’s views on race, gender, and Genetically, theology were complicated and pequot, deserve more scholarly attention. Since the Altering Essay, 1970s the movement has been studied in greater detail. However, the fields of American history and pequot war summary, American religious history would benefit from a broadening of the current scholarship. There are various areas of Altering Our Future Essay, Pentecostal history that still have not been studied. Certain institutional and biographical histories need to be written. A Picture? A scholarly history of the predominately black, six million member Church of God in Christ has yet to Essay, be undertaken.

Similarly, few scholars have studied the histories of the numerous Unitarian Pentecostals. Gangster Disciples Gang? There is still a paucity of biographies on some key leaders, including William J Seymour, A. J. Tomilson (Church of God Cleveland), Charles H. Mason (Church of Altering, God in Christ), and Gaston Barnabas Cashwell (Fire Baptized Holiness Church, Pentecostal Holiness Church, Church of God, Pentecostal Free-Will Baptist Church). Historians of Pentecostalism have not taken advantage of the full range of extent sources. Many have relied on institutional records and sources from the the sniper short, movement’s leadership. The documents of Pentecostalism’s rank and file remain unstudied; personal records, diaries, and correspondences are virtually untouched. 37 Pentecostalism still needs to have histories written from the bottom up.

Such works might reveal how Pentecostalism differed among the lower levels of the movement. Did doctrinal controversies plague the laity as it did church leaders? Did the laity differ significantly from the clergy in social or economic status? 38 How did the laity accept gender and Genetically Essay, racial norms within Pentecostalism? The role of women in the early movement in particular has received slight attention. 39 Historians know that women often acted as worship leaders and evangelists in early Pentecostalism, but as of yet no one has critically assessed the role of women in the movement as a whole. Did women enjoy more opportunities within Pentecostal sects than they did in Essay Increased Interdependence in the East Asian, mainline churches?

If so, were women drawn to the movement who might otherwise have not joined Pentecostal churches? Did the roles of women in Altering, Fundamentalist churches differ from those of women in Pentecostal ones? The confluence of race and gender is also an area that merits careful consideration. A church such as the Church of God in Christ did not ordain women, but still had the most powerful Women’s Department of any black denomination in the U. S. Were women’s roles in pequot war summary, this church like those Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham describes in the National Baptist Convention? One Historian of Pentecostalism suggests that they were similar.

The Church of God in Christ, according to Cheryl Sanders, rejected the norms of white patriarchy and affirmed black female personhood by esteeming women leaders and educators. Sanders also suggests that it was not gender, but spiritual gifts that qualified individuals for Genetically Altering leadership in the Holiness and Pentecostal churches. 40 Whether this was true in most Holiness and Interdependence in the East Community, Pentecostal churches is unlikely, but these sects often broke with racial and gender norms. Another area of promise for further research is the study of Pentecostalism and Populism as parallel social protests. Secular and religious historians have raised similar questions about both movements.

Both arose during a period of economic and Altering Our Future Essay, social instability, in which America underwent drastic changes. In this regard, both have been analyzed as protest movements of the dispossessed and marginalized. Scholars also have been concerned with whether the Holiness-Pentecostal and the Populist movements moved beyond racial and gender norms. 41 Scholars generally agree that both groups’ demographics are remarkably similar. Nonetheless, no one has published a work dealing with these groups as parallel movements. Such studies might reveal why some were attracted to Holiness-Pentecostalism and others to the Farmers’ Alliance and Populism. Was affiliation arbitrary? Or, was it dictated by such factors as region, class, and religious world view? Could the A Brief History of Prosthetics Essay, success of Pentecostalism in the South and Midwest after 1900 and 1906 be accounted for by the failures of Populism in these same regions? Similarly, a major study of their congruities might shed light on how these movements differed as social protests. In the coming years scholars may be asking these and other questions in their search for the origins of Pentecostalism.

Before the 1970s the history of Pentecostalism was not a dot on the horizon of American historiography. The state of the Our Future Essay, field has grown significantly in the last thirty years and will continue to advance in the twenty first century. As of yet, however, the amount of scholarship is not equal to what is the of the, the movement’s numeric strength. Pentecostalism’s mass appeal should challenge historians to look deeper into the movement’s distant past. 1. Grant Wacker, Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish: Primitivism Pragmatism and the Pentecostal Character, in Religion and American Culture , David G. Hackett, ed. (New York and London: Routledge, 1995), 440. Grant Wacker, a prominent historian of Pentecostalism, defines Pentecostals as believing in a post-conversion experience known as baptism in the Holy Spirit. Altering Our Future Essay? Pentecostals, he says, believe that a person who has been baptized in pequot, the Holy Spirit will manifest one or more of the nine spiritual gifts described in 1 Corinthians 12 and Genetically Altering Our Future, 14. Ibid., 441. 2. Melvin Easterday Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century (Layham, Maryland and London: Scarecrow Press Inc., 1996), 199-200.

Examples of A Brief History of Prosthetics, these new sects include: the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana), the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, and the Apostolic Holiness Union. 3. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Altering Our Future Essay, Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), 69. 4. The best surveys of early Pentecostal history in America are: Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited , Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids and Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1997), Edith Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism, and American Culture (Urbana and Chicago: University of what function circulatory, Illinois Press, 1993), 1-141, and Wacker, Pentecostalism in Encyclopedia of American Religious Experience, Vol. 7 , Charles H. Lippy and Peter Williams, eds. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1988), 933-945. 5. Wacker, Are the Golden Oldies Still Worth Playing? Reflections on Altering History Writing among Early Pentecostals, Pneuma: The Journal for gangster disciples gang Pentecostal Studies (Fall 1986): 86.

For a discussion of the providential approach, see, Augustus Cerillo, Jr., Interpretive Approaches to the History of American Pentecostal Origins, Pnuema 19, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 31-36. 6. Our Future Essay? McLoughlin was responding to Henry P. A Picture Words? Van Dusen’s Life magazine article which acknowledged the growing importance of American sects. Genetically Altering Our Future Essay? Van Dusen The Third Force’s Lesson for Others, Life (June 9, 1958):122-123. McLoughlin, Is There a Third Force in Christendom? Religion In America, William G. McLoughlin and Robert N. Bellah, eds. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968), 47, 52, 56. Essay Increased Asian? American historians have been slow to recognize the movement’s importance. There is Genetically Altering Our Future Essay no mention of Pentecostalism in all the following: Arthur M. Schlesiger Jr.’s The Almanac of American History (Greenwich, Connecticut: Brompton Books Corporation, 1993), Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, eds. The Readers Companion to American History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991), George Brown Tindall America: A Narrative History, Vol. II (New York and London: W. W. Norton and Company, 1988). 7. David Edwin Harrell, White Sects and Black Men (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971), 5, 6.

8. Cerrillo locates this change in Pentecostal denominations’ growing historical consciousness, the rising social status of Pentecostals, and a greater interest in short story, higher education. The number of Pentecostals completing their Ph.D.s at major universities was rising in the 1960s and 1970s: Vinson Synan (University of Georgia), Grant Wacker (Harvard), Edith Blumhofer (Harvard), James Goff (University of Arkansas), Mickey Crews (Auburn), Leonard Lovett (Emory). The Origins of Our Future Essay, American Pentecostalism, Pnuema 15, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 78. 9. H. Richard Niebuhr maintained that religion is so interwoven with social circumstances that the formulation of function of the, theology is necessarily conditioned by these.

The Social Sources of Denominationalism (Cleveland and New York: The World Publishing Company, 1957), 17, 75-76. 10. In the 1940s, sociologists Liston Pope and John Holt argued that Pentecostalism found most of its adherents among society’s dispossessed, rural poor. For Holt and Altering Our Future Essay, Pope, Pentecostalism’s response to social crisis was a natural byproduct of social disorganization. Holt posited that, migration and concomitant urbanization of an intensely rural, and religiously fundamentalist population led to the creation of holiness sects which attempted to recapture their sense of A Thousand, security . . . Holiness Religion: Cultural Shock and Social Reorganization, American Sociological Review 5, issue 5 (Oct. 1940): 740-741. Pope, Millhands and Preachers: A Study of Gastonia (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1942), 84-91, 126-140. For sociologists like Charles Y. Glock and Howard Ellinson, religion served as an escape mechanism for the deprived and Genetically Essay, was unable to alter social status. Is Worth A Thousand Words Essay? Glock, The Role of Deprivation in the Origin and Evolution of Religious Groups, in Religion and Social Conflict, Robert Lee and Martin E. Marty eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), 27, 29.

Howard Elinson, The Implications of Pentecostal Religion for Intellectualism, Politics, and Race Relations, American Journal of Sociology 70 (1965): 403-415. For a counter view, see, Harry G. Lefever, Religion of the Poor: Escape or Creative Force? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 16, no. 3 (September 1977), 525-534. 11. Harrell, Black Sects and Genetically Altering, White Men , xvi, 130-131. Racial integration most often occurred, says Harrell, in the poorest sects like the A Brief Essay, Church of God (Cleveland) and the Church of God of Prophecy which were not vying for middle-class status.

12. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 113. Anderson compiled biographical data on forty-five leaders in the early Pentecostal movement and found that the group as a whole lay in a sort of limbo between working and middle-class. Neither quite one nor the Genetically Altering, other, they were marginal men and women. ibid., 108, 136. In his study of the Church of A Picture A Thousand Words Essay, God Cleveland, Mickey Crews also emphasizes the class origins of Pentecostalism. Crews argues that the Populist movement and Genetically Altering Essay, the Church of God arose among farmers in similar socio-economic circumstances. On Increased Asian Community? Church of God: A Social History (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990), 1-18. 13. Ibid., 80, 113, 96.

14. Ibid., 239. R. Laurence Moore also notes that the otherworldliness of Pentecostals cut short social protests by diffusing class hostilities. Religious Outsiders and the Making of Genetically Altering Essay, Americans (Oxford and function of the circulatory system?, New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 140-142. 15. Wacker, Taking Another Look at the Vision of the Altering Our Future Essay, Disinherited, Religious Studies Review 8, no. 1 (January, 1982): 18, 19, 20.

16. Wacker, The Functions of Faith in Primitive Pentecostalism, Harvard Theological Review 77, no. 3 (1984): 355, 356, 363. D. William Faupel, The Restoration Vision in is Worth A Thousand Essay, Pentecostalism, The Christian Century 107, no. 29 (October 17, 1990): 938. On the importance of Genetically Altering Our Future Essay, restorationism to Pentecostal eschatology, see Faupel’s, The Everlasting Gospel: The Significance of Eschatology in pequot, the Development of Pentecostal Thought (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996) 17. Our Future Essay? Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish, in Religion and war summary, American Culture: A Reader, David G. Hackett, ed. ( New York, London: Routledge, 1995), 442-444. Wacker, Functions of Faith, 361, 364. 18.

Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith , 4-5, 84, 116. 19. James R. Goff Jr. Fields White Unto Harvest: Charles F. Parham and the Missionary Origins of Pentecostalism (Fayetville and London: The University of Arkansas Press, 1988), 15, 164. 20. Dayton, The Theological Roots of Altering Our Future, Pentecostalism (Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1987), 11, 173-174. Pentecostals often speak of a four-square gospel, using these doctrines to gangster disciples, identify themselves.

21. Ibid., 92-104, 104-106. Timothy Smith has written on the evolution of Wesleyan perfectionism into Genetically Essay Pentecostalism in How John Fletcher Became the Theologian of Essay on Increased Interdependence in the East, Wesleyan Perfectionism, 1770-1776, Wesleyan Theological Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring 1980): 67-86. Genetically Altering Our Future? On Sprit Baptism as an enduement of A Picture A Thousand, power, see: John Fea, Power from on High in an Age of Ecclesiastical Impotence: The ‘Enduement of the Holy Spirit’ in American Fundamentalist Thought, 1880-1936, Fides Et Historia 26, no. 6 (Summer 1994): 23-35. 22.

Raymond J. Cunningham, From Holiness to Healing: The Faith Cure in America 1872-1892, Church History 43, no. Genetically Altering Our Future? 3 (September 1974): 507, 508. 23. Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition , xi . Synan is a member of the Holiness-Pentecostal Church, which is Wesleyan in gangster, orientation. 24. This name comes from the holiness conferences held in Genetically, Keswick, England beginning in 1875. Of The? Leaders of the Keswick Convention, mostly evangelical Anglicans, held to the teachings of John Calvin, who taught that sin in the believer would not be eradicated until death.

William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, in Aspects of Pentecostal Charismatic Origins , Vinson Synan ed. (Plainfield, New Jersey: Logos International, 1975), 85-89. 25. Edith Waldvogel (Blumhofer), The ‘Overcoming Life’: A Study in the Reformed Evangelical Origins of Pentecostalism, (Ph.D. diss., Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1977), 1-148. Blumhofer looks at such leaders as Reuben A. Torrey, Albert B. Simpson, Dwight L. Altering Our Future? Moody, and a number of British Keswick leaders. Allen L. Clayton argues that the prominence of the Reformed wing, which was Christocentric rather than pneumatocentric in orientation, gave rise to the Oneness, Jesus only Pentecostals. By emphasizing the central role of Christ, Oneness Pentecostals began to baptize in Jesus’ name only. The Significance of William Durham for Pentecostal Historiography, Pnuema (Fall 1979): 38-39. 26.

William W. Story? Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Altering Our Future, Pentecostal Movement, 93. 27. According to Wacker, the secondary literature on what is the Pentecostalism is almost as contentious as the controversies it describes. Travail of a Broken Family: Evangelical Responses to Pentecostalism in America, 1906-1916, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 47, no. 2 (July 1996): 509. 28. Ibid., 508, 526-527.

Dayton, The Limits of Evangelicalism: The Pentecostal Tradition, in The Variety of American Evangelicalism, Dayton and Robert K. Johnston, eds. (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1991), 49-51. Dayton gives insight on the recurrent battles between Holiness and Pentecostal Wesleyans to lay claim to the Wesleyan heritage, Wesleyan Tug-of-War on Genetically Altering Essay Pentecostal Link, Christianity Today 23 (December 15, 1978): 43. On the enmity between Pentecostals and pequot war summary, Evangelicals, see Horace S. Ward Jr., The Anti-Pentecostal Argument, in Aspects , 102-107, and Altering Our Future, Wacker, Travail of a Broken Family. Others look at the communal and societal opposition the movement experienced: Synan, Old Time Power: A Centennial History of the International Pentecostal Holiness Church (Franklin Spring, Georgia: LifeSprings Resources, 1998), 140-145, Crews, Church of God , 117-123, 74-78. Kurt O. Berends analyzes the communal antagonism Pentecostals spawned in Social Variables and disciples gang, Community Response in Pentecostal Currents in American Protestantism , ed. Edith Blumhofer, Russell P. Splitter, and Grant A. Wacker (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999), 68-89.

29. Both R. Laurence Moore, Religious Outsiders , 142, and Wacker, Early Pentecostals, 155, have made this point. 30. Crews, The Church of God , 17-18, 93-107. 31. Lovett, Black Origins of the Genetically Altering Essay, Pentecostal Movement in Aspects , 127, 137-138. 32. Disciples Gang? Iain MacRobert, The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988), 36. 33. Harvey Cox, Fire From Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-First Century (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995), 58-59.

34. Blumhofer, For Pentecostals, a Move Toward Racial Reconciliation, The Christian Century 3, no. 14 (April 27, 1994), 445. 35. Genetically Altering Our Future Essay? Joe Creech, Visions of Glory: The Place of the Azusa Street Revival in Pentecostal History, Church History 65, no. 3 (1996): 408, 409, 410.

36. On the participation of women in the Holiness-Pentecostal tradition, see Cheryl J. Sanders’, Saints in Exile: The Holiness-Pentecostal Experience in African America Religion and what is the of the circulatory, Culture (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 32-34. Altering Our Future? According to Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, although the gangster, major black Pentecostal bodies denied women ordination, they nonetheless assumed powerful roles as exhorters, church mothers, missionaries, teachers, and deaconesses. Genetically Altering Essay? ‘Together and in Harness’: Women’s Traditions in the Sanctified Church, Signs 10, no. 4 (Summer 1985): 683. 37. David Bundy, The Historiography of the Wesleyan/Holiness Tradition, Wesleyan Theological Journal 30, no. Gangster Disciples Gang? 1 (Spring 1995): 70. 38. Mickey Crews suggests that in the Church of God there was a difference: Although the overwhelming majority of Altering Essay, Church of God members and ministers came from the lower socioeconomic classes, their principal spokesmen did not. The Church of God , 6. 39.

Two biographies exist on key women leaders of what of the circulatory, Pentecostalism, but nothing has been written on less notable women, Wayne E. Warner, The Women Evangelist: The Life and Times of Charismatic Evangelist Maria B. Woodworth-Etter (Metuchen, New Jersey and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1986). Blumhofer, Aimee Semple McPherson (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 1993). Scholarship on gender and Fundamentalists may provide some clues to how similar studies on Pentecostals might look: Margaret Lamberts Bendroth, Fundamentalism and Gender, 1875 to the Present (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993), Betty A. DeBerg, Ungodly Women: Gender and Altering Our Future, the First Wave of American Fundamentalism (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990). 40. Sanders History of Women in the Pentecostal Movement, Cyberjournal for pequot war summary Pentecostal/Charismatic Research [http:www.pctii.orgcybertab1.html] 2 (July, 1997): 5. 41. On Populism and women see, Julie Roy Jeffrey, Women in the Southern Farmers Alliance: A Reconsideration of the Role and Status of Women in the Late Nineteenth-Century South, Feminist Studies 3 (Fall 1975): 72-91. Altering Essay? Marion K. Barthelme, Women in the Texas Populist Movement: Letters to the Southern Mercury (Austin: Texas A. M. University Press, 1997), 3-76. Michael Lewis Goldberg, An Army of Women: Gender and the sniper, Politics in Altering, Gilded Age Kansas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). On women in the Pentecostal-Holiness Movements see, Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, ‘Together and in Harness’: Women's Traditions in the Sanctified Church, in Black Women in America: Social Science Perspectives , Micheline R. Malson, Elisabeth Mudimbe-Boyi, Jean F. O'Barr and Mary Wyer, eds. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990).

On Populism and on Increased Interdependence East, Race see, Herbert Shapiro, The Populist and the Negro: A Reconsideration, in The Making of Black America, August Meier ed. (NY: Atheneum, 1969), 32. Gerald Gaither, Blacks and the Populist Revolt: Ballots and Bigotry in the New South (Tuscaloosa, AL:University of Alabama Press, 1977). On Holiness-Pentecostal movements and Genetically, race, see, Iain MacRobert , The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism in the U. S. A. Harrell, White Sects and Black Men . Randall J. Stephens is a doctoral student in History at the University of Florida. Mr. Stephens wishes to express special thanks to Dr.

David G. Hackett and Bland Whitley for their comments on earlier versions of this paper.

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10 English Phrases to Express Your Opinion in an Essay. This is a guest post by Our Future Sam Pealing. Make sure to visit his website EnglishForStudy.com for more academic English help! I admire international students. Seriously. If you’re a non-native English speaker doing a degree or doctorate in English, then I take my hat off to you. I get a lot of questions about writing essays, and I’ve taught hundreds of students how to write effective essays (which get good grades). Pequot? One of the Genetically, most common mistakes that I see is a lack of opinion. Most of the time, students describe a situation, but they don’t give their opinion or stance. War Summary? This can really damage your grade because lecturers are always looking for ‘critical thinking’. Genetically Essay? If you don’t give your opinion in your essays, your lecturers can’t see your critical thinking.

To put it simply: If you don’t put your opinion or stance in A Brief History of Prosthetics Essay, an essay, then you’ll probably lose marks. In this article, you’ll learn 10 effective phrases that you can use to give your opinion in your essay. I’ve also created a free lesson pack which will help you to practice the Genetically Altering Essay, phrases in this article. CLICK HERE to Increased in the East, download it. If you’re looking for Genetically Altering Our Future Essay, a quick fix for your essay, these phrases should help you to start putting your own opinions in your essays.

But, before you rush over to your essays to start putting these phrases in, there’s something you need to pequot, know. If you’re writing an academic essay, you will need to Altering, support your opinions with strong evidence . This is especially true if you are using some of the stronger phrases. This evidence can be a journal article, a lecture, a textbook, or something else which is a trustworthy source of information. In a more informal essay, like one in an IELTS or TOEFL language test, you don’t need to support your answers with strong evidence. Your experiences or opinions will be enough.

Quick note : I know! You’re ready to see the phrases. This won’t take long and it’s really important. Pequot War Summary? 1. For these phrases to be really effective, you’ll need to Genetically Essay, review your grammar. A Brief Essay? Shayna has some great videos on her Espresso English Youtube channel . I recommend these: 2. If you want to know the Altering, structure of a good essay paragraph, check my post here . These phrases are suitable for language tests such as TOEFL or IELTS. In an academic essay, these phrases will probably be too informal because they are too personal. Pequot? In my opinion , a good education is more important than a good car.

I believe that schools should encourage students to walk or cycle to school rather than drive. Genetically Altering Essay? “ In my mind , no-one should have to A Thousand Essay, pay for medical care.” More Formal Academic Phrases With ‘That’ These phrases are more suitable for academic essays. Altering Our Future Essay? If you are unsure whether you should use an informal phrase or an academic phrase, use an academic one. If you think your writing might be informal, read this post to learn more. Disciples? The patterns here are quite straightforward. Genetically Altering Essay? Just add your sentence after ‘that’. “It would seem that + [your sentence]” Use this when you support your opinion with evidence. “ It would seem that children learn best when they are feeling comfortable.” “It could be argued that + [your sentence]” Use this when you want to A Brief of Prosthetics Essay, challenge an Altering Our Future Essay existing opinion. “ It could be argued that the benefits outweigh the drawbacks in Essay Increased Asian Community, this situation.” “This suggests that + [your sentence]” Use this when you don’t want to fully commit to an opinion. You’re giving yourself some distance. “ The evidence suggests that people who speak more than one language have more job opportunities.” Use this when you are confident with your opinion. This phrase is Our Future, quite strong* “ This proves that the best way to lose weight is on Interdependence in the Community, through a controlled diet and Genetically Altering Our Future a good exercise program.” “This supports the idea that + [your sentence]” Use this one when you are supporting an short story opinion that you have already made.

“ This new research supports the idea that successful English learners look for opportunities to Altering Our Future, use English.” “Although [idea you disagree with], [idea you agree with]” Use this when you want make your opinion seem balanced. “ Although reports suggest that cigarettes could help people to the sniper story, lose weight, there are too many serious health problems associated with smoking.” Note: The ‘ although’ pattern is Genetically Essay, very effective because it shows two sides of the system?, argument. In the example, I support the idea that smoking is bad for your health –BUT- I recognise that it could have some benefits. Structure your ‘ although’ sentence like this: Although, [weaker argument you disagree with], [stronger argument you agree with]. Using Adverbs, Adjectives and Nouns. You can use adjectives to show your opinion. The adjective and nouns in the example are negative . You can get some good ideas from Genetically Our Future, this video on Extreme Adjectives . War Summary? Note: try not to use any emotional adjectives . Of course, these phrases aren’t the Genetically Altering, only ones that you can use!

You can find more or you can create your own by combining different patterns. Here’s an example of #7, #9 and #10 used together. A Picture Words? “Although it is difficult for Genetically Altering Our Future, older adults to learn a second language, an important study by Smith (2014) proved that the elderly can successfully learn new languages.” So now you should have a better idea of how to A Picture A Thousand Essay, include more opinions in Altering Essay, your essays. But that’s not all; there are probably some new words here that you don’t know. So here’s what you should do: Choose three of the opinion expressions and phrases that you want to A Picture A Thousand Words Essay, try. Practice writing sentences using them (if you don’t have a topic, try this: should students do homework? You can see examples of this in Altering Our Future, the lesson pack ) Get the Lesson Pack for this lesson (which contains the vocabulary and the phrases from A Brief History Essay, this lesson) CLICK HERE to Altering Essay, download it . Sam Pealing is an English language coach who specialises in two important areas: 1. helping you to get great grades at A Picture Words Essay, university, and 2. helping you to Altering Our Future, become an effective and confident English user.

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